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Overview

Brief Summary

Edible frogs never used to live on the Dutch Wadden Islands, but have been on Texel since 1994. A few frog-lovers released them in their garden ponds in Den Burg. Since then, they have spread throughout the island. Edible frogs can be found just about throughout all of mainland Europe. Their major requirement is water in their habitat. Edible frogs grow to 10 centimeters long and have a brown or green color.
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Comprehensive Description

Description

Vomerine teeth present. Posterior part of the tongue free and forked. Toes webbed. Omosternum and sternum ossified. Pupil of the eye horizontal. Snout moderately sharp. When the shins are positioned perpendicularly to the body axis, the heels overlap (with the exception of Transcaucasian specimens). Inner metatarsal tubercle low. Dorsal coloration different tints of greyish and green, from entirely grey to green. Large dark dorsal spots vary considerably in size, number and arrangement. Light middorsal line often present. No temporal spot. Belly greyish-white or greyish-yellow with dark spotted or blotched-like pattern, sometimes without this pattern. Males differ from females by having paired grey vocal sacs behind the mouth angles and nuptial pads on the first finger.

  • Baloutch, M. and Kami, H. G. (1995). Amphibians of Iran. Tehran University Publishers, Tehran.
  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S. and Rustamov, A. K. (1971). Zemnovodnye i Presmykayushchienya SSSR [Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR]. Izdatelistvo Misl, Moscow.
  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S., Ishchenko, V. G., Rustamov, A. K., and Szczerbak, N. N. (1977). Opredelitel Zemnovodnykh i Presmykayushchikhsya Fauny SSSR [Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR Fauna]. Prosveshchenie, Moscow.
  • Basoglu, M. and Ozeti, N. (1973). Turkiye Amphibileri. Ege Univ, Bornova-Izmir.
  • Fei, L. (1999). Atlas of Amphibians of China. Henan Publishing House of Science and Technology, Zhengzhou.
  • Gasc, J.-P. (1997). Atlas of Amphibians and Reptiles in Europe. Societas Europaea Herpetologica, Bonn, Germany.
  • Gunther, R. (1990). Die Wasserfrosche Europas. A. Ziemsen, Wittenberg-Lutherstadt.
  • Iskakova, K. (1959). Zemnovodnye Kazakhstana [Amphibians of Kazakhstan]. Institute of Zoology, Academy of Sciences of Kazakh SSR, Alma-Ata.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1995). Die Amphibien Russlands und angrenzender Gebiete. Westarp Wissenschaften, Magdeburg.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1999). The Amphibians of the Former Soviet Union. Pensoft, Sofia-Moscow.
  • Nikolsky, A. M (1936). Fauna of Russia and Adjacent Countries: Amphibians (English translation of Nikolsky, 1918, Faune de la Russie et des Pays limitrophes. Amphibiens. Académie Russe des Sciences, Petrograd, USSR). Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem.
  • Nikolsky, A. M. (1906). Herpetologia Rossica. Mémoires de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences de St.-Pétersbourg, Série 8, Phys.-Math, Vol. 17, Sofia, Moscow.
  • Nöllert, A. and Nöllert, C. (1992). Die Amphibien Europas. Franckh-Kosmos Verlags-GmbH and Company, Stuttgart.
  • Szczerbak, N. N. and Szczerban, M. I. (1980). Zemnovodnye i Presmykayushchiesya Ukrainskikh Karpat [Amphibians and Reptiles of Ukrainian Carpathians]. Naukova Dumka, Kiev.
  • Tarkhnishvili, D. N. and Gokhelashvili, R. K. (1999). ''The amphibians of the Caucasus.'' Advances in Amphibian Research in the Former Soviet Union, 4, 1-233.
  • Terent'ev, P. V. and Chernov, S. A (1965). Key to Amphibians and Reptiles [of the USSR]. Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem.
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Distribution

