The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Bennett, I. 1974. The Great Barrier Reef. New York: Scribner.
  • Brusca, R., G. Brusca. 2003. Invertebrates. Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates, Inc..
  • Cairns, Stephen D., Dale R. Calder, Anita Brinckmann-Voss, Clovis B. Castro, Daphne G. Fautin,.. 2002. Common and Scientific Names of Aquatic Invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Cnidaria and Ctenophora, Second Edition, 2002. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 28. xi + 115
  • Cary, L. May 15, 1915. The Alcyonaria as a factor in reef limestone formation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 1, (5): 285-289.
  • Colin, P. 1978. Caribbean Reef Invertebrates and Plants. Neptune City, NJ: TFH Publications.
  • Cronin, G., M. Hay, W. Finical, N. Lindquist. March 1995. Distribution, density, and sequestration of host chemical defenses by the specialist nudibranch *Tritonia hamnerorum* found at high densities on the sea fan *G. ventalina*. Marine Ecology - Progress Series, 119 (1-3): 177-189.
  • Druffel, E. August 5, 1997. Geochemistry of corals: proxies of past ocean chemistry, ocean circulation, and climate. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci USA, Vol. 94, No. 16: 8354-8361.
  • Gotelli, N. April 1991. Demographic models for *Leptogorgia virgulata*, a shallow-water gorgonian. Ecology, 72 (2): 457-467.
  • Grigg, R. March 1972. Orientation and growth form of sea fans. Limnology and Oceanography, 17(2): 185 - 192.
  • Guthrie, M., J. Anderson. 1961. General Zoology. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Kester, E. 1900. A Treatise on Zoology Part II. London: Adam and Charles Black.
  • Land J. van der (ed) (†) (2015). URMO: UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms (version Nov 2008). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Linnaeus, C. (1758). Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentius Salvius: Holmiae. ii, 824 pp.
  • Longhurst, A., D. Pauly. Ecology of Tropical Oceans.
  • Morse, D., A. Morse, H. Duncan. 1977. Algal tumors in the Caribbean sea fan *G. ventalina*. 3rd International Coral Reef Symposium Proceedings.
  • Sterrer, W. 1986. Marine Flora and Fauna of Bermuda. New York: Wiley.
  • Sunagawa S, Woodley CM, Medina M. 2010. Threatened Corals Provide Underexplored Microbial Habitats. PLoS ONE 5(3): e9554. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0009554
  • Van Alstyne, K., V. Paul. September 1992. Chemical and structural defenses in the sea fan *G. ventalina* - effects against generalist and specialist predators. Coral Reefs, 11 (3): 155-159.
  • van Ofwegen, L. (2015). Gorgonia ventalina. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at


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