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Overview

Brief Summary

Diagnosis Small or medium-sized toads, with short, obtuse snout; tympanum concealed; parotoids oval, dorsally located. Glandulous skin and round tibid glands evident
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is endemic to austral forests of Chile (western slopes of the Andes from 39°S to 51°S) and Argentina, from Shangrila (37°S) to 53°S in the Fuegian Archipelago. This species is the southernmost amphibian in the world, together with Batrachyla antartandica. Its elevational range is between 0-2,000m asl (northern Patagonia, Argentina).
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Chile central (Concepcion)
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Endemic to austral forests of Chile (western slopes of the Andes from 39°S to 51°S) and Argentina, from Shangrila (37°S) to 53°S in the Fuegian Archipelago.
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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Adult morphology Snout-vent of about 45 mm or more. Males smaller than females. Head small, flattened, without cephaIic crests; a constriction between head and body. Snout short, rounded and tumefact. Interocular distance equal to upper eyelid and subequal to the eye diameter. Nostrils at equal distance between eye and tip of snout. Tympanum concealed. Tongue subcircular, slightly notched behind, its wideness more than half of the opening of the mouth. Parotoids moderate, oval, dorsally located, on a line towards the center of the neck. Foreleg weak, with slightly developed forearm in males, Hindleg slender; when is adpressed, heel reaches between tympanum and shoulder in males, or the shodder in females. No tarsal fold. Fingers and toes incompletely webbed; rate of the figer lengths: II-I-IV-III. Metacarpal and subarticular tubercles strong; inner metatarsal tubercle developed, outer metatarsal tubercle weak. Skin strongly glandulous, with enlarged longitudinal warts, especially behind the parotoids. Round femoral and tibia1 glands developed. Belly smooth, granular on the posterior abdomen and thighs. Grayish, moderate thumb pads in males, during the breeding season. Color in life: Dark green or chestnut above, with brillant dark glands and three or five longitudinal yellow strip . Hands and feet orange-colored; yellow or orange on the sacral region and thighs; digits white. Belly whitish, marbled with large, bright black spots. Larval morphology Developmental stages 27 through 44 of Gosner (1960). A tadpole in stage 27 has a body length of 7.9 mm, a total length of 18.2 mm and the tail length 10.2 mm. The distance eye-base of tail distance eye-snout ratio is 3.3. A specimen in stage 39 has a body length of 10.2 mm and a total length of 16.0 mm. Body ovoid in lateral view, two times longer than deep. Eyes small (interocular distance 2.3 times the eye diameter), directed anterodorsolaterally. Nostrils evident anterodorsally, pigmented, much closer to eyes than to tip of snout. Spiracle sinistral, short, and lying at about mid-point on body, opening posterolaterally. Anal tube median, short. The caudal musculature i s well developed. Caudal fin rounded at its tip, not extending about the body. Mouth small, anteromedial, labial papillae interrupted anteriorly and posteriorly; tooth rows 2/3. Horny beak black and well developed. Color in life; dark-brown, internal organs not visible. Caudal musculature and fins dark-brown. Color in formalin dark-brown.
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Ecology

Habitat

Magellanic Subpolar Forests Habitat and Amphibian Associates

The Magellanic subpolar forests is an ecoregion dominated by trees of the genus Nothofagus; this geographic zone covers the western part of the southern end of South America as well as the extreme southern parts of Argentina and Chile, known as the region Tierra del Fuego; this ecoregion is the southernmost forest biome on Earth. The Magellanic subpolar forests ecoregion is colder and in parts drier than the Valdivian temperate forests, and in general is floristically poorer. 

Faunal species richness and endemism is low; for example, a total of only 168 vertebrates has been recorded here. The fauna is related to that of the bordering ecoregions, especially to that of the Valdivian temperate forests and the Patagonian steppe. Nevertheless, its varied and majestic landscapes that include high mountain peaks, enormous icefields, and innumerable fjords are inhabited by unique and endemic animal and plant species that are sometimes locally abundant within this ecoregion.

Soils of the ecoregion are varied, mostly depending on climate, but are generally acid due to high precipitation, low drainage, and slow decomposition of organic matter in relation to low temperatures. Towards the south and west podsols and acid brown forest soils develop in places with better drainage, and peat accumulates in less drained areas with bogs and tundra vegetation.

