Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Vomerine teeth present. Posterior part of the tongue free and forked. Toes webbed. Omosternum and sternum ossified. Pupil of the eye horizontal. Snout moderately sharp. Male vocal sacs reduced. Shins (knee to ankle) shorter than body by 1.75-2.4 times; when the shins are positioned perpendicularly to the body axis, the heels contact or slightly overlap. When the hind leg is stretched along the body, the tibio-tarsal articulation does not usually reach the eye. Inner metatarsal tubercle small, 2.3-5.6 times shorter than first toe. Dorsal coloration greyish or grey-brown with small dark spots. Temporal spot large. Light middorsal band with distinct edges extends from eye to cloaca. Flank and thigh skin granular; granulae often red. Belly white or white-yellowish with large, irregular, partially fused blood-red spots. The red spots may alternate with dark spots, and the red pattern on the belly starts to form in about the second year of life. Males differ from females by having dark nuptial pads on the first finger.

  • Fei, L. (1999). Atlas of Amphibians of China. Henan Publishing House of Science and Technology, Zhengzhou.
  • Ye, C., Fei, L., and Hu, S. Q. (1993). Rare and Economic Amphibians of China. Sichuan Publishing House of Science and Technology, Chengdu.
  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S. and Rustamov, A. K. (1971). Zemnovodnye i Presmykayushchienya SSSR [Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR]. Izdatelistvo Misl, Moscow.
  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S., Ishchenko, V. G., Rustamov, A. K., and Szczerbak, N. N. (1977). Opredelitel Zemnovodnykh i Presmykayushchikhsya Fauny SSSR [Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR Fauna]. Prosveshchenie, Moscow.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1995). Die Amphibien Russlands und angrenzender Gebiete. Westarp Wissenschaften, Magdeburg.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1999). The Amphibians of the Former Soviet Union. Pensoft, Sofia-Moscow.
  • Terent'ev, P. V. and Chernov, S. A (1965). Key to Amphibians and Reptiles [of the USSR]. Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem.
  • Won, H.-K. (1971). Choson Ryangso Pyachyungryuchji [Amphibian and Reptilian Fauna of Korea]. Korean Academy of Sciences, Pyongyang.
  • Zhao, E. and Adler, K. (1993). Herpetology of China. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Oxford, Ohio.
  • Zhao, E. and Zhao, H. (1994). Chinese Herpetological Literature: Catalogue and Indices. Chengdu University of Science and Technology, Chengdu.
  • Vorobyeva, E. I. and Darevsky, I. S. (eds.) (1988). Amphibians and Reptiles of Mongolian People's Republic: General Problems. Amphibians.. Moscow.
  • Borkin, L.J., Belimov, G.T. and Sedalishchev, V.T. (1981). ''On distribution of frogs of the genus Rana in Yakutia.'' Herpetological Investigations in Siberia and the Far East. Zoological Institute of the USSR, Leningrad.
  • Nikolsky, A. M (1936). Fauna of Russia and Adjacent Countries: Amphibians (English translation of Nikolsky, 1918, Faune de la Russie et des Pays limitrophes. Amphibiens. Académie Russe des Sciences, Petrograd, USSR). Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem.
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is widespread in West and East Siberia (northwards to 58-72°N, southwards to 52-55°N), the Russian Far East, northern and central Mongolia and northeastern China (Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Neimenggu [Inner Mongolia] and possibly in Shaanxi). The boundary between this species and Rana coreana is unclear. For the purpose of this assessment, we have arbitarily assumed the boundary between the two species to be 40ºN on the Korean Peninsula, south of which R. coreana occurs. This means that R. amurensis occurs in the northern part of the Democratic Peoples' Republic of Korea, but not in the Republic of Korea. This is mostly a lowland species occurring up to 600m asl.
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Distribution and Habitat

