Articles on this page are available in 1 other language: Spanish (16) (learn more)

Overview

Brief Summary

Description

"The Clymene dolphin is distinguished from the very similar spinner dolphin by the shortness of its beak and its color pattern. Like spinners, they ""spin,"" leaping high out the water and rotating (not a somersault, but a sideways roll) several times before splashing back into the water. Clymene dolphins feed on deep-water fish and squid, and except for stranded individuals, have only been seen in deep water. Sharks and large toothed whales such as killer whales, pygmy killer whales, and false killer whales probably prey on them. Often the dolphins have small white marks on their skin that are healed shark bites. The species was first mentioned to in scientific literature with the description of a skull in the 19th century. No one was able to describe the Clymene dolphin scientifically until the 1970s, when some of them stranded in Texas and New Jersey."

Links:
Mammal Species of the World
  • Original description: Gray, J. E., 1846.  On the cetaceous animals. Pp. 13-53, in The zoology of the voyage of H.M.S. Erebus and Terror, under the command of Capt. Sir J. C. Ross, R. N., F. R. S., during the years 1839 to 1843 (Sir J. Richardson and J. E. Gray, eds.) [1844-1875]. 1:39.  E. W. Janson, London, 2 vols.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Smithsonian Institution

Source: Smithsonian's North American Mammals

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Biology

Clymene dolphins have been seen singly, amongst groups of spinner dolphins, and in large groups of around 100 animals (5). These schools may sometimes be divided by age and sex (2), and sometimes are seen in the company of a group of common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) (4). Clymene dolphins appear to feed in midwater during the night, on fishes and squids, and many bear bite marks and scars from cookie-cutter sharks (Isistius brasiliensis) (4). These attractive and acrobatic dolphins have been observed riding the bow waves of boats and spinning out of the water like spinner dolphins, although the spins are not as high or as complex as those of performed by the spinner dolphin (4).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

One of the most recently recognised species of dolphin (2) (4), the Clymene dolphin remains among the least known of the Delphinidae (2). In appearance it is very similar to the spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris), which is largely why it was not recognised until 1981 as a distinct species. It is a small but stocky dolphin, with a beak of medium length and a dorsal fin that is triangular to nearly triangular. Males are larger and heavier than females, but both sexes have a white belly, light grey flanks and a dark grey cape, and a dark grey line runs down the top of the beak (2) (4). The one distinctive feature that separates the Clymene dolphin in appearance from the spinner dolphin is the black marking, somewhat like a moustache, on top of the beak (2).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

The clymene dolphin, also known as the "short-snouted spinner dolphin," can be found in tropical and subtropical waters of the Atlantic Ocean (eastern North America to West Africa), the Caribbean, and the Gulf of Mexico. In the United States it has been recorded as far north as New Jersey and along the coast lines of Texas and Louisiana. It has also been recorded as far south as southern Brazil.

Biogeographic Regions: atlantic ocean (Native )

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Range Description

The Clymene Dolphin is found only in the tropical and subtropical Atlantic Ocean, including the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico (Jefferson et al. 1995). This species has a notable warm-water preference, although there are records as far north as New Jersey on the U.S. east coast and as far south as southern Brazil (Zerbini and Kotas 1998). The limits on the West African coast are not well known, but extend from at least the equator north to Mauritania. The Clymene Dolphin is not known to enter the Mediterranean Sea (Perrin and Mead 1994, Jefferson and Curry 2003, Fertl et al. 2003).

