is a large, emergent tree in subtropical rainforest on basaltic or other igneous substrates that is sometimes associated with A. cunninghamii
. It occupies the ecotone between moist angiosperm-dominated forest and drier vine thickets with partly deciduous trees, particularly in the southern part of its disjunct range. The forest is divided into larger and smaller woods by ‘balds’, coarse grasslands or open savannas which form sharp boundaries with the forest patches. Annual precipitation is 1,100-1,400 mm in the southern area, with heavy rains in summer but with a dry season from April/May to September. In contrast to this, the northern populations lie close to the wettest part of the Australian continent, causing a more evenly distributed annual precipitation of 1,500-2,000 mm (Mill and Farjon
Abundant seed is produced in ‘mast years’ at approximately three-year intervals. Seeds remain in the cone until after it falls off the tree; they may be dispersed by water flowing in creeks and gullies, rolling down a slope or by animal vectors such as the Mountain Brush-tail Possum, Trichosurus caninus
(Smith et al.