Rana amurensis lives in West and East Siberia, the Russian Far East, Korea, Northern and Central Mongolia, and Northeastern China. This is one of the most widespread amphibians of the Palearctic. The northern margin of the range runs in Russia: northeastwards from Sverdlovsk Province (the westernmost localities are environs of Turinsk Town: 58º02'N, 63º41'E and Lenino Village in Tavda District) to Tyumen Province (Khanty-Mansi Autonomous County, lower Irtysh River - northwards along the rivers Irtysh and Ob to Batovo Village and Pasnokort Settlement in Oktyabrsk District - Yamal-Nenets Autonomous County, Nadymskii Nature Wildlife Sanctuary: ca. 65º33'N, 72º29'E). Then the margin turns southeastwards to the southern part of the Krasnoyarsk Region (Boguchan District) and Irkutsk Province (area of the Ust-Ilim Town: 58º00'N, 102º36'E). Then the margin runs northeastwards in Yakutia, approximately along the line: upper flow of the Vilyui River - upper flow of the Markha River - Zhigansk Town on the Lena River (ca. 67ºN, 124ºE) - upwards by the Lena River to Siktyakh and Buuru settlements - Khaiyr Lake in the lower Omoloi River area (ca. 71ºN, 133ºE). Then the margin runs southeastwards approximately along the line: Verkhoyansk District, Tylgys Settlement (30 km north of the Arctic Circle) - Verkhnekolymsk District, Usun-Kyuyol Settlement (ca. 67º40'N, 155ºE) - Magadan Province (Srednekansk District, Balygychan and Seimchan Settlements, ca. 63ºN, 152ºE). Then the margin runs southwards to the shore of the Sea of Okhotsk. There is some information on the occurrence of this frog even further north than the known localities. This information needs further verification.

The southern margin of the range runs in Russia approximately along the line: Sverdlovsk Province (Turinsk Town) - northeast of Kurgan Province - south of Tyumen Province - Omsk Province - Novosibirsk Province - Gornyi Altai Republic (right bank of the lower Katun River, foothills of Altai Mountains: ca. 52ºN, 86ºE) - Kemerovo Province - Khakassia Republic - south of the Krasnoyarsk Region - southwest of Irkutsk Province - Republic of Buryatia, then to Mongolia (forest steppe and steppe zones: Kharkhorin Town - Tuul River - Kherleen River), China (Inner Mongolia Autonomous District, as well as Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning and Shaanxi provinces) and Korea. Both the northern and southern margins of the distribution need further exploration. The rarity and sporadic distribution of the species in those areas provide obstacles for such exploration.

Rana amurensis lives in coniferous, mixed, and deciduous forests, within which it penetrates the tundra and forest steppe zones. It occurs most frequently in open, wet places such as wet meadows, swamps, overgrown shores of lakes, riverbanks, and open areas in forests with abundant vegetation and arboreal debris. The connection with water bodies (overgrown river valleys with floodplain ponds and lakes) is especially typical in the southernmost (forest steppe and steppe) and the northernmost areas. In the south of the Primorye Region, this species avoids dense forests and occurs mainly in wet meadows with secondary small-leafed forest or shrub in river valleys. Reproduction occurs in shallow lakes, ponds, large puddles and swamps with stagnant water.

  • Fei, L. (1999). Atlas of Amphibians of China. Henan Publishing House of Science and Technology, Zhengzhou.
  • Ye, C., Fei, L., and Hu, S. Q. (1993). Rare and Economic Amphibians of China. Sichuan Publishing House of Science and Technology, Chengdu.
  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S. and Rustamov, A. K. (1971). Zemnovodnye i Presmykayushchienya SSSR [Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR]. Izdatelistvo Misl, Moscow.
  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S., Ishchenko, V. G., Rustamov, A. K., and Szczerbak, N. N. (1977). Opredelitel Zemnovodnykh i Presmykayushchikhsya Fauny SSSR [Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR Fauna]. Prosveshchenie, Moscow.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1995). Die Amphibien Russlands und angrenzender Gebiete. Westarp Wissenschaften, Magdeburg.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1999). The Amphibians of the Former Soviet Union. Pensoft, Sofia-Moscow.
  • Terent'ev, P. V. and Chernov, S. A (1965). Key to Amphibians and Reptiles [of the USSR]. Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem.
  • Won, H.-K. (1971). Choson Ryangso Pyachyungryuchji [Amphibian and Reptilian Fauna of Korea]. Korean Academy of Sciences, Pyongyang.
  • Zhao, E. and Adler, K. (1993). Herpetology of China. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Oxford, Ohio.
  • Zhao, E. and Zhao, H. (1994). Chinese Herpetological Literature: Catalogue and Indices. Chengdu University of Science and Technology, Chengdu.
  • Vorobyeva, E. I. and Darevsky, I. S. (eds.) (1988). Amphibians and Reptiles of Mongolian People's Republic: General Problems. Amphibians.. Moscow.
  • Borkin, L.J., Belimov, G.T. and Sedalishchev, V.T. (1981). ''On distribution of frogs of the genus Rana in Yakutia.'' Herpetological Investigations in Siberia and the Far East. Zoological Institute of the USSR, Leningrad.
  • Nikolsky, A. M (1936). Fauna of Russia and Adjacent Countries: Amphibians (English translation of Nikolsky, 1918, Faune de la Russie et des Pays limitrophes. Amphibiens. Académie Russe des Sciences, Petrograd, USSR). Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
The species is present in coniferous (fir, spruce, larch etc.), mixed and deciduous forests (through which it penetrates the tundra and forest steppe zones), shrublands and grasslands. It is found most frequently in open, wet places such as wet meadows and forest glades, swamps, overgrown lakeshores, riverbanks, and floodplains. On Sakhalin Island, the species is present in tussock tundra like bogs. Reproduction and larval development takes place in shallow lakes, ponds, ditches, large puddles and marshes with stagnant water. Large numbers of this frog may be found hibernating in the bottom mud of ponds and pools. It may be found in slightly modified habitats.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
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Life History and Behavior

