The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1. IUCN Red List (July, 2006) http://www.iucnredlist.org External link.
  • 2. Cogger, H. (1999) Reptiles and Amphibians. Time Life Books, London.
  • 2001. website, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Program
  • 2001. website, 2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
  • 2003. "Smithsonian National Zoological Park" (On-line). Giant salamanders. Accessed October 07, 2005 at
  • 2004. "Arkive--Images of Life" (On-line). Japanese giant salamander. Accessed October 07, 2005 at
  • 2004. database, Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference
  • 2005. "Natural History Museum" (On-line). Highlights--giant salamander. Accessed October 07, 2005 at
  • 3. Smithsonian National Park (November, 2003) External link.
  • 4. CITES (November, 2003) http://www.cites.org External link.
  • 5. Halliday, T. and Adler, K. (2002) The New Encyclopedia of Reptiles and Amphibians. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Andrew Snider and J. Bowler (1992) Longevity of Reptiles and Amphibians in North American Collections, Second Edition. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles .
  • Frost, Darrel R. 2009. database. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference v5.3
  • Gadow, H. 1901. Amphibia and Reptiles. New York: The MacMillan Company.
  • Hasegawa, H., A. Miyata, T. Doi. 1998. Spiroxys hanzaki n. sp. (Nematoda: Gnathostomatidae) collected from the giant salamander, Andrias japonicus (Caudata: Cryptobranchidae), in Japan. The Journal of Parasitology, 69: 33-42.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2013). ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Sept 12). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Parker, G. 2001. Giant salamanders lurk in Japan. The Newsletter of the Colorado Herpetological Society, 28.
  • Pough, H., R. Andrews, J. Cadle, M. Crump, K. Wells. 2001. Herpetology. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
  • Semlitsch, R. 2003. Amphibian conservation. Washington: Smithsonian Books.
  • Sleeper, B. 1997. Giant (really big) salamanders. Pacific Discovery, 50: 36-37.
  • Zug, G., L. Vitt, J. Caldwell. 2001. Herpetology. San Diego: Academic Press.


EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!