The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Farjon A. (2015). Conifer Database (version Jan 2014). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Gresham, C. A.; Williams, T. M.; Lipscomb, D. J. 1991. Hurricane Hugo Wind Damage to Southeastern US Coastal Forest Tree Species. Biotropica. 23(4): 420-426.
  • Grimshaw, J. & Bayton, R. 2009. New trees (recent introductions to cultivation). Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • Image metadata at Bioimages ( External link.
  • Marticorena C & R Rodríguez . 1995-2005. Flora de Chile. Vols 1, 2(1-3). Ed. Universidad de Concepción, Concepción. 351 pp., 99 pp., 93 pp., 128 pp. Matthei O. 1995. Manual de las malezas que crecen en Chile. Alfabeta Impresores. 545 p.
  • Mill. 1768. In: Gard. Dict., ed. 8: Pinus No. 14.
  • Small, J. K. 1933. Man. S.E. Fl. i–xxii, 1–1554. Published by the Author, New York.
  • Steven Vogel. 2003. Comparative Biomechanics: Life's Physical World. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 580 p.
  • The Gardeners Dictionary: . . . eighth edition no. 14. 1768. (Gard. Dict. (ed. 8))
  • Thornhill, Robert, Krings, Alexander, Lindbo, David, Stucky, Jon (2014): Guide to the Vascular Flora of the Savannas and Flatwoods of Shaken Creek Preserve and Vicinity (Pender & Onslow Counties, North Carolina, U. S. A.). Biodiversity Data Journal 2, 1099: 1099-1099, URL:
    1. Boyer, William D. 1972. Brown-spot resistance in natural stands of  longleaf pine seedlings. USDA Forest Service, Research Note SO-142.  Southern Forest Experiment Station, New Orleans, LA. 4 p.
    3. Boyer, William D. 1974. Longleaf pine cone production related to  pollen density. In Seed yield from southern pine seed orchards.  John Krause, ed. Proceedings, Colloquium, April 2-3, 1974, Macon,  Georgia. p. 8-14. Georgia Forest Research Council, Macon.
    5. Boyer, William D. 1979. Regenerating the natural longleaf pine  forest. Journal of Forestry 77:572-575.
    7. Boyer, William D. 1979. Mortality among seed trees in longleaf  shelterwood stands. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry 3:165-167. 
    9. Boyer, William D. 1981. Pollen production and dispersal as affected  by seasonal temperature and rainfall patterns. In Pollen  Management Handbook. p. 2-9. E. Carlyle Franklin, ed. U.S. Department of  Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 587. Washington, DC.
    11. Boyer, William D. 1983. Variations in height-over-age curves for  young longleaf pine plantations. Forest Science 29:15-27.
    13. Boyer, William D. 1987. Annual and geographic variations in cone  production by longleaf pine. In Proceedings of the Fourth  Biennial Southern Silvicultural Research Conference. p. 73-76. USDA  Forest Service, General Technical Report SE-42. Southeastern Forest  Experiment Station, Ashville, NC.
    15. Buol, S. W., ed. 1973. Soils of the southern States and Puerto Rico.  Southern Cooperative Bulletin 174, Joint Regional Publication.  Agriculture Experiment Stations of Southern States and Puerto Rico, with  cooperative assistance by U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil  Conservation Service. Washington, DC. 105 p.
    17. Croker, T. C. 1952. Early release stimulates cone production. USDA  Forest Service, Southern Forestry Notes 79. Southern Forest Experiment  Station, New Orleans, LA. 3 p.
    19. Croker, Thomas C., Jr. 1973. Longleaf pine cone production in  relation to site index, stand age, and stand density. USDA Forest  Service, Research Note SO-156. Southern Forest Experiment Station, New  Orleans, LA. 3 p.
    21. Croker, Thomas C., Jr., and William D. Boyer. 1975. Regenerating  longleaf pine naturally. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper SO-105.  Southern Forest Experiment Station, New Orleans, LA_ 21 p.
    23. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and  Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 p.
    25. Farrar, Robert M., Jr. 1968. Thinning longleaf pine on average sites.  Journal of Forestry 66:906-909.
    27. Farrar, Robert M., Jr. 1975. Sprouting ability of longleaf pine.  Forest Science 21:189-190.
    29. Farrar, Robert M., Jr. 1985. Volume and growth predictions for  thinned even-aged natural longleaf pine stands in the East Gulf area.  USDA Forest Service, Research Paper SO-220. Southern Forest Experiment  Station, New Orleans, LA. 171 p.
    31. Fowells, H. A., comp. 1965. Silvics of forest trees of the United  States. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 271.  Washington, DC. 762 p.
    33. Grelen, Harold E., and Hans G. Enghardt. 1973. Burning and thinning  maintain forage in a longleaf pine plantation. Journal of Forestry  71:419-425.
    35. Hare, Robert C. 1987. Increase longleaf pine seed yields by  inhibiting conelet abortion. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry  11:6-9.
    37. Hebb, E. A. 1972. Resistance to ice damage-a consideration in  reforestation. Tree Planters' Notes 22(2):24-25.
    39. Hepting, George H. 1971. Diseases of forest and shade trees of the  United States. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 386.  Washington, DC. 658 p.
    41. Hodgkins, Earl J., ed. 1965. Southeastern forest habitat regions  based on physiography. Auburn University, Forestry Departmental Series  2. Agricultural Experiment Station, Auburn, AL. 10 p.
    43. Lohrey, Richard E., and Robert L. Bailey. 1977. Yield tables and  stand structure for unthinned longleaf pine plantations in Louisiana and  Texas. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper SO-133. Southern Forest  Experiment Station, New Orleans, LA. 53 p.
    45. Lynch, Keith D. 1980. A phenotypic study of selected variables in  longleaf pine. Thesis (Ph.D.), Unpublished report. Auburn University,  Auburn, AL.
    47. McLemore, B.F. 1977. Strobili and conelet losses in four species of  southern pines. USDA Forest Service, Research Note SO-226. Southern  Forest Experiment Station, New Orleans, IA. 5 p.
    49. Michael, J. L. 1980. Long-term impact of aerial application of  2,4,5-T to longleaf pine (Pinus palustris). Weed Science  28:255-257.
    51. Schopmeyer, C. S., tech. coord. 1974. Seeds of woody plants in the  United States. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 450.  Washington, DC. 883 p.
    53. Shoulders, Eugene. 1967. Fertilizer application, inherent  fruitfulness, and rainfall affect flowering of longleaf pine. Forest  Science 13:376-383.
    55. Snyder, E. Bayne, Ronald J. Dinus, and Harold J. Derr. 1977. Genetics  of longleaf pine. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper WO-33. Washington,  DC. 24 p.
    57. Wahlenberg, W. G. 1946. Longleaf pine: its use, ecology,  regeneration, protection, growth, and management. Charles Lathrop Pack  Forestry Foundation and USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC. 429 p. 
    59. White, Timothy L., H. G. Harris, Jr. and R. C. Kellison. 1977.  Conelet abortion in longleaf pine. Canadian Journal of Forest Research  7:378-382.
    61. Wolters, Gale L. 1973. Southern pine overstories influence herbage  quality. Journal of Range Management 26:423-426.


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