Life Expectancy

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 9 years (wild) Observations: In the wild, these animals may live up to 9 years. In the Yakutsk region, they attain sexual maturity at 4-5 years with the unusual feature of females attaining maturity earlier than males (Smirina 1994).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Rana amurensis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 15
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2004

Assessor/s
Sergius Kuzmin, Irina Maslova, Masafumi Matsui, Zhao Wenge

Reviewer/s
Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson and Neil Cox)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
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Population

Population
It is common and widespread in Siberia, the Far East of Russia, northern Mongolia and China. There have been some local population declines in urban and industrial areas.

Population Trend
Stable
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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

The Siberian Wood Frog is a common or abundant amphibian. Its population density through large areas reaches several hundred or thousands individuals per hectare. At the same time, in the northernmost and the southernmost areas the species forms dense but small populations in suitable habitats, and the overall abundance should be considered low. Hibernation occurs from early September - early November (usually October) to March - early June (usually April- May), depending on latitude. The frog hibernates in holes at the bottom of lakes and rivers, and in wells, usually in groups up to a few thousand individuals. Terrestrial hibernation seems to be more typical for southern regions. Reproduction takes place from March - April (usually May elsewhere), whereas in cold northern areas the breeding season may extend until the first half of July. Breeding choruses are absent; the species belongs to the group of "mute" brown frogs. Amplexus is pectoral (axial). The clutch contains 250-4000 eggs deposited in 1-2 clumps. Metamorphosis occurs from June - August. The maximum age was determined as 5-11 years old in different regions.

The larvae of R. amurensis consume mainly algae growing on underwater substrates (Phaeophyta, Zygnemales and Bacillariophyta), as well as higher plants, detritus and small aquatic invertebrates. Juveniles consume mainly terrestrial insects, but sometimes also aquatic arthropods. Adults consume mainly terrestrial invertebrates and the diet varies by season and habitat. The frog sometimes eats aquatic prey. The latter (Mollusca, Gerridae, Dytiscidae, Haliplidae and larval Odonata) are especially important in the northern part of the frog's range. Small amounts of aquatic organisms have been found in the stomachs of frogs caught at breeding ponds.