Range Description

This is a widespread species in western, central and eastern Europe and ranges as far eastwards as eastern Kazakhstan. There are introduced populations in the southeast United Kingdom (where the range is spreading), Switzerland, Belgium (Wallonia), Spain (Villasbuenas de Gata, Cáceres and unspecified localities in Galicia, Cataluña and Comunidad Valenciana), Siberia and Kamchatka, Russia and northwestern Xinjiang (Yining, Tacheng, Wenquan, Huocheng and Xinyuan), China. It is present throughout Turkey (although this might represent a separate taxon), possibly Syrian Arab Republic, much of Iran, northeastern Iraq and most of northern Afghanistan (absent from Pakistan). Isolated populations are present in Bahrain (it is not known as to whether or not this is an introduction) and within Saudi Arabia (relict populations in the southern Hadramaut, and an introduction at Al Kharj). Further investigations are needed into the range of the species within Iraq and Saudi Arabia. Numerous introductions have expanded the range in Siberia and Kamchatka. In Central Asia, it is often difficult to distinguish between the periphery of natural range and the areas occupied after dispersal and introductions. Numerous populations in Kazakhstan have originated through deliberate introductions from local laboratories and universities. The species was introduced into Siberia and Kamchatka through the accidental introduction of tadpoles with fish into reservoirs with warm discharge waters from electric power stations. It occurs from sea level to altitudes of around 2,500m asl.
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Distribution and Habitat

The western margin of the range runs by Eastern France (northeastwards from Lyon City and between Mulhouse and Strasbourg). From France, the northern margin of the range generally corresponds to the European coast of the Atlantic Ocean, including the southern shore of the Baltic Sea. The northern margin of the range formerly extended from Estonia (including the islands of Saaremaa and Hiumaa in the Baltic Sea) through the middle reaches of the Zapadnaya Dvina and Velikaya Rivers. At present, the frog is thought to be extinct in Estonia. Therefore, the northern margin of the range runs from Northern Latvia (area of Riga City) through Russia approximately along the line: Pskov City (57º49'N, 28º20'E) - St. Petersburg City (59º55'N, 30º15'E) - Tver City - north of Yaroslavl Province - south of Kostroma Province - Kirov Province - from northwestern to southeastern Udmurtia - the south and east of Perm Province - Bashkiria - Northeastern Kazakhstan - Northwestern China. Within Kazakhstan and Middle Asia, the frog is absent from the dry areas of the Kara-Kum and Kyzyl-um deserts and from Southern Pamir. Its distribution there is attached to river valleys and floodland lakes. Eastwards, the frog is found in isolated populations established by introductions. These are the populations in many sites of Siberia (the cities of Tomsk, Novosibirsk, Eketerinburg, Verkhnii Tagil, Chelyabinsk, Gorno-Altaisk and Barnaul. In the 1970's, the frog was introduced into Yakutsk City in East Siberia, which is the easternmost locality for this species (62º02'N, 129º39'E). In the south, the Marsh Frog uses rivers and channels as pathways for dispersal in arid areas and its range there changes relatively rapidly. This phenomenon is widespread in the European and Asiatic part of the former Soviet Union. Through river valleys, the frog has penetrated lakes Balkhash and Issyk-Kul. In 1960s-1980s, the frog was introduced into the cities of Karaganda, Ust-Kamenogorsk, Semipalatinsk and Pavlodar in Kazakhstan, probably from local universities and institutes. At present, the frog is dispersing along the Irtysh River and associated rivulets. From the south, R. ridibunda is known from the area from France to Switxerland to the Balkan Peninsula to the Western Turkey, Northern and Central Iran, Afghanistan, Central Tajikistan, Kirgizia, Southern Kazakhstan and Northwestern China (Ili River valley in Xinjiang-Uigur Autonomous Region, where it is a dispersing species). The southern margin of the range is insufficiently known because more and more "southern" species are described from different geographic populations of R. ridibunda.

Rana ridibunda is a highly opportunistic amphibian. It lives in mixed and deciduous forests, forest steppe, steppe, semidesert and desert zones. Being a semiaquatic species, the frog inhabits a wide variety of flowing and stagnant water habitats, from shallow puddles and ponds to large lakes and rivers, as well as mountain streams. The Marsh Frog is tolerant of high water salinity (it occurs in waters of salinity 0.9-8.3 parts per thousand), and in some places reproduces near the western shore in the Caspian Sea. In general, the Marsh Frog prefers open, well-warmed areas with abundant herbaceous vegetation. The diversity of inhabited water bodies and the extent of terrestrial migrations are higher in wet than in arid areas. Nevertheless, the latter are also successfully colonized by the frog using river valleys and channels.

