The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Girard, Charles. 1854. Myriapods. In: Marcy, Randolph Barnes: Exploration of the Red River of Louisiana, in the year 1852, by Randolph B. Marcy, assisted by George B. McClellan.
  • Hoffman, Richard L. 1999. Checklist of the Millipeds of North and Middle America
  • Holotype:
  • Krabbe, Elke. 1982. Systematik der Spirostreptidae (Diplopoda, Spirostreptomorpha). Abh. Naturwiss. Ver. Hamburg, (NF), 24: 1-476.
  • Neotype:
  • Paratype:
  • Spelda J. (2015). SysMyr: Systematic Myriapod Database (version Apr 2013). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.


EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!