occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations
Regularity: Regularly occurring
Type of Residency: Year-round
Regularity: Regularly occurring
Type of Residency: Year-round
Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) It is extremely widespread; from the Rockies to southern Canada to New Jersey and throughout the Mississippi River basin and Great Lakes (Hobbs, 1989). Pflieger (1996) lists range as much of the eastern United States east of a line from eastern Texas to central Minnesota, except the Florida peninsula and much of the Appalachians, and westward along the Missouri and Platte Rivers to southern North Dakota, eastern Wyoming and Colorado.
Dactyl of chela with broad concavity in basal half of opposable margin; areola obliterated and about 40% of TCL; lacking overreaching median spine on inner ramus of uropod; male 1st pleopods as described above.
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Comments: Can be excavated almost anywhere where water table is near surface; lives as primary burrower in burrows constructed in timbered and formerly timbered areas along streams and ditches (Pflieger, 1996). In Texas, it burrows near permanent streams and is in surface waters during sprign and after rains but usually remains within the immediate vicinity of its burrow.
Habitat and Ecology
Their burrows usually have mud chimneys, but they are not as deep as the burrows of Fallicambarus fodiens (Taylor et al. 2005).
Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.
Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).
Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.
Comments: Opportunistic; herbivore as habitat dictates.
Number of Occurrences
Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.
Estimated Number of Occurrences: > 300
Comments: Hobbs et al. (1976) documented it in the Savannah River Plant Park (on the Savannah River) in southwest South Carolina not in the Savannah River proper but in the immediate area. It is widespread across east central and eastern Texas (Johnson and Johnson, 2008). In Georgia, most populations occur on the Coastal Plain but a few also occur in the Piedmont Province (Skelton, 2010). In the Cumberland Plateau, it occurs throughout (Bouchard, 1974). In Alabama, known from all river systems except the Cahaba, Pascagoula, and Perdido (Mirarchi et al., 2004; in appendix 1-2 published separately; Schuster and Taylor, 2004; Schuster and Taylor, 2008). In Kentucky, it is generally distributed in the western half of the state (Taylor and Schuster, 2004). In Missouri, it is nearly statewide but apparently absent from the southwestern Ozarks (White and Neosho drainages) (Pflieger, 1996). In Kansas, it occurs in the northeast in eastern Kansas and Marais des Cygnes River basins (Ghedotti, 1998). In South Carolina, it is documented from most coastal plains counties (Eversole and Jones, 2004). Francois (1959) cites it in New Jersey from Cape May, Cumberland, Mercer, Morris Cos. and from Bucks, Delaware, and Philadelphia Cos., Pennsylvania. NCSM has records from Salem, Cape May, and Camden Cos., New Jersey. It was recently documented in the vicinity of Plummers Island (bank of Potomac River), Montgomery Co., Maryland (Norden, 2008). In Maryland, it is the most common burrowing species in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont regions and is considered stable (Killian et al., 2010). In Ohio it occurs in a few sterams in the western part of the state, probably by way of the Wabash River system (Thoma and Jezerinac, 2000). It has also been documented in western New York (Gall and Jezerinac, 1998). In Canada it occurs in southwestern Ontario from the Welland River in the east to just west of Long Point; extending west to the Niagara Peninsula as well as the northeastern shoreline of Lake Erie with one anomalous record far north in Rainy River District near Atikokan (Giasu et al., 1996; Hamr, 2006). Hamr (2006) documented 18 Ontario populations.
Comments: In Canada, burrow density ranged from 0.25 to 4.5 per sq. m (Hamr, 2006).
Life History and Behavior
Comments: Nocturnal except for emergence from burrow to breed.
Amplexus in fall; spring brooding.
National NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded National Status Rank: N3 - Vulnerable
Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure
NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure
Reasons: This species is extremely widespread; from the Rockies to southern Canada to New Jersey and throughout the Mississippi River basin. It is stable an secure (millions of individuals and range > 2,500,000 sq. km) throughout its range.
Intrinsic Vulnerability: Not intrinsically vulnerable
Environmental Specificity: Moderate to broad.
Comments: Simon and Morris (2008) found this species to be much more tolerant of high concentrations of sediment contaminants in the Patoka River watershed, Indiana, than aquatic tertiary burrowing species.
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
Global Short Term Trend: Relatively stable (=10% change)
Global Long Term Trend: Increase of 10-25% to decline of 30%
Degree of Threat: Low
Comments: It is unlikely that there are any major threats impacting Cambarus diogenes.
Global Protection: Unknown whether any occurrences are appropriately protected and managed
Comments: In Canada, 39% of populations occur in protected areas (Hamr, 2006).
Part of this species' range occurs within a federally protected area (Long Point National Wildlife Area Canadian Wildlife Service) (Taylor et al. 2005). However, further research should be implemented to establish the life history of this species.
Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems
Comments: Often cited as pest for burrowing into dykes, levees, etc.
Cambarus diogenes (known as the devil crayfish, chimney crayfish, thunder crawfish or meadow crayfish) is a crayfish that grows to be 11.5 centimetres (4.5 in), not including the claws. It tends to live in wetlands and moist woodlands. They are most active in the summer and spring where they can be found near streams and floodplains near their mud chimney, where they live.
- "Cambarus diogenes". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved October 7, 2010.
- Arthur V. Evans. Field Guide To Insects And Spiders Of North America. Sterling Publishing Company. ISBN 978-1-4027-4153-1.
- J. Cordeiro, T. Jones & R. F. Thoma (2010). "Cambarus diogenes". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved April 4, 2014.
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Names and Taxonomy
Comments: This is a species complex currently under investigation.
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