  • Baloutch, M. and Kami, H. G. (1995). Amphibians of Iran. Tehran University Publishers, Tehran.
  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S. and Rustamov, A. K. (1971). Zemnovodnye i Presmykayushchienya SSSR [Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR]. Izdatelistvo Misl, Moscow.
  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S., Ishchenko, V. G., Rustamov, A. K., and Szczerbak, N. N. (1977). Opredelitel Zemnovodnykh i Presmykayushchikhsya Fauny SSSR [Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR Fauna]. Prosveshchenie, Moscow.
  • Basoglu, M. and Ozeti, N. (1973). Turkiye Amphibileri. Ege Univ, Bornova-Izmir.
  • Fei, L. (1999). Atlas of Amphibians of China. Henan Publishing House of Science and Technology, Zhengzhou.
  • Gasc, J.-P. (1997). Atlas of Amphibians and Reptiles in Europe. Societas Europaea Herpetologica, Bonn, Germany.
  • Gunther, R. (1990). Die Wasserfrosche Europas. A. Ziemsen, Wittenberg-Lutherstadt.
  • Iskakova, K. (1959). Zemnovodnye Kazakhstana [Amphibians of Kazakhstan]. Institute of Zoology, Academy of Sciences of Kazakh SSR, Alma-Ata.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1995). Die Amphibien Russlands und angrenzender Gebiete. Westarp Wissenschaften, Magdeburg.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1999). The Amphibians of the Former Soviet Union. Pensoft, Sofia-Moscow.
  • Nikolsky, A. M (1936). Fauna of Russia and Adjacent Countries: Amphibians (English translation of Nikolsky, 1918, Faune de la Russie et des Pays limitrophes. Amphibiens. Académie Russe des Sciences, Petrograd, USSR). Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem.
  • Nikolsky, A. M. (1906). Herpetologia Rossica. Mémoires de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences de St.-Pétersbourg, Série 8, Phys.-Math, Vol. 17, Sofia, Moscow.
  • Nöllert, A. and Nöllert, C. (1992). Die Amphibien Europas. Franckh-Kosmos Verlags-GmbH and Company, Stuttgart.
  • Szczerbak, N. N. and Szczerban, M. I. (1980). Zemnovodnye i Presmykayushchiesya Ukrainskikh Karpat [Amphibians and Reptiles of Ukrainian Carpathians]. Naukova Dumka, Kiev.
  • Tarkhnishvili, D. N. and Gokhelashvili, R. K. (1999). ''The amphibians of the Caucasus.'' Advances in Amphibian Research in the Former Soviet Union, 4, 1-233.
  • Terent'ev, P. V. and Chernov, S. A (1965). Key to Amphibians and Reptiles [of the USSR]. Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
It is a highly opportunistic amphibian, living in mixed and deciduous forests, forest steppe, and steppe and other grasslands, semi-desert and desert zones. Arid areas are largely colonized through river valleys and channels. The frog prefers open, well-warmed areas with abundant herbaceous vegetation. It is a semi-aquatic species, inhabiting (and breeding in) a wide variety of flowing and stagnant water habitats, from shallow puddles and ponds to large lakes, reservoirs, rivers and brooks. It may also be found in slightly saline water; on the northern shore of the Apsheron Peninsula (Caspian Sea), reproduction has been observed in marine water at a distance of 0.5-1m from the shore. It is present in many modified habitats.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
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Life History and Behavior

Life Expectancy

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 11 years (wild) Observations: In the wild, maturity and longevity are dependent on environmental conditions. Animals may live 11 years or maybe even more in colder climates or mountain regions (Smirina 1994).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Rana ridibunda

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Pelophylax ridibundus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pelophylax ridibundus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 13
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2009

Assessor/s
Sergius Kuzmin, David Tarkhnishvili, Vladimir Ishchenko, Tatjana Dujsebayeva, Boris Tuniyev, Theodore Papenfuss, Trevor Beebee, Ismail H. Ugurtas, Max Sparreboom, Nasrullah Rastegar-Pouyani, Ahmad Mohammed Mousa Disi, Steven Anderson, Mathieu Denoël, Franco Andreone

Reviewer/s
Cox, N. and Temple, H.J. (Global Amphibian Assessment)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.

History
  • 2004
    Least Concern
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Population

Population
This is generally a common to abundant species where it occurs.