The map shows where the species may occur based on oceanography. The species has not been recorded for all the states within the hypothetical range as shown on the map. States for which confirmed records of the species exist are included in the list of native range states. States within the hypothetical range but for which no confirmed records exist are included in the Presence Uncertain list.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Global Range: Tropical and subtropical Atlantic mainly: southeastern U.S. (north to New Jersey), Gulf of Mexico (Mullin et al. 1994), Caribbean Sea, northwestern coast of Africa, and mid-Atlantic (Leatherwood and Reeves 1983).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

New Jersey to Southern Brazil
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Range

The Clymene dolphin occurs in the tropical and warm-temperate waters of the Atlantic Ocean, from West Africa to North America, including the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico (5).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

The clymene dolphin is a small dolphin that averages 1.8m in length. It has a short beak, a white belly, light gray sides, and a dark cape that dips in two points above the eye and below the dorsal fin. The facial markings are very distinct, including black eye rings, dark lips and snout tip, and a dark line on top of the snouts sometimes making a "moustache" near the apex of the melon. The cape sometimes has blotchy patches on the sides, and the dorsal fin is gray but bordered with dark margins.

On average members of this species have 38 to 49 teeth on each side of the upper and lower jaws, which are slender and pointed.

Average mass: 85 kg.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; bilateral symmetry

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Size

Size in North America

Sexual Dimorphism: None

Length:
Range: "1.8-2 m "

Weight:
Range: 45-85 kg
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Smithsonian Institution

Source: Smithsonian's North American Mammals

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

The clymene dolphin is a deep water species that has only been observed at sea in waters with depths of 250m-5000m or deeper. It is not normally seen near the shore.

Aquatic Biomes: coastal

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This is a deep-water, oceanic species, not often seen near shore (unless deep water approaches the coast).

Very few stomachs have been examined, and there are even fewer observations of feeding behaviour reported in the literature. Clymene Dolphins apparently feed predominantly on small fish (including myctophids) and squid at moderate depths (Jefferson and Curry 2003).

Systems
  • Marine
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat Type: Marine

Comments: Has been observed at sea only in deep water (250-5000+ m) (IUCN 1991).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

tropical and subtropical, oceanic
  • UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Depth range based on 68 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 66 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 0
  Temperature range (°C): 20.220 - 26.266
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.348 - 1.709
  Salinity (PPS): 33.002 - 35.958
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.660 - 5.288
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.142 - 0.342
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.982 - 3.398

Graphical representation

Temperature range (°C): 20.220 - 26.266

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.348 - 1.709

Salinity (PPS): 33.002 - 35.958

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.660 - 5.288

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.142 - 0.342

Silicate (umol/l): 0.982 - 3.398
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Clymene dolphins have been generally observed in deep, offshore, tropical and warm-temperate waters, at depths of 44 to 4,500 metres (2) (5).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Trophic Strategy

The clymene dolphin feeds mostly at night when squids and small fish come to the surface of the water.

Animal Foods: fish; mollusks

Primary Diet: carnivore (Piscivore , Molluscivore )

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Comments: Apparently a mid-water or night feeder that preys on small fishes and squid (Leatherwood and Reeves 1983).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

General Ecology

In the Gulf of Mexico, herd size was 2-100 (mean 42) individuals (Mullin et al. 1992).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Perception Channels: tactile ; chemical

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Reproduction

No information is currently available on the reproduction of the species. Some information is available for a close relative, the spinner dolphin, Stenella longiristris. Adult females of this species give birth to a single calf at 2 year intervals. Parturition most often occurs in early summer, but can occur in any season. The period of gestation is 11 months and calves are born about 75cm long.

Key Reproductive Features: gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

There are no records on how many clymene dolphins have been captured or killed, but clymene dolphins are occasionally taken by harpoon in small numbers in the Lesser Antilles (Caribbean) small cetacean fishery. They are captured in gillnets in Venezuelan waters, where they are used for longline shark bait and human consumption. They may also betaken in tuna purse seines in the eastern tropical Atlantic.

Contaminant levels have not been recorded.

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: appendix ii

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: data deficient

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
DD
Data Deficient

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
Hammond, P.S., Bearzi, G., Bjørge, A., Forney, K.A., Karkzmarski, L., Kasuya, T., Perrin, W.F., Scott, M.D., Wang, J.Y. , Wells, R.S. & Wilson, B.

