Overview

Brief Summary

There are over 1,000 species of scorpion. These animals are closely related to spiders. Scorpions have two pairs of claws, eight legs, and a tail with a stinger at the end. All scorpion stingers have venom that they use to catch their prey. The Arizona bark scorpion has the strongest venom of any scorpion in North America.

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Physical Description

Type Information

Syntype for Centruroides sculpturatus Ewing
Catalog Number: USNM
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Entomology
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1927
Locality: Tempe; Arizona, Arizona, United States
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© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Entomology

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Centruroides sculpturatus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 2 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

SC---T-RAT-S-C-I---------------------------------------------------------------GTTTGGGCTTCTATGGTTGGGACTGCTTTG---AGTTTAATTGTTCGGGGTGAAATTGGGATGCCAGGTTCTTTGATTGGGGAT---GATCAAGTTTATAATGTTGTTGTGACGGCCCATGCTTTTGTTATGATTTTTTTTATGGTCATGCCTATTATGATTGGGGGTTTTGGTAATTGGTTAGTTCCCTTGATG---TTAGGTGCTCCTGATATGGCTTTTCCTCGGATGAATAATATGAGTTTTTGGTTACTTCCTCCTGCTTTTTTTCTTTTACTTTCTTCTGCTGCACTGGAGAGAGGGGCAGGGACGGGTTGAACGGTTTATCCCCCTCTTTCTTCCTCTTTGGCTCATGTTGGGGGTTCAGTTGATCTT---ACTATTTTTTCTCTTCATTTGGCTGGTGTTTCTTCTATTTTGGGGGCTATTAATTTTATTACTACTATTATTAATATGCGAAGAAGTGGTATGGGATTAGATCGTCTTCCTTTGTTTGTTTGATCTGTGATAGTTACTGCTGTTTTGTTGTTGTTGTCTCTTCCTGTGTTAGCAGGG---GCTATTACTATGTTGTTAACAGATCGAAATTTTAATACCTCTTTTTTTGACCCTGCTGGGGGCGGAGATCCTATTTTATATCAGCATTTATTTTGGTTTTTTGGGCATCCTGAGGTTTATATTTTGATTTTGCCTGGGTTTGGGATGATTTCACATATTGTAAGTCATCATATGGGTAAGAGG---GAGCCTTTTGGTTCTTTGGGTATGATTTATGCTATGGTTGCCATTGGTGGGTTAGGTTTTATTGTTTGGGCTCATCATATGTTTACTGTGGGTATGGATGTAGATACTCGGGCTTATTTTACTGCTGCTACAATGATTATTGCTGTTCCTACGGGTATTAAAATTTTTAGTTGATTA---GCTACT
-- end --

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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Centruroides sculpturatus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Wikipedia

Arizona bark scorpion

The Arizona bark scorpion (Centruroides sculpturatus, included in Centruroides exilicauda), is a small light brown scorpion common to the Sonoran Desert in southwest United States and northern Mexico. An adult male can reach 8 cm in length (3.14 inches), while a female is slightly smaller, with a maximum length of 7 cm (2.75 inches). [1]

Diet[edit]

The bark scorpion is nocturnal and prefers to ambush its prey, usually feeding on crickets, roaches, beetles, and other small insects.

Predators[edit]

Bark scorpions are eaten by a wide variety of animals such as birds, reptiles, and other invertebrates. Some examples include spiders, snakes, peccaries, rodents, and other scorpions. Development, pesticides and collecting scorpions for research or the pet trade also has an impact on the bark scorpion population.

The painful and potentially deadly venom of Bark Scorpions have little effect on grasshopper mice. Scientists have found the scorpion toxin acts as an analgesic rather than a pain stimulant in grasshopper mice. [2]

Life cycle[edit]

Three adult and four juvenile Arizona bark scorpions

Arizona bark scorpions have a gestation period of several months, are born live, and are gently guided onto their mother's back. The female usually gives birth to anywhere from 25 to 35 young. These remain with their mother until their first molt, which can be up to 3 weeks after birth. Arizona bark scorpions may live up to 6 years.