Population Trend
Increasing
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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

Rana ridibunda is generally an abundant amphibian. In the rivers of the southern part of Europe, its abundance may reach more than a thousand individuals per kilometer of the riverbank. However, it is relatively rare in swift mountain streams. In general, the species is most abundant in the southern parts of its range.

Hibernation occurs from September - October (in northern regions) or November - December (in the south) to the beginning of June or January - February, respectively. In southern regions, the hibernation is frequently interrupted by warm weather. In unfrozen water bodies, the frog remains active throughout the winter: this is normal in the southern parts of its distribution. As a rule, hibernation occurs in water, but in some locations it occurs in rodent burrows and holes in river banks and lake shores. Group hibernation is typical, but the groups usually do not exceed several dozen individuals.

Breeding starts from several days to one month after the frogs' spring appearance. The males form loud choruses, which are especially intensive at the peak of the breeding period. Amplexus is pectoral (axillary). The clutch contains about 670-13,000 eggs. The time of metamorphosis depends on weather, peculiarities of habitat and latitude but usually falls in April - November. In some places of Europe and Asia regular hibernation of tadpoles (up to a few thousand individuals in one pond) has been recorded. Such tadpoles attain sometimes exceptionally large size (total length to 186 mm) and undergo metamorphosis in the next spring. Sexual maturity is attained in the 1st-4th year of life, and the maximum life span has been recorded as 5 - 12 years.

Tadpoles consume detritus, algae, and higher plants in addition to animals (mainly invertebrates) and their corpses. Benthic objects remain the most important component of their diet. Adults consume mainly terrestrial and aquatic insects. Feeding does not cease during the breeding season. Rana ridibunda is quite voracious and sometimes attacks not only animals but even the branches of riparian vegetation moving in the wind. In fish ponds, it eats small fishes, but the intensity of predation is too low for any significant influence on the fish crop. Marsh Frog adults, being the largest frogs in Europe, often eat conspecific and other amphibians, as well as reptiles and even small birds and rodents. Cannibalism becomes especially severe during periods of low humidity and precipitation, as well as high temperature.

  • Baloutch, M. and Kami, H. G. (1995). Amphibians of Iran. Tehran University Publishers, Tehran.
  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S. and Rustamov, A. K. (1971). Zemnovodnye i Presmykayushchienya SSSR [Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR]. Izdatelistvo Misl, Moscow.
  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S., Ishchenko, V. G., Rustamov, A. K., and Szczerbak, N. N. (1977). Opredelitel Zemnovodnykh i Presmykayushchikhsya Fauny SSSR [Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR Fauna]. Prosveshchenie, Moscow.
  • Basoglu, M. and Ozeti, N. (1973). Turkiye Amphibileri. Ege Univ, Bornova-Izmir.
  • Fei, L. (1999). Atlas of Amphibians of China. Henan Publishing House of Science and Technology, Zhengzhou.
  • Gasc, J.-P. (1997). Atlas of Amphibians and Reptiles in Europe. Societas Europaea Herpetologica, Bonn, Germany.
  • Gunther, R. (1990). Die Wasserfrosche Europas. A. Ziemsen, Wittenberg-Lutherstadt.
  • Iskakova, K. (1959). Zemnovodnye Kazakhstana [Amphibians of Kazakhstan]. Institute of Zoology, Academy of Sciences of Kazakh SSR, Alma-Ata.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1995). Die Amphibien Russlands und angrenzender Gebiete. Westarp Wissenschaften, Magdeburg.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1999). The Amphibians of the Former Soviet Union. Pensoft, Sofia-Moscow.
  • Nikolsky, A. M (1936). Fauna of Russia and Adjacent Countries: Amphibians (English translation of Nikolsky, 1918, Faune de la Russie et des Pays limitrophes. Amphibiens. Académie Russe des Sciences, Petrograd, USSR). Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem.
  • Nikolsky, A. M. (1906). Herpetologia Rossica. Mémoires de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences de St.-Pétersbourg, Série 8, Phys.-Math, Vol. 17, Sofia, Moscow.
  • Nöllert, A. and Nöllert, C. (1992). Die Amphibien Europas. Franckh-Kosmos Verlags-GmbH and Company, Stuttgart.
  • Szczerbak, N. N. and Szczerban, M. I. (1980). Zemnovodnye i Presmykayushchiesya Ukrainskikh Karpat [Amphibians and Reptiles of Ukrainian Carpathians]. Naukova Dumka, Kiev.
  • Tarkhnishvili, D. N. and Gokhelashvili, R. K. (1999). ''The amphibians of the Caucasus.'' Advances in Amphibian Research in the Former Soviet Union, 4, 1-233.
  • Terent'ev, P. V. and Chernov, S. A (1965). Key to Amphibians and Reptiles [of the USSR]. Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem.
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Threats