  • Fei, L. (1999). Atlas of Amphibians of China. Henan Publishing House of Science and Technology, Zhengzhou.
  • Ye, C., Fei, L., and Hu, S. Q. (1993). Rare and Economic Amphibians of China. Sichuan Publishing House of Science and Technology, Chengdu.
  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S. and Rustamov, A. K. (1971). Zemnovodnye i Presmykayushchienya SSSR [Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR]. Izdatelistvo Misl, Moscow.
  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S., Ishchenko, V. G., Rustamov, A. K., and Szczerbak, N. N. (1977). Opredelitel Zemnovodnykh i Presmykayushchikhsya Fauny SSSR [Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR Fauna]. Prosveshchenie, Moscow.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1995). Die Amphibien Russlands und angrenzender Gebiete. Westarp Wissenschaften, Magdeburg.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1999). The Amphibians of the Former Soviet Union. Pensoft, Sofia-Moscow.
  • Terent'ev, P. V. and Chernov, S. A (1965). Key to Amphibians and Reptiles [of the USSR]. Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem.
  • Won, H.-K. (1971). Choson Ryangso Pyachyungryuchji [Amphibian and Reptilian Fauna of Korea]. Korean Academy of Sciences, Pyongyang.
  • Zhao, E. and Adler, K. (1993). Herpetology of China. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Oxford, Ohio.
  • Zhao, E. and Zhao, H. (1994). Chinese Herpetological Literature: Catalogue and Indices. Chengdu University of Science and Technology, Chengdu.
  • Vorobyeva, E. I. and Darevsky, I. S. (eds.) (1988). Amphibians and Reptiles of Mongolian People's Republic: General Problems. Amphibians.. Moscow.
  • Borkin, L.J., Belimov, G.T. and Sedalishchev, V.T. (1981). ''On distribution of frogs of the genus Rana in Yakutia.'' Herpetological Investigations in Siberia and the Far East. Zoological Institute of the USSR, Leningrad.
  • Nikolsky, A. M (1936). Fauna of Russia and Adjacent Countries: Amphibians (English translation of Nikolsky, 1918, Faune de la Russie et des Pays limitrophes. Amphibiens. Académie Russe des Sciences, Petrograd, USSR). Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem.
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Threats

Major Threats
The species is mostly threatened by general habitat loss (such as the construction of dams on large rivers in Siberia), and the drainage and pollution of breeding pools. There is significant over harvesting of this species for food, especially in Russia where illegal collection has increased since the 1990s.
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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

There are no recorded overall changes in the population number of this species throughout the range. However, local declines related to human activity are known: there are reports on the negative influences of construction of dams on large rivers in Siberia, as well as drainage of breeding pools and mass collecting for education.

  • Fei, L. (1999). Atlas of Amphibians of China. Henan Publishing House of Science and Technology, Zhengzhou.
  • Ye, C., Fei, L., and Hu, S. Q. (1993). Rare and Economic Amphibians of China. Sichuan Publishing House of Science and Technology, Chengdu.
  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S. and Rustamov, A. K. (1971). Zemnovodnye i Presmykayushchienya SSSR [Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR]. Izdatelistvo Misl, Moscow.
  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S., Ishchenko, V. G., Rustamov, A. K., and Szczerbak, N. N. (1977). Opredelitel Zemnovodnykh i Presmykayushchikhsya Fauny SSSR [Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR Fauna]. Prosveshchenie, Moscow.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1995). Die Amphibien Russlands und angrenzender Gebiete. Westarp Wissenschaften, Magdeburg.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1999). The Amphibians of the Former Soviet Union. Pensoft, Sofia-Moscow.
  • Terent'ev, P. V. and Chernov, S. A (1965). Key to Amphibians and Reptiles [of the USSR]. Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem.
  • Won, H.-K. (1971). Choson Ryangso Pyachyungryuchji [Amphibian and Reptilian Fauna of Korea]. Korean Academy of Sciences, Pyongyang.
  • Zhao, E. and Adler, K. (1993). Herpetology of China. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Oxford, Ohio.
  • Zhao, E. and Zhao, H. (1994). Chinese Herpetological Literature: Catalogue and Indices. Chengdu University of Science and Technology, Chengdu.
  • Vorobyeva, E. I. and Darevsky, I. S. (eds.) (1988). Amphibians and Reptiles of Mongolian People's Republic: General Problems. Amphibians.. Moscow.
  • Borkin, L.J., Belimov, G.T. and Sedalishchev, V.T. (1981). ''On distribution of frogs of the genus Rana in Yakutia.'' Herpetological Investigations in Siberia and the Far East. Zoological Institute of the USSR, Leningrad.
  • Nikolsky, A. M (1936). Fauna of Russia and Adjacent Countries: Amphibians (English translation of Nikolsky, 1918, Faune de la Russie et des Pays limitrophes. Amphibiens. Académie Russe des Sciences, Petrograd, USSR). Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are a number of protected areas within the range of this species. It is listed in the Red Data Books of the Middle Urals (Permskaya and Sverdlovskaya provinces, Russia) and the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous County (Russia). Further information on the possible farming of this species is needed.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Risks

Relation to Humans

Rana amurensis often occurs in anthropogenically altered landscapes, especially open areas: hayfields, pastures, overgrown quarries, kitchen gardens etc. Its populations even occur in some settlements and cities.