Reviewer/s
Rojas-Bracho, L. & Smith, B.D.

Contributor/s

Justification
The species is widespread, but abundance has not been estimated for the mid- and east Atlantic (and where abundance estimates do exist for other regions, these are low) and there are bycatches and directed takes in West Africa of unknown, but likely escalating, scale.

History
  • 1996
    Data Deficient
  • 1994
    Insufficiently Known
    (Groombridge 1994)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NU - Unrankable

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G4 - Apparently Secure

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Status

Classified as Data Deficient (DD) on the IUCN Red List (1), and listed on Appendix II of CITES (3).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Population

Population
Abundance has only been estimated for the northern Gulf of Mexico and US east coast (6,575 (CV=36%) and 6,086 (CV=93%), respectively — Waring et al. 2008). However, considering the difficulty of distinguishing it from similarly marked species at sea, it may not be as rare as it would seem to be (Perrin and Mead 1994). Based on capture records, S. clymene appears to be the most common cetacean in Ghana's coastal waters (Van Waerebeek et al. 2000).

Population Trend
Unknown
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

Major Threats
Although they are known to be taken by harpoon occasionally in dolphin fisheries in the Caribbean (especially St. Vincent in the Lesser Antilles), and incidental captures in fishing nets do occur throughout much of the range, the Clymene Dolphin is not known to suffer any heavy exploitation at present (Jefferson and Curry 2003). The only possible exception may be off the coast of West Africa, where this species is possibly one of several taken in large numbers in tuna purse seines in the Gulf of Guinea (Van Waerebeek et al. 2000).

Clymene Dolphins are captured incidentally in gillnets in Venezuelan waters and utilized for longline shark bait and for human consumption (Perrin and Mead 1994).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Comments: No known threats, though incidental take in pelagic driftnet fisheries warrants investigation (IUCN 1991).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

While the Clymene dolphin is currently not known to be facing any serious threats, the lack of research on this species means that the problems could simply be undocumented (2). These dolphins are harpooned in the Lesser Antilles and are sometimes caught in fishing gear in other areas (1). Bycatch is likely to occur in many parts of its range, but is thought to be most significant in the eastern tropical Atlantic, off West Africa, where considerable numbers may be taken in tuna purse seines. Clymene dolphins are also captured in this area for food (1) (2).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
The species is listed in Appendix II of CITES.

Further research should be conducted on subpopulation structure, abundance and takes in West African waters, where by-catch has evolved into directed take.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

The Clymene dolphin is listed on Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), meaning that any international trade in this species should be carefully monitored to ensure its compatibility with the species' survival (3). The lack of information regarding this species current status has led to the IUCN being unable to assess its risk of extinction, and thus it is classified as Data Deficient (1). Further research into this enchanting marine mammal is clearly needed, particularly into the impact of bycatch and intentional hunting in West Africa, so that conservation measures can be promptly implemented if required.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

The only possible way that clymene dolphins can have a negative effect on humans is that they eat fish and squid. It is not clear what kind of fish and squid they eat, but if they eat the same types that humans also consume then the fish and squid could become scarce.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

The clymene dolphin, when captured in gillnets, is used for shark bait and for human consumption.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Economic Uses

Comments: Sometimes taken in the small cetacean fisheries in the Caribbean region, probably for human consumption (IUCN 1991).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Risks

IUCN Red List Category

Data Deficient (DD)
  • IUCN (2008) Cetacean update of the 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Clymene dolphin

The Clymene dolphin (Stenella clymene), in older texts known as the short-snouted spinner dolphin, is a dolphin endemic to the Atlantic Ocean. It is the only confirmed case of hybrid speciation in marine mammals, descending from the spinner dolphin and the striped dolphin.[3]

Taxonomy[edit]