Major Threats
There are no major threats to this adaptable species. Loss of breeding habitats may lead to localized declines, but it is very resistant to environmental pollution and animals may be found in highly polluted waters (such as chemical or metallurgic pollution) where other amphibian species cannot survive. Severe, or prolonged, droughts may lead to localized population declines of this frog in arid areas. The harvesting of this species for educational and medical research, or food, appears to have little effect on some populations, although the frog-leg trade and high levels of pollution are leading to significant declines in populations in eastern Asia, in the former Yugoslavia (Dzukic, 1996; Ljubisavljevic et al. 2003) and possibly also in Romania. In Turkey, the harvesting of frog populations allocated to Pelophylax ridibunda for food appears to be a threat, thus the frog-leg trade and very significant levels of pollution due to some industrial areas might be leading to significant declines in populations in Turkey.
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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

In general, the Marsh Frog seems to be in the safest situation among the amphibians of Eurasia. Its populations are generally large, the range is broad and has been widened due to dispersal and deliberate introductions of the frog by people. There are indications of a negative influence of dispersing R. ridibunda on local amphibian populations (e.g., R. asiatica).

  • Baloutch, M. and Kami, H. G. (1995). Amphibians of Iran. Tehran University Publishers, Tehran.
  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S. and Rustamov, A. K. (1971). Zemnovodnye i Presmykayushchienya SSSR [Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR]. Izdatelistvo Misl, Moscow.
  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S., Ishchenko, V. G., Rustamov, A. K., and Szczerbak, N. N. (1977). Opredelitel Zemnovodnykh i Presmykayushchikhsya Fauny SSSR [Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR Fauna]. Prosveshchenie, Moscow.
  • Basoglu, M. and Ozeti, N. (1973). Turkiye Amphibileri. Ege Univ, Bornova-Izmir.
  • Fei, L. (1999). Atlas of Amphibians of China. Henan Publishing House of Science and Technology, Zhengzhou.
  • Gasc, J.-P. (1997). Atlas of Amphibians and Reptiles in Europe. Societas Europaea Herpetologica, Bonn, Germany.
  • Gunther, R. (1990). Die Wasserfrosche Europas. A. Ziemsen, Wittenberg-Lutherstadt.
  • Iskakova, K. (1959). Zemnovodnye Kazakhstana [Amphibians of Kazakhstan]. Institute of Zoology, Academy of Sciences of Kazakh SSR, Alma-Ata.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1995). Die Amphibien Russlands und angrenzender Gebiete. Westarp Wissenschaften, Magdeburg.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1999). The Amphibians of the Former Soviet Union. Pensoft, Sofia-Moscow.
  • Nikolsky, A. M (1936). Fauna of Russia and Adjacent Countries: Amphibians (English translation of Nikolsky, 1918, Faune de la Russie et des Pays limitrophes. Amphibiens. Académie Russe des Sciences, Petrograd, USSR). Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem.
  • Nikolsky, A. M. (1906). Herpetologia Rossica. Mémoires de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences de St.-Pétersbourg, Série 8, Phys.-Math, Vol. 17, Sofia, Moscow.
  • Nöllert, A. and Nöllert, C. (1992). Die Amphibien Europas. Franckh-Kosmos Verlags-GmbH and Company, Stuttgart.
  • Szczerbak, N. N. and Szczerban, M. I. (1980). Zemnovodnye i Presmykayushchiesya Ukrainskikh Karpat [Amphibians and Reptiles of Ukrainian Carpathians]. Naukova Dumka, Kiev.
  • Tarkhnishvili, D. N. and Gokhelashvili, R. K. (1999). ''The amphibians of the Caucasus.'' Advances in Amphibian Research in the Former Soviet Union, 4, 1-233.
  • Terent'ev, P. V. and Chernov, S. A (1965). Key to Amphibians and Reptiles [of the USSR]. Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
It is listed on Annex V of the EU Natural Habitats Directive and on Appendix III of the Berne Convention, and is protected by national legislation in a number of countries. It is listed in a number of national and regional Red Data Books and Lists, and is present in many protected areas. There is a need to control or eliminate this species where it has been introduced outside its natural range, as it is a threat to native species. In parts of its range, mitigation measures to reduce road kill have been established.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Risks

