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Ecology

Associations

Animal / predator
Anthocoris nemorum is predator of Tetranychus urticae

Animal / predator
nymph of Campylomma verbasci is predator of Tetranychus urticae

Animal / predator
adult of Campyloneura virgula is predator of Tetranychus urticae
Remarks: season: 7-10

Animal / predator
larva of Feltiella acarisuga is predator of Tetranychus urticae

Animal / predator
adult of Orius majusculus is predator of adult of Tetranychus urticae

Animal / predator
Orius niger is predator of Tetranychus urticae

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Animal / predator
Orthotylus marginalis is predator of Tetranychus urticae

Animal / predator
Orthotylus ochrotrichus is predator of Tetranychus urticae

Animal / predator
Phytoseiulus persimilis is predator of Tetranychus urticae

Animal / predator
Scolothrips longicornis is predator of Tetranychus urticae

Foodplant / web feeder
mainly hypophyllous, colonial Tetranychus urticae feeds from web on live leaf of Magnoliopsida

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Genetics

Although DNA sequencing can facilitate great insights into the evolution of organisms and potentially provides an efficient approach to discriminating morphologically similar species, there is no getting around the need for specialists with genuine expert knowledge of the identification of organisms. de Mendonca et al. (2011), for example, report significant identification error rates for sequences from Tetranychus mites deposited in genetic databases. Several species in this genus are of economic and quarantine importance in agriculture (notably, T. urticae, a highly polyphagous mite that plagues many crops worldwide) so accurate identification has practical significance. Among the deposited sequences the authors examined from  the GenBank database, numerous cases of apparently mistaken identities were identified, especially among T. urticae

, T. cinnabarinus, T. kanzawai and T. truncatus. de Mendonca et al. concluded that nearly a third of the sequences they examined were unreliable or questionable.
  • de Mendonca, R.S., D. Navia, I.R. Diniz, P. Auger, and M. Navajas. 2011. A critical review on some closely related species of Tetranychus sensu stricto (Acari: Tetranychidae) in the public DNA sequences databases. Experimental and Applied Acarology 55(1): 1-23.
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© Leo Shapiro

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Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Tetranychus urticae

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 33 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

RTICA--C-I------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------TGATTTTTTGGTCACCCAGAAGTTTATATTTTAATTTTACCAGGTTTTGGAATGATTTCACACATTATTAGATATAATTTAGGTAAAAAA---GAAGTTTTTGGTAAAATTGGAATAATATTTGCTATAATATCAATTGGTTTATTAGGTTTTATTGTATGAGCTCACCACATATTTACGGTAGGAATAGATGTTGATACACGAGCTTACTTTACTGCTGCTACAATAATTATTGCTATTCCTACTGGAATTAAAATTTTTAGTTGATTTACT---ACAATTTTAAATTCA---CATATTAATTTTAATATTTCTATATATTGATCTATAGGATTTTTAATTATATTTTCTATTGGAGGATTTACAGGAATTGTAGCTTCAAATTCATGTTTGGATATTAATTTGCATGACTCATATTATATTGTAGCACATTTTCATTATGTT---TTATCTATAGGAGCTGTA
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Tetranychus urticae

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 11
Specimens with Barcodes: 16
Species With Barcodes: 1
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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Wikipedia

Tetranychus urticae

Tetranychus urticae (common names include red spider mite and two-spotted spider mite) is a species of plant-feeding mite that is generally considered a pest. It is the most widely known member of the family Tetranychidae or spider mites. Its genome was fully sequenced in 2011, and was the first genome sequence from any chelicerate.

Distribution[edit]

Tetranychus urticae was originally native only to Eurasia, but has acquired a cosmopolitan distribution.[1]

Description[edit]

Colony of red spider mites

Tetranychus urticae is extremely small, barely visible with the naked eye as reddish or greenish spots on leaves and stems; the adult females measure about 0.4 mm long.[2] The red spider mite, which can be seen in greenhouses and tropical and temperate zones, spins a fine web on and under leaves.[2]

Ecology[edit]

