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Paris (genus)

Paris is a genus of flowering plants described by Linnaeus in 1753.[2][3] It is widespread across Europe and Asia, with a center of diversity in China.[1][4][5][6]

It consists of less than two dozen herbaceous plants: the best known species is Paris quadrifolia. Some Paris species are used in traditional Chinese medicine for their analgesic and anticoagulant properties, most notably as an ingredient of Yunnan Baiyao. Intense ethnopharmaceutical interest has significantly reduced their numbers.[7]

These plants are closely related to Trillium, with the distinction traditionally being that Trillium contains species which have trimerous (three-petaled) flowers, and Paris contains species which have 4- to 11-merous flowers.[8] A recent analysis places the genera Daiswa and Kinugasa in Paris, though the actual circumscription of the genus is debated.[9]



  1. ^ a b c Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  2. ^ Linnaeus, Carl von. 1753. Species Plantarum 1: 367
  3. ^ Tropicos, Paris L.
  4. ^ Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update. Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  5. ^ Altervista Flora Italiana, Uva di volpe, Paris quadrifolia L. includes photos plus European distribution map
  6. ^ Flora of China Vol. 24 Page 88 重楼属 chong lou shu Paris Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 367. 1753.
  7. ^ Chun-Lin Long, Heng Li, Zhiqin Ouyang, Xiangyun Yang, Qin Li, and Bruce Trangmar (2002). "Strategies for agrobiodiversity conservation and promotion: a case from Yunnan, China". Biodiversity and Conservation 11: 1146–1154. 
  8. ^ Susan B. Farmer and Edward E. Schilling (2002). "Phylogenetic analyses of Trilliaceae based on morphological and molecular data". Systematic Botany 27 (4): 674–692. 
  9. ^ Yunheng Ji, Peter W. Fritsch, Heng Li, Tiaojiang Xiao, and Zhekun Zhou (2006). "Phylogeny and classification of Paris (Melanthiaceae) inferred from DNA sequence data". Annals of Botany 98 (1): 245–256. doi:10.1093/aob/mcl095. PMC 2803534. PMID 16704998. 


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