Relation to Humans

As in other amphibian species, the drainage of water bodies and urbanization causes the decline of some populations R. ridibunda. The building of concreted vertical embankments on the shores of some rivers and lakes has caused extinction of some populations from the northern parts of the species range. On the other hand, in southern regions frog populations successfully survive in such condition if the individuals can also use undisturbed water bodies. Rana ridibunda is one of the amphibian species most resistant to environmental pollution. It lives not only in waters polluted by domestic wastes or fertilizers, but also in the polluted neighborhoods of large metallurgic and chemical enterprises where other amphibians are not able to survive. Many frogs are caught for the purposes of education, medicine and science. Along with the Common Frog (Rana temporaria), the Marsh Frog is the main subject for such collecting. The amount of these two frog species caught in the 1970s - 1980s in the former USSR measured by several tons annually. However, no population declines resulted from this. The Marsh Frog is one of those amphibians which has the best facility for synanthropization. It is numerous in settlements and cities in southern regions and is both expanding its geographic range and increasing in population size.

  • Baloutch, M. and Kami, H. G. (1995). Amphibians of Iran. Tehran University Publishers, Tehran.
  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S. and Rustamov, A. K. (1971). Zemnovodnye i Presmykayushchienya SSSR [Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR]. Izdatelistvo Misl, Moscow.
  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S., Ishchenko, V. G., Rustamov, A. K., and Szczerbak, N. N. (1977). Opredelitel Zemnovodnykh i Presmykayushchikhsya Fauny SSSR [Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR Fauna]. Prosveshchenie, Moscow.
  • Basoglu, M. and Ozeti, N. (1973). Turkiye Amphibileri. Ege Univ, Bornova-Izmir.
  • Fei, L. (1999). Atlas of Amphibians of China. Henan Publishing House of Science and Technology, Zhengzhou.
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Wikipedia

Marsh frog

For other uses, see Marsh frog (disambiguation).

The marsh frog (Pelophylax ridibundus) is the largest frog native to Europe and belongs to the family of true frogs. It is very similar in appearance to the closely related edible frog and pool frog. These three species, now again in the genus Pelophylax, are often referred to as "green frogs" to distinguish them from the more terrestrial European Rana species, which are known as "brown frogs" (best exemplified by the common frog Rana temporaria).

Characteristics[edit]

The marsh frog is a water-dwelling, generally green-colored frog species. It can reach a maximum length of 17 centimetres, but males remain smaller (around 12 cm). The head is proportionally large and the hind legs are long, which gives them excellent jumping abilities.

There is a large variation in colour and pattern, ranging from dark green to brown or grey, sometimes with some lighter green lines; a lighter line on the back is generally present. The Western European populations are generally dark green to black with dark spots on the back and sides and three clear green lines on the back.

Diet[edit]

The diet of the marsh frog consists of dragonflies and other insects, spiders, earthworms, and slugs. Larger frogs also eat small rodents and sometimes smaller amphibians and fish.

Distribution[edit]

Marsh frog

The marsh frog occurs in the largest part of Europe, and in Asia east to ca. 81° E in Asiatic Russia, south to western Iran and Afghanistan, as well as isolated populations in Saudi Arabia.[2] They prefer a water temperature of approximately 15 °C.

It is now distinguished from Pelophylax kurtmuelleri (Balkan frog), which it resembles greatly, and which outnumbers it in most of Greece.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sergius Kuzmin, David Tarkhnishvili, Vladimir Ishchenko, Tatjana Dujsebayeva, Boris Tuniyev, Theodore Papenfuss, Trevor Beebee, Ismail H. Ugurtas, Max Sparreboom, Nasrullah Rastegar-Pouyani, Ahmad Mohammed Mousa Disi, Steven Anderson, Mathieu Denoël, Franco Andreone (2009). "Pelophylax ridibundus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 24 July 2013. 
  2. ^ a b Frost, Darrel R. (2013). "Pelophylax ridibundus (Pallas, 1771)". Amphibian Species of the World 5.6, an Online Reference. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 24 July 2013. 
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