While nearly all scorpions are solitary, the Arizona bark scorpion is a rare exception: during winter, packs of 20 to 30 scorpions can congregate.[3]

Bark scorpions, like most other scorpions, are incredibly resilient. Contrary to popular belief however, freezing scorpions will indeed kill them. They do not thaw and spring back to life. During US nuclear testing, scorpions, along with cockroaches and lizards, were found near ground zero with no recorded adverse effects.[4]

Habitat[edit]

The bark scorpion is particularly well adapted to the desert: layers of fat on its exoskeleton make it resistant to water loss. Nevertheless, bark scorpions hide during the heat of the day, typically under rocks, wood piles, or tree bark. Bark scorpions do not burrow, and are commonly found in homes, requiring only 1/16 of an inch for entry.[5]

Arizona bark scorpions prefer riparian areas with mesquite, cottonwood, and sycamore groves, all of which have sufficient moisture and humidity to support insects and other prey species. The popularity of irrigated lawns, and other systems which increase environmental humidity in residential areas, has led to a massive increase in the number of these animals in some areas.

Centuroides scorpions are unusual in that they are the only genus in the southwest that can climb walls, trees, and other objects with a sufficiently rough surface. Bark scorpions practice negative geotaxis, preferring an upside down orientation, which often results in people being stung due to the scorpion being on the underside of an object.[6]

Venom[edit]

Frontal view of a bark scorpion in a defensive posture

The bark scorpion is the most venomous scorpion in North America, and its venom can cause severe pain (coupled with numbness, tingling, vomiting, and stool) in adult humans, typically lasting between 24 to 72 hours. Temporary dysfunction in the area stung is common; e.g. a hand or possibly arm can be immobilized or experience convulsions. It also may cause the loss of breath for a short period of time. Due to the extreme pain induced, many victims describe sensations of electrical jolts after envenomation.

Fatalities from scorpion envenomation in the USA are rare and are limited to small animals (including small pets), small children, the elderly, and adults with compromised immune systems. Extreme reaction to the venom is indicated by numbness, frothing at the mouth, paralysis, and a neuromotor syndrome that may be confused with a seizure and that may make breathing difficult, particularly for small children. Two recorded fatalities have occurred in the state of Arizona since 1968; the number of victims stung each year in Arizona is estimated to be in the thousands. In Mexico, more than 100,000 people are stung annually, and during a peak period in the 1980s, the bark scorpion claimed up to 800 lives there.[3]

Antivenom[edit]

Arizona bark scorpion glowing under ultraviolet light

An antivenin was developed for this species at Arizona State University, and produced in quantities sufficient to treat individuals within the state of Arizona. This antivenom was not FDA approved, but use within the state of Arizona was allowable and very successful in shortening the duration of symptoms and hospitalization. Production of this antivenin ceased by 2000 and the product was unavailable by 2004. A Mexican-produced antivenom, Anascorp [Antivenin Centruroides (scorpion) F(ab′)2, Laboratorios Silanes, Instituto Bioclon SA de CV], received FDA approval on August 3, 2011 and is now in use.[7]

First aid[edit]

Basic first aid measures can be used to help remediate scorpion stings:[8]

  • Clean sting site with soap and water
  • Apply a cool compress (cool cloth, no ice)
  • Take acetaminophen (paracetamol) or ibuprofen for local pain and swelling

Medical emergencies[edit]

Since the amount of venom a scorpion injects varies, Arizona poison control centers suggest immediate medical attention only in the event of extreme pain or stings involving weaker individuals.[4]

UV lighting[edit]

Bark scorpions, like most other scorpions, will glow when exposed to a blacklight. This is particularly useful in scorpion detection, since bark scorpions are active during the night, and can be easily spotted using this method. Typical UV LED flashlights are able to readily detect scorpions at a distance of approximately 6 feet. Newly molted scorpions will not glow under Ultraviolet light for a few days after molting.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Species Centruroides sculpturatus - Arizona bark scorpion". Retrieved June 18, 2008. 
  2. ^ http://www.utexas.edu/news/2013/10/24/grasshopper-mice-bark-scorpion/
  3. ^ a b "Scorpions". Cooperative Extension, College of Agriculture & Life Sciences. The University of Arizona. Retrieved June 20, 2008. 
  4. ^ a b "Poison and Drug Information Center". The University of Arizona. 2008. Retrieved June 20, 2008. 
  5. ^ "Scorpion Management Guidelines". 2008. Retrieved June 18, 2008. 
  6. ^ Phillips S.; Comus P. (2000). A Natural History of the Sonoran Desert. Arizona Sonora Desert Museum. p. 292. ISBN 978-0-520-21980-9. 
  7. ^ "August 4, 2011 Approval Letter - Anascorp". 2011. Retrieved December 9, 2012. 
  8. ^ David Von Behren, MPH (2000). "Soothing the Scorpion's Sting". The University of Arizona. Archived from the original on June 3, 2009. Retrieved June 20, 2008. 
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