Comprehensive DescriptionRead full entry
BiologyFound in the pelagic zone at the sea with salinity up to 20 ppt. Inhabits large lowland and piedmont rivers and lakes. Prefers cold water with temperatures below 16° C. Forages and overwinters in lower reaches of large rives, deltas, estuaries and sea, sometimes far from coast. Anadromous or semi-anadromous, living in some rivers and landlocked in some lakes. Undertakes migration to spawn in rivers, moving upstream for long distances, up to uppermost reaches in European rivers. Populations in the lake migrate into tributaries. Juveniles prey on mysids, insect larvae and fry, shifting exclusively to piscivory at about 30 cm SL. Actively feeds on all available fishes. Spawning takes place over shallow waters with sand-gravel bottom and 2-3 m depth (Ref. 59043).