  • Fei, L. (1999). Atlas of Amphibians of China. Henan Publishing House of Science and Technology, Zhengzhou.
  • Ye, C., Fei, L., and Hu, S. Q. (1993). Rare and Economic Amphibians of China. Sichuan Publishing House of Science and Technology, Chengdu.
  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S. and Rustamov, A. K. (1971). Zemnovodnye i Presmykayushchienya SSSR [Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR]. Izdatelistvo Misl, Moscow.
  • Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S., Ishchenko, V. G., Rustamov, A. K., and Szczerbak, N. N. (1977). Opredelitel Zemnovodnykh i Presmykayushchikhsya Fauny SSSR [Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR Fauna]. Prosveshchenie, Moscow.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1995). Die Amphibien Russlands und angrenzender Gebiete. Westarp Wissenschaften, Magdeburg.
  • Kuzmin, S. L. (1999). The Amphibians of the Former Soviet Union. Pensoft, Sofia-Moscow.
  • Terent'ev, P. V. and Chernov, S. A (1965). Key to Amphibians and Reptiles [of the USSR]. Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem.
  • Won, H.-K. (1971). Choson Ryangso Pyachyungryuchji [Amphibian and Reptilian Fauna of Korea]. Korean Academy of Sciences, Pyongyang.
  • Zhao, E. and Adler, K. (1993). Herpetology of China. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Oxford, Ohio.
  • Zhao, E. and Zhao, H. (1994). Chinese Herpetological Literature: Catalogue and Indices. Chengdu University of Science and Technology, Chengdu.
  • Vorobyeva, E. I. and Darevsky, I. S. (eds.) (1988). Amphibians and Reptiles of Mongolian People's Republic: General Problems. Amphibians.. Moscow.
  • Borkin, L.J., Belimov, G.T. and Sedalishchev, V.T. (1981). ''On distribution of frogs of the genus Rana in Yakutia.'' Herpetological Investigations in Siberia and the Far East. Zoological Institute of the USSR, Leningrad.
  • Nikolsky, A. M (1936). Fauna of Russia and Adjacent Countries: Amphibians (English translation of Nikolsky, 1918, Faune de la Russie et des Pays limitrophes. Amphibiens. Académie Russe des Sciences, Petrograd, USSR). Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem.
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Wikipedia

Rana amurensis

Rana amurensis (Khabarovsk frog, Siberian wood frog, Heilongjiang brown frog or Amur brown frog) is a species of true frog found in northern Asia. It ranges across western Siberia, as well as northeastern China, northeastern Mongolia, and on the northern Korean Peninsula and on Sakhalin.[2] Rana coreana was previously included in this species as a subspecies.[1][3]

According to the IUCN, the chief threat to the species is habitat loss, as it is only mildly tolerant of disturbance. In addition, it has become a frequent subject of hunting in Russia since the 1990s. It is not considered threatened on a global scale though.[1]

Favoring lowlands, it is seldom encountered at elevations of more than 600 m.[1] A habitat generalist, Rana amurensis favors open ground, but is also found in both deciduous and coniferous forests. In the winter, it hibernates on pond bottoms. Adults are light brown with smooth skin and irregular dark brown and yellow stripes, with a body length of 2–2.5 cm (0.79–0.98 in).[4]

Rana amurensis favors beetles, and consumes 1.2–2.5 g (0.0026–0.0055 lb) of food per day. The average lifespan is three years. A 2004 study estimated the Siberian tree frogs consume approximately 450 g (0.99 lb) of invertebrates in the course of their lives, of which beetles make up more than 65%.[citation needed] Their breeding season is very early, starting in late February in Korea. An egg sac contains 30-60 eggs.[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Kuzmin, S., Maslova, I., Matsui, M. & Zhao, Wenge (2004). "Rana amurensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 14 July 2013. 
  2. ^ Frost, Darrel R. (2013). "Rana amurensis Boulenger, 1886". Amphibian Species of the World 5.6, an Online Reference. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 14 July 2013. 
  3. ^ Song, J.-Y.; Matsui, M., Chung, K.-H., Oh, H.-S. and Zhao, W. (2006). "Distinct specific status of the Korean brown frog, Rana amurensis coreana (Amphibia: Ranidae)". Zoological Science 23: 219–224. doi:10.2108/zsj.23.219. PMID 16603814. 
  4. ^ a b "아무르산개구리". Naver Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2007-06-12. 
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