Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Color is yellow-brown, with black spots.

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Distribution

Prince Edward Island (from the northern tip of Miscou Island, N.B. to Cape Breton Island south of Cheticamp, including the Northumberland Strait and Georges Bay to the Canso Strait causeway); Cobscook Bay
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Within Russian waters occurs in the western part of the Barents Sea.

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Physical Description

Morphology

The side edges of the front of the carapace are sharp. Large eyes bulge out neyond the edge of the body. Scaphocerite of the antennae has a linear shape, its length exceeds its width by 8-9; the outer edge smooth. The telson contains a deep and narrow cut in the center; the edges carry up to 26 spines on each side, the edges of the cut carry numerous small spines and 2 large spines at the end. The fourth pair of pleopods in males has long exopodites.

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Size

Up to 26 mm.

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Diagnostic Description

Differs from Praunus inermis by larger length of the scaphopodite.

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Ecology

Habitat

often in pools, also brackish water, among algae or eelgrass (Zostera)
  • Muller, H.G. (1993) . World catalogue and bibliography of the recent Mysidacea. 238p
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infralittoral of the Gulf and estuary
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Depth range based on 230 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 5 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 67
  Temperature range (°C): 6.832 - 8.600
  Nitrate (umol/L): 1.141 - 2.178
  Salinity (PPS): 6.559 - 10.036
  Oxygen (ml/l): 7.360 - 8.091
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.314 - 0.469
  Silicate (umol/l): 11.042 - 11.473

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 67

Temperature range (°C): 6.832 - 8.600

Nitrate (umol/L): 1.141 - 2.178

Salinity (PPS): 6.559 - 10.036

Oxygen (ml/l): 7.360 - 8.091

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.314 - 0.469

Silicate (umol/l): 11.042 - 11.473
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Dispersal

Depth range

tidal zones-5m
  • Muller, H.G. (1993) . World catalogue and bibliography of the recent Mysidacea. 238p
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General Ecology

Ecology

Littoral boreal species.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Praunus flexuosus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Praunus flexuosus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 8
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Wikipedia

Praunus flexuosus

Praunus flexuosus, known as the chameleon shrimp, is a species of opossum shrimp found in European waters. It reaches 26 mm (1.0 in) long, with a distinctly bent body, and closely resembles Praunus neglectus. It lives in shallow water and tolerates a wide range of salinities. It is found from northern France to the Baltic Sea, and was introduced to North America in the mid 20th century.

Description[edit source | edit]

Praunus flexuosus is a long, slender animal, with a pronounced bend in the abdomen.[1] It reaches sexual maturity at a length of around 18 millimetres (0.71 in), but can go on to attain a length of 26 mm (1.0 in).[1] Its colouration is highly variable, ranging from brown or red to green, which accounts for its common name of "chamaeleon shrimp".[2]

Praunus flexuosus is very similar to the related species P. neglectus. The two can be differentiated by the following characters:[1]

CharacterP. flexuosusP. neglectus
Body length25–26 mm (1.0 in)20 mm (0.8 in)
Colourblack to colourlessusually grass green
Setae on antennal scale and uropodscolourlessviolet or reddish purple
Antennal scale length>3× peduncle<3× peduncle
Antennal scale shape7–8× as long as broad5× as long as broad
Apex of antennal scaleshorter than spine terminating outer marginlonger than spine terminating outer margin
Tarsus of thoracic limbs 3–76 segmented5 segmented
Tarsus of thoracic limb 85 segmented4 segmented
Lateral margins of telson21–27 small spines18–20 larger spines
Cleft in telsonwidely open, 16 of telson lengthproximally narrow, 15 of telson length

Taxonomy[edit source | edit]

Praunus flexuosus was the first mysidacean species ever to be formally described, when Otto Friedrich Müller described it under the name Cancer flexuosa in 1776.[3]

Distribution and ecology[edit source | edit]

Praunus flexuosus lives along the coast of the north Atlantic Ocean between 40° north and 71° north, and in the Baltic Sea.[1] There is only one doubtful record from further south than Roscoff.[1] It is "the only documented non-native marine zooplankton species established on the East Coast [of North America]".[4] It was first discovered in North America in 1960, on the north side of Cape Cod,[5] and has since colonised as far north as Nova Scotia.[6] This colonisation may have occurred after P. flexuosus was transported as a fouling animal on ships' hulls during the Second World War.[7] It was only discovered around the coast of Iceland in 1970, but has since proved to be common along Iceland's south-west coast.[7] This introduction may also have been facilitated by wartime convoys (see Battle of the Atlantic).[7]