Tetranychus urticae is extremely polyphagous; it can feed on hundreds of plants. These include most vegetables and food crops – including peppers, tomatoes, potatoes, beans, maize and strawberries – and ornamental plants such as roses.[2] It is the most prevalent pest of Withania somnifera in India.[3] It lays its eggs on the leaves, and it poses a threat to host plants by sucking cell contents from the leaves cell by cell, leaving tiny pale spots or scars where the green epidermal cells have been destroyed.[2] Although the individual lesions are very small, attack by hundreds or thousands of spider mites can cause thousands of lesions and thus can significantly reduce the photosynthetic capability of plants.[2]

The mite's natural predator, Phytoseiulus persimilis, commonly used as a biological control method, is one of many predatory mites which prey mainly or exclusively on spider mites.[2]

Other than certain aphids, T. urticae is the only animal known to be able to synthesise carotenoids. As in aphids, the genes for carotene synthesis appear to have been acquired through horizontal gene transfer from a fungus.[4]

Life cycle[edit]

Tetranychus urticae reproduces through arrhenotoky, a form of parthenogenesis in which unfertilized eggs develop into males.[5]

The eggs of T. urticae are translucent and pearl-like.[1] It hatches into a larva and then two nymph stages follow: a protonymph, and then a deutonymph, which may display quiescent stages. The adults are typically pale green in colour for most of the year, but later generations are red in colour; mated females survive the winter in diapause.[1]

Genomics[edit]

Genomic information
 NCBI genome ID  2710
 Ploidy  haploid (males) / diploid (females)
 Genome size  90.82 Mb
 Year of completion  2011


The genome of T. urticae was fully sequenced in 2011, and was the first genome sequence from any chelicerate.[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c D. A. Raworth, D. R. Gillespie, M. Roy & H. M. A. Thistlewood (2002). "Tetranychus urticae Koch, twospotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae)". In Peter G. Mason & John Theodore Huber. Biological Control Programmes in Canada, 1981–2000. CAB International. pp. 259–265. ISBN 978-0-85199-527-4. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f Thomas R. Fasulo & H. A. Denmark (December 2009). "Twospotted spider mite". Featured Creatures. University of Florida / Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. Retrieved May 20, 2011. 
  3. ^ Ashutosh Sharma & Pratap Kumar Pati (2012). "First record of the carmine spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, infesting Withania somnifera in India" (PDF). Journal of Insect Science 12: 50. doi:10.1673/031.012.5001. 
  4. ^ Boran Altincicek, Jennifer L. Kovacs & Nicole M. Gerardo (2011). "Horizontally transferred fungal carotenoid genes in the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae". Biology Letters 8 (2): 253–257. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2011.0704. PMC 3297373. PMID 21920958. 
  5. ^ Cytological studies of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Tetranychidae, trombidiformes). I: Meiosis in eggs. C. C. M. Feiertag-Koppen, Genetica, 1976, Volume 46, Issue 4, pages 445-456, doi:10.1007/BF00128090
  6. ^ Miodrag Grbić, Thomas Van Leeuwen, Richard M. Clark, Stephane Rombauts, Pierre Rouzé, Vojislava Grbić, Edward J. Osborne, Wannes Dermauw, Phuong Cao Thi Ngoc, Félix Ortego, Pedro Hernández-Crespo, Isabel Diaz, Manuel Martinez, Maria Navajas, Élio Sucena, Sara Magalhães, Lisa Nagy, Ryan M. Pace, Sergej Djuranović, Guy Smagghe, Masatoshi Iga, Olivier Christiaens, Jan A. Veenstra, John Ewer, Rodrigo Mancilla Villalobos, Jeffrey L. Hutter, Stephen D. Hudson, Marisela Velez, Soojin V. Yi, Jia Zeng, Andre Pires-daSilva, Fernando Roch, Marc Cazaux, Marie Navarro, Vladimir Zhurov, Gustavo Acevedo, Anica Bjelica, Jeffrey A. Fawcett, Eric Bonnet, Cindy Martens, Guy Baele, Lothar Wissler, Aminael Sanchez-Rodriguez, Luc Tirry, Catherine Blais, Kristof Demeestere, Stefan R. Henz, T. Ryan Gregory, Johannes Mathieu, Lou Verdon, Laurent Farinelli, Jeremy Schmutz, Erika Lindquist, René Feyereisen & Yves Van de Peer (2011). "The genome of Tetranychus urticae reveals herbivorous pest adaptations". Nature 479 (7374): 487–492. doi:10.1038/nature10640. PMID 22113690. 
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