- Small size: the mean estimated body mass is 482kg approximately a third the size of the larger living Hippopotamus amphibius.
- Robust relatively short broad skull: if the crania of the two Malagasy dwarf hippos are compared Hippopotamus lemerlei in contrast has a long narrow skull.
- Superorbital margin thin: Hippopotamus lemerlei in contrast has a thick or swollen superorbital margin.
Distribution and ecology
- ‘dwarf’ species, Hippopotamus madagascariensis, featured here, is known from the island’s central highlands.
- 'dwarf' species, Hippopotamus lemerlei from the island’s coastal lowlands,
- more amphibious
- expresses marked sexual dimorphism.
- A third species, Hippopotamus laloumena, from Mananjary on the East coast of Madagascar,
- known only from a mandible and some foot bones,
- close in size to the smallest Hippopotamus amphibius
- initially described as a subspecies of Hippopotamus amphibius.
Habitat and Ecology
Evolution and Systematics
- upper canine teeth with a very shallow posterior groove
- lower canine teeth with strong and convergent ridges
- the extant Hippopotamus amphibius,
- Hippopotamus gorgops, Hippopotamus kaisensis from Africa,
- the Malagasy Hippopotamus spp.
- the Quaternary European Hippopotamus
- Mediterranean island Hippopotamus spp.
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
- 2002Extinct (EX)