P. flexuosus can tolerate salinities of 2‰–33‰.[8] It is often found on algae, and is most closely associated with the seaweed Fucus vesiculosus.[9] It lives in shallow water, and is often found around artificial constructions, such as docks.[10] It is an omnivore, feeding on debris and preying on small crustaceans, especially harpacticoid copepods,[11] but consumes a greater proportion of macrozooplankton than other common littoral mysids, such as Neomysis integer and Praunus inermis.[12] P. fleuosus is less gregarious than species such as N. integer.[13] When it detects a predator nearby, using a combination of visual and chemical cues, P. flexuosus hides among vegetation.[13]

Life cycle[edit source | edit]

Praunus flexuosus has two generations per year. A population overwinters, and produces a spring generation that appears in May or June, before dying off in the summer.[11] Some of the spring generation reach sexual maturity and reproduce in the autumn, producing the generation which will reproduce the following spring.[11] Females release eggs into a brood pouch or marsupium, where they are held until they hatch.[11]

References[edit source | edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Mario de Kluijver & Sarita Ingalsuo (ed.). "Praunus flexuosus". Macrobenthos of the North Sea – Crustacea. Retrieved July 20, 2011. 
  2. ^ Nellie Barbara Eales (1967). Littoral Fauna of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-04862-0. 
  3. ^ Karl J. Wittmann (1999). "Global biodiversity in Mysidacea, with notes on the effects of human impact". In Frederick R. Schram & J. C. von Vaupel Klein. Crustaceans and the Biodiversity Crisis: Proceedings of the Fourth International Crustacean Congress, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, July 20–24, 1998. Crustacean Issues 12. Brill. pp. 511–525. ISBN 978-90-04-11387-9. 
  4. ^ Gregory Ruiz, Paul Fofonoff, Brian Steves & Alisha Dalhstrom (2011). "Marine crustacean invasions in North America: a synthesis of historical records and documented impacts". In Bella S. Galil, Paul F. Clark & James T. Carlton. In the Wrong Place – Alien Marine Crustaceans: Distribution, Biology and Impacts. Invading Nature 6. Springer. pp. 215–250. ISBN 978-94-007-0590-6. 
  5. ^ Roland L. Wigley (1963). "Occurrence of Praunus flexuosus (O. F. Müller) (Mysidacea) in New England waters". Crustaceana 6 (2): 158. doi:10.1163/156854063X00534. 
  6. ^ Kenneth L. Gosner (1999). "Mysid shrimps". A Field Guide to the Atlantic Seashore: From the Bay of Fundy to Cape Hatteras. Peterson Field Guide 24. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. pp. 229–230. ISBN 978-0-618-00209-2. 
  7. ^ a b c Olafur S. Astthorsson (1987). "Records and life history of Praunus flexuosus (Crustacea: Mysidacea) in Icelandic waters". Journal of Plankton Research 9 (5): 955–964. doi:10.1093/plankt/9.5.955. 
  8. ^ D. S. McClusky & V. E. J. Heard (1971). "Some effects of salinity on the mysid Praunus flexuosus". Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 51 (3): 709–715. doi:10.1017/S0025315400015083. 
  9. ^ E. Lindén, M. Lehtiniemi & M. Viitasalo (2003). "Predator avoidance behaviour of Baltic littoral mysids Neomysis integer and Praunus flexuosus" (PDF). Marine Biology 143: 845–850. doi:10.1007/s00227-003-1149-x. 
  10. ^ P. J. Hayward, M. J. Isaac, P. Makings, J. Moyse, E. Naylor & G. Smaldon (1995). "Crustaceans". In P. J. Hayward & John Stanley Ryland. Handbook of the Marine Fauna of North-west Europe. Oxford University Press. pp. 289–461. ISBN 978-0-19-854055-7. 
  11. ^ a b c d J. Mauchline (1971). "The biology of Praunus flexuosus and P. neglectus [Crustacea, Mysidacea]". Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 51 (3): 641–652. doi:10.1017/S0025315400015010. 
  12. ^ Maiju Lehtiniemi & Hanna Nordström (2008). Feeding differences among common littoral mysids, Neomysis integer, Praunus flexuosus and P. inermis. In U. M. Azeiteiro, I. Jenkinson & M. J. Pereira. "Plankton Studies". Hydrobiologia 614 (1): 309–320. doi:10.1007/s10750-008-9515-9. 
  13. ^ a b E. Lindén, M. Lehtiniemi & M. Viitasalo (2003). "Predator avoidance behaviour of Baltic littoral mysids Neomysis integer and Praunus flexuosus" (PDF). Marine Biology 143: 845–850. doi:10.1007/s00227-003-1149-x. 
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