The Clymene dolphin was first formally described by John Edward Gray in 1846, although, unusually, he did not assign it its current name until four years later, in 1850.[4] From then on, until a reassessment in 1981, the Clymene dolphin was regarded as a subspecies of the spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris).[5] In 1981, Perrin et al. asserted the Clymene's existence as separate species.[6] Until this time, because Clymenes are relatively remote and were regarded as very similar to the more accessible spinners, they were never heavily studied. Anatomical and behavioral traits suggested that this species is a hybrid of the spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) and the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba), and DNA testing has shown that it is indeed a hybrid species.[7][8]

The common and scientific names are probably derived from the Greek oceanid Clymene, although it has also been argued that it may instead come from the Greek word for "notorious".[4]

Physical description[edit]

The Clymene dolphin looks very similar to the spinner dolphin. At close quarters, it is possible to observe that the beak of the Clymene is slightly shorter than that of its relative. The dorsal fin is also less erect and triangular.[4]

The basic color of the Clymene dolphin is "cetacean neapolitan" - it occurs in three shaded layers — the underside being white. Next, a strip of light grey runs from just above the beak, round either side of the eye back to the tail stock, where the band thickens. The top layer, from the forehead, along the back to the dorsal fin, and down to the top of the tail stock, is a dark grey. The beak, lips, and flippers are also dark grey in color.[6] Clymene dolphins grow to about 2 m (6.6 ft) in length[9] and 75 to 80 kg (165 to 176 lb) in weight.[10]

Behavior and biology[edit]

Clymene dolphins spend most of their lives in waters over 100 m (330 ft) in depth, but occasionally move into shallower, coastal regions.[11] They feed on squid and small schooling fish.,[6][12] hunting either at night, or in mesopelagic waters where there is only limited light. Predators include cookie-cutter sharks, as evidenced by bite marks seen on a number of animals.[13]

Clymenes are fairly active dolphins. They do spin longitudinally when jumping clear of the water, but not with as much regularity and complexity as the spinner dolphin. They will also approach boats and ride bow waves.[14] Group sizes vary from just four up to around 150 individuals,[4] although about forty is typical.[14] Many of these groups appear to be single-sex, and also to be segregated by the approximate age of the individuals.[4][13] Clymene dolphins are also highly vocal, making short whistles in a range of 6–19 kHz.[4]

No figures are available for the size of animals at birth. Gestation, lactation, and maturation periods are all unknown, but are unlikely to vary greatly from others in the Stenella genus.[15] Their longevity is also unknown, although at least one sixteen-year old individual has been reported from a stranding.[13]

Population and distribution[edit]

The Clymene dolphin is endemic to the Atlantic Ocean. Its full range is still poorly understood, particularly at its southern end. The species certainly prefers temperate and tropical waters. The northern end of the range runs roughly from New Jersey east-southeast to southern Morocco. The southern tip runs from somewhere around Angola to Rio de Janeiro. They appear to prefer deep water. Numerous sightings have been recorded in the Gulf of Mexico. The species has not been sighted, however, in the Mediterranean Sea.[2]

Total population is unknown. The only population estimate available is for the north part of the Gulf of Mexico, where a count of 6,500 individuals was reported. The species may naturally be rare in comparison with others in the Stenella genus.[2]

Human interaction[edit]

Some individuals have been killed from directed fisheries in the Caribbean and others may have been caught in nets off West Africa.[2]

Conservation[edit]

The West African population of the Clymene dolphin is listed on Appendix II[16] of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS), since it has an unfavourable conservation status or would benefit significantly from international co-operation organized by tailored agreements.

