The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1. IUCN Red List (July, 2006) http://www.iucnredlist.org External link.
  • 2. Cogger, H. (1999) Reptiles and Amphibians. Time Life Books, London.
  • 2001. website, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Program
  • 2001. website, 2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
  • 2003. "Smithsonian National Zoological Park" (On-line). Giant salamanders. Accessed October 07, 2005 at
  • 2004. "Arkive--Images of Life" (On-line). Japanese giant salamander. Accessed October 07, 2005 at
  • 2004. database, Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference
  • 2005. "Natural History Museum" (On-line). Highlights--giant salamander. Accessed October 07, 2005 at
  • 3. Smithsonian National Park (November, 2003) External link.
  • 4. CITES (November, 2003) http://www.cites.org External link.
  • 5. Halliday, T. and Adler, K. (2002) The New Encyclopedia of Reptiles and Amphibians. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Andrew Snider and J. Bowler (1992) Longevity of Reptiles and Amphibians in North American Collections, Second Edition. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles .
  • Frost, Darrel R. 2009. database. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference v5.3
  • Fukumoto S., Ushimaru A., and Minamoto, T. (2015). ''A basin-scale application of environmental DNA assessment for rare endemic species and closely related exotic species in rivers: a case study of giant salamanders in Japan.'' Journal of Applied Ecology, 52(2), 358 - 365.
  • Gadow, H. 1901. Amphibia and Reptiles. New York: The MacMillan Company.
  • Goka, K., Yokoyama, J., Une, Y., Kuroki, T., Suzuki, K., Nakahara, M., Kobayashi, A., Inaba, S., Mizutani, T., and Hyatt, A. D. (2009). ''Amphibian chytridiomycosis in Japan: distribution, haplotypes, and possible route of entry into Japan.'' Molecular Ecology, 18, 4757 - 4774.
  • Goris, R.C. and Maeda, N. (2004). Guide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Japan. Krieger Publishing Company, Malabar, Florida.
  • Hasegawa, H., A. Miyata, T. Doi. 1998. Spiroxys hanzaki n. sp. (Nematoda: Gnathostomatidae) collected from the giant salamander, Andrias japonicus (Caudata: Cryptobranchidae), in Japan. The Journal of Parasitology, 69: 33-42.
  • IUCN. (2010). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.2. Accessed on 16 September 2010.
  • Japan Agency of Environment (2000). Threatened Wildlife of Japan - Red Data Book. 2nd ed. Reptilia/Amphibia. (in Japanese with English summary). Japan Wildlife Research Center, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Kato, T. and Ota, H. (1993). Endangered Wildlife of Japan. Hoikusha, Osaka, Japan.
  • Kawamichi, T. and Ueda, H. (1998). ''Spawning at nests of extra-large males in the Giant Salamander Andrias japonicus.'' Journal of Herpetology, 32, 133-136.
  • Kerbert, C. (1905). ''Über die Eier und Larven von Megalobatrachus maximus Schl.'' C. R. 6e Congr. Intern. Zool., Berne, 1904, 289-294.
  • Kobara, J. (1985). The Giant Salamander (in Japanese). Doubutsu-sha, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Kuwabara, K. and Nakagoshi, N. (2009). ''Analysis on Reproductive Behavior of Japanese Giant Salamander, Andrias japonicus - Observations on the Breeding Behavior and Notes on the Video Imagery.'' Natural History of Nishi-Chugoku Mountains, 14, 11-50 + DVD.
  • Kuwabara, K., Suzuki, N., Wakabayashi, F., Ashikaga, H., Inoue, T. and Kobara, J. (1989). ''Breeding the Japanese Giant Salamander at Asa Zoological Park.'' International Zoo Yearbook, London, 28, 22-31.
  • Matsui, M., Tominaga, A., Liu, W.-Z., and Tanaka-Ueno, T. (2008). ''Reduced genetic variation in the Japanese giant salamander, Andrias japonicus (Amphibia: Caudata) .'' Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution, 49, 318-326.
  • Matsui, M., and Hayashi, T. (1992). ''Genetic uniformity in the Japanese Giant Salamander, Andrias japonicus.'' Copeia, 1992, 232-235.
  • Ministry of the Environment, Japan, (2008). ''Review of the Status of Japanese Giant Salamander (Andrias japonicus).'' Annex 2 to Periodic Review of Species Included in the CITES Appendices, Geneva 2009, 5-14.
  • Ohno, M. (1981). "Megalobatrachus japonicus." Final Report of the Reptiles and Amphibians Survey of the Second National Survey on the Natural Environment of Japan. 1978, pt. 2. Nature Conservancy Society of Japan, Tokyo., 55-70.
  • Okada, S., Utsunomiya, T., Okada, T., Felix, Z.I., and Ito, F. (2008). ''Characteristics of Japanese Giant Salamander (Andrias japonicus) populations in two small tributary streams in Hiroshima Prefecture, Western Honshu, Japan.'' Herpetological Conservation and Biology, 3, 192-202.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2013). ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Sept 12). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Ota, H. (2000). ''Current status of the threatened amphibians and reptiles of Japan.'' Population Ecology, 42, 5-9.
  • Parker, G. 2001. Giant salamanders lurk in Japan. The Newsletter of the Colorado Herpetological Society, 28.
  • Pough, H., R. Andrews, J. Cadle, M. Crump, K. Wells. 2001. Herpetology. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
  • Sato, I. (1943). A Monograph of the Tailed Batrachians of Japan (In Japanese). Nippon Shuppan-Sha, Osaka, Japan.
  • Semlitsch, R. 2003. Amphibian conservation. Washington: Smithsonian Books.
  • Sleeper, B. 1997. Giant (really big) salamanders. Pacific Discovery, 50: 36-37.
  • Stejneger, L. (1907). Herpetology of Japan and Adjacent Territory. Government Printing Office, Washington. Reprinted 1996, with an introduction by M. Matsui. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles in cooperation with the Herpetological Society of Japan
  • Stuart, S., Hoffmann, M., Chanson, J., Cox, N., Berridge, R., Ramani, P., and Young, B. (eds) (2008). Threatened Amphibians of the World. Lynx Edicions, IUCN, and Conservation International, Barcelona, Spain; Gland, Switzerland; and Arlington, Virginia, USA.
  • Tago, K. (1927). ''Notes on the habits and life history of Megalobatrachus japonicus.'' Xe Congrès International de Zoologie, tenu à Budapest 1927. Budapest, Hungary, 828-838.
  • Thorn, R. (1969). Les Salamandres d'Europe, d'Asie, et d'Afrique du Nord. Lechevalier, Paris, France.
  • Tochimoto, T. (1995). ''Ecological studies on the Japanese Giant Salamander, Andrias japonicus, in the Ichi River in Hyogo Prefecture. 10. An attempt to rebuild spawning places along the river.'' Journal of Japanese Association of Zoological Gardens and Aquariums, 37, 7-12.
  • Tochimoto, T. (1996). ''Amphibians, Reptiles, and Cartilaginous Fish, 5.'' The Encyclopedia of Japanese Animals. Hidaka, T., eds., Heibonsha, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Zug, G., L. Vitt, J. Caldwell. 2001. Herpetology. San Diego: Academic Press.


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