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DescriptionWith only a small population confined to a single tiny island off the coast of Panama, the pygmy three-toed sloth is the most endangered of all Xenarthra. As its name suggests, this recently discovered species is a dwarf compared with its mainland relatives (4). In addition to its small size, the pygmy three-toed sloth is characterised by usually blotchy, pale grey-brown fur and a tan-coloured face with a distinctive dark band across the forehead, from which long, shaggy hair hangs over the face, giving a hooded appearance. Sloths have an unusual means of camouflage to avoid predation; their outer fur is often coated in algae, giving the pelage a greenish tint that helps hide them in their forest habitat. Three-toed sloths (Bradypus) can be distinguished from their distant relatives, the two-toed sloths (Choloepus), by the three digits on their forelimbs, blunter muzzle, and simpler, peg-like teeth (3).