The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 12, 47.
  • Boucek, Z. 1993. The genera of chalcidoid wasps from Ficusfruit in the New World. Journal of Natural History 27:173–217.
  • Bronstein, J. L. 1991. The nonpollinating wasp fauna of Ficus pertusa—exploitation of a mutualism. Oikos 61:175–186.
  • Elias, L. G., A.O. Menezes Jr., and R.A.S. Pereira. 2008. Colonization sequence of non-pollinating fig wasps associated with Ficus citrifolia in Brazil. Symbiosis 45:107–111.
  • Elias, L. G., S. P. Teixeira, F. Kjellberg, and R.A.S. Pereira. 2012. Diversification in the use of resources by Idarnes species: bypassing functional constraints in the fig–fig wasp interaction. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 106(1):114–122.
  • Gordh, G. 1975. The comparative external morphology and systematics of the Neotropical parasitic fig wasp Idarnes (Hymenoptera: Torymidae). University of Kansas. Science Bulletin. 50 (9):389-455.
  • Herre, E. A., C. A. Machado, E. Bermingham, J. D. Nason, D. M. Windsor, S. S. McCafferty, W. van Houten and K. Bachmann. 1996. Molecular phylogenies of figs and their pollinator wasps. Journal of Biogeography 23:521–530.
  • Marussich, W. A. and C. A. Machado. 2007. Host-specificity and coevolution among pollinating and nonpollinating New World fig wasps. Molecular Ecology 16:1925–1946.
  • Walker, F. 1843. Descriptions of Chalcidites discovered in St. Vincent's Isle by the Rev. Lansdown Guilding. Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 12:46-49.
  • West, S. A. and E. A. Herre. 1994. The ecology of the New World fig-parasitizing wasps Idarnes and implications for the evolution of the fig-pollinator mutualism. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 258(1351):67-72. doi: 10.1098/rspb.1994.0143
  • West, S. A. , E. A. Herre, D. M. Windsor, and P. R. S. Green. 1996. The ecology and evolution of the New World non-pollinating fig wasp communities. Journal of Biogeography 23:447–458.


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