The vegetation shows principally two types of forest: chiefly evergreen Guindo Beech (Nothofagus betuloides) forests to the west and deciduous Lenga (Nothofagus pumilio) and Antarctic Beech (Nothofagus antarctica) forests towards the east that extend into Argentina. In Tierra del Fuego the evergreen forests are found to the south and the deciduous forests towards the interior. The deciduous forest is formed by almost pure stands of Nothofagus pumilio at lower elevations, in different combinations with the more ecologically tolerant Nothofagus antarctica, which prevails in more arid situations or less drained soils. In frost pockets a heath dominated by Empetrum and Bolax is found. In humid or wet places of these forests especially rich raised bog-communities grow dominated by Sphagnum, and grasses in the families Juncaceae and Cyperaceae.

Thirteen amphibians are found in the ecoregion, all of whom are anuran taxa. Some species of amphibians are characteristic of the ecoregion including the Patagonian Toad (Nannophryne variegata); Marbled Wood Frog (Batrachyla antartandica), found from Mehuin to the Virtudes Islands; Island Spiny-chest Frog (Alsodes monticola), known only from Inchy, in coastal southern Chile; Gray Wood Frog (Batrachyla leptopus), found from Neuquén to lower Río Negro in Argentina, and Concepción to the Aysén Region in Chile.; Gray Four-eyed Frog (Pleurodema bufoninum), occurring in the Patagonian steppe and subpolar forests; Emerald Forest Frog (Hylorina sylvatica), ranging in Chile from the western versant of the Cordillera de Nahuelbuta to Laguna San Rafael, and in Argentina, found in several locations at Nahuel Huapi National Park (southern Neuquén Province and northwestern Río Negro Province) and at Los Alerces National Park (northern Chubut Province); Banded Wood Frog (Batrachyla taeniata), found from Neuquen Province to the lower Rio Negro Province; Chiloe Island Ground Frog (Eupsophus calcaratus), found from Valdivia to Wellington Island in Puerto Eden, Chile to Tromen Lake and Puelo Lake in Argentina; Darwin's Frog (Rhinoderma darwinii VU), occurring in Chile from the province of Maule south to the province of Aisen, and in the Argentine provinces of Neuquen and Rio Negro.

Several amphibians are strictly endemic to the Magellanic subpolar forests, such as the Puerto Eden Frog (Atelognathus grandisonae), known only from the type locality at Puerto Eden, Wellington Island; Alsodes kaweshkari, found in only two localities: Puerto Edén at Wellington Island and Seno Huemules, both in southern Chile; and Nibaldo's Wood Frog (Batrachyla nibaldoi).

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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Its habitat is in temperate to cold humid forests, bogs, and magallanic tundra. Occurs in marshes, under logs in the Nothofagus forest region as well as tundra surrounded by low stature Nothofagus forest in the subantartic region. Reproduces in shallow temporary pools and swamps. Tolerates some disturbance.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Carmen Úbeda, Alberto Veloso, Herman Núñez, Néstor Basso, Boris Blotto

Reviewer/s
Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.

History
  • 2004
    Least Concern
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LC. Least Concern.
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Population

Population
It is a locally abundant species. Reported to be abundant in 2002 on Isla Wellington, Chile. In Argentina it is more common in the south of the country.

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
Not threatened over the majority of its range. Habitat destruction and degradation (native forest loss) is a localized threat.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
A number of protected areas (more than 10) are present along the entire latitudinal range of Nannophryne variegata. Species is listed as "Insufficiently Known" (Inadecuadamente Conocida) by Chile (Reglamento de la Ley de Caza, Chile, 1998) for VIII, IX and X Regions. National legislation to preserve the native Nothofagus forest is necessary for Chile.
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Wikipedia

Bufo variegatus


The Eden Harbour toad (Bufo variegatus) is a species of toad in the Bufonidae family. It is found in Argentina and Chile. Its natural habitats are subantarctic forests, temperate forests, subantarctic shrubland, tundra, swamps, and intermittent freshwater marshes.

References[edit]

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