Overview

Distribution

Range Description

Rhinella alata's distribution is poorly documented; the type locality is in Panama but the population currently allocated to this name is in Venezuela north of the Orinoco River, possibly also in northern Colombia (Frost, 2007).
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Countries

Countries

Panama

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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Identification

Adult

Species description based on Ibanez et al (1999).  A medium-sized toad (males to 43 mm, females to 55 mm).

Dorsal

Dorsal patterning and coloration is extremely variable in this species. The background color ranges from grey or black to light or dark brown, with or without reddish undertones. The dorsum may be uniform in color, or a light middorsal stripe may be present, or large, dark leaf-like patterning may be present. The dorsum is covered in small tubercles, giving the skin a velvety appearance. The paratoid glands are small.

Eye

The iris is green.

Extremities

The hands and feet are unwebbed.

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
No information available on the species' habitat and ecology.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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General Ecology

Ecology

Ecology

Rhinella alata is diurnal and commonly observed hopping in the leaf litter (Ibanez et al 1999). This toad sleeps on leaves on low-lying vegetation at night (Ibanez et al 1999).

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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Behaviour

Call

Three to five quickly repeated low grunt-like notes (Ibanez et al 1999).

Behavior and communication

Males actively pursue females to mate, rather than calling and waiting for the female to come to them (Wells 1979). Unpaired males will attempt to dislodge a male already in amplexus with a female (see photograph in Wells 1979).

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Life Cycle

Life History

Breeding season

Rhinella alata breeds explosively in permanent streams and pools, primarily in the wet season (Wells 1979, Ibanez et al 1999). However, breeding activity is not necessarily correlated with rainfal (Wells 1979). Peak oviposition activity occurs during the afternoon following pairing at night (Wells 1979). Females may breed as often as every six weeks (Wells 1979).

Egg

Eggs are consumed by Leptodactylus savagei tadpoles but not a poecillid fish (Wells 1979).

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Rhinella alata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 31
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
DD
Data Deficient

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Ariadne Angulo

Reviewer/s
Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson and Neil Cox)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Data Deficient in view of the absence of recent information on its extent of occurrence, status and ecological requirements as well as on continuing doubts as to its taxonomic validity.
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Population

Population
No population status information is currently available for this species.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
No major threats are known for this species.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
No conservation measures are known for this species.
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