The Clymene dolphin is covered by the Memorandum of Understanding Concerning the Conservation of the Manatee and Small Cetaceans of Western Africa and Macaronesia.[17]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Mead, J. G.; Brownell, R. L., Jr. (2005). "Order Cetacea". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 723–743. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494. 
  2. ^ a b c d Hammond, P.S., Bearzi, G., Bjørge, A., Forney, K., Karczmarski, L., Kasuya, T., Perrin, W.F., Scott, M.D., Wang, J.Y., Wells, R.S. & Wilson, B. (2008). Stenella clymene. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 7 October 2008.
  3. ^ Amarwal A.R., et al. (2014). "Hybrid Speciation in a Marine Mammal: The Clymene Dolphin (Stenella clymene)". PloS One 9 (1): e83645. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0083645. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f Jefferson, T.A. & Curry, B.E. (2003). "Stenella clymene". Mammalian Species: Number 726: pp. 1–5. doi:10.1644/726. 
  5. ^ http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/1380405?uid=3739832&uid=2&uid=4&uid=3739256&sid=21104326222933
  6. ^ a b c Perrin, W.F., et al. (1981). "Stenella clymene, a rediscovered tropical dolphin of the Atlantic". Journal of Mammalogy 62 (3): 583–598. doi:10.2307/1380405. 
  7. ^ Amaral, A. R.; Lovewell, G.; Coelho, M. M.; Amato, G.; Rosenbaum, H. C. (2014). "Hybrid Speciation in a Marine Mammal: The Clymene Dolphin (Stenella clymene)". In Johnson, Norman. PLoS ONE 9: e83645. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0083645.  edit
  8. ^ http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2014/01/140111-hybrid-dolphin-species-ocean-animal-science/#
  9. ^ Jefferson, T.A. (1996). "Morphology of the Clymene dolphin (Stenella clymene) in the northern Gulf of Mexico". Aquatic Mammals 22 (1): 35–43. 
  10. ^ http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/species/mammals/cetaceans/clymenedolphin.htm
  11. ^ Davis, R.W., et al. (2002). "Cetacean habitat in the northern oceanic Gulf of Mexico". Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers 49 (1): 121–142. doi:10.1016/S0967-0637(01)00035-8. 
  12. ^ Fertl, D., et al. (1997). "Coordinated feeding by Clymene dolphins (Stenella clymene) in the Gulf of Mexico". Aquatic Mammals 23 (2): 111–112. 
  13. ^ a b c Jefferson, T.A., et al. (1995). "Notes on the biology of the Clymene dolphin (Stenella clymene) in the northern Gulf of Mexico". Marine Mammal Science 11 (4): 564–573. doi:10.1111/j.1748-7692.1995.tb00679.x. 
  14. ^ a b Mullin, K.D., et al. (1994). "Sightings of the Clymene dolphin (Stenella clymene) in the Gulf of Mexico". Marine Mammal Science 10 (4): 464–470. doi:10.1111/j.1748-7692.1994.tb00502.x. 
  15. ^ http://marinebio.org/species.asp?id=350
  16. ^ "Appendix II" of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS). As amended by the Conference of the Parties in 1985, 1988, 1991, 1994, 1997, 1999, 2002, 2005 and 2008. Effective: 5th March 2009.
  17. ^ Memorandum of Understanding Concerning the Conservation of the Manatee and Small Cetaceans of Western Africa and Macaronesia, Convention on Migratory Species page on the Clymene dolphin

Bibliography[edit]

  • Carwardine, Mark. Whales Dolphins and Porpoises, Dorling Kindersley Handbooks, ISBN 0-7513-2781-6.
  • Dee, Eileen Mary and Mark McGinley. 2010. Clymene dolphin. Encyclopedia of Earth. topic ed. C. Michael Hogan. ed. Cutler J. Cleveland, NCSE, Washington DC
  • Jefferson, Thomas A. "Clymene Dolphin" in Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals, 234–236. ISBN 0-12-551340-2
  • Perrin and Mead. (1994). "Clymene Dolphin" in Handbook of Marine Mammals. 5: 161–171.
  • Reeves, Stewart, Clapham and Powell. National Audubon Society Guide to Marine Mammals of the World, ISBN 0-375-41141-0.
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!