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Overview

Brief Summary

Abstract for the species

The Long-beaked common dolphin (scientific name: Delphinus capensis) is one of two species of common dolphin. Known for its long beak, this dolphin has the most teeth out of any dolphin in the world. Both species of common dolphin are extremely colorful, however, the long-beaked common is typically less brightly colored. In addition to slightly different coloring, beak size, and other physical characteristics; the long-beaked common dolphin differs from the short-beaked in that it prefers more shallow, warmer waters. Also, the long-beaked common dolphin is less abundant than the short-beaked common dolphin.

A marine mammal, the Long-beaked common dolphin is a member of the family Delphinidae, part of the order of cetaceans. Thie species name, capensis, was derived from the location of the original specimen for this dolphin, being found on the Cape of Good Hope in the early 1800s.

Long-beaked common dolphins have a rounded melon, moderately long beak, and a sleek but robust body with a high, pointed, falcate dorsal fin located in the mid portion of the back. This species can be identified by its distinct bright contrasting coloration patterns. There is a dull yellow/tan thoracic panel between the dark cape and white ventral patch forward of the dorsal fin. The bold coloration forms a crisscrossing hourglass pattern below the dark saddle, and a lighter gray area extends up to the tail stock.

Long-beaked common dolphins usually occur in sizable social groups ranging from 100 to 500 individuals, but have been occasionally seen in larger herds of thousands of individuals. These large schools are believed to consist of smaller sub-groups of 10 to 30 animals that are possibly related or separated by age and/or sex.

  • Encyclopedia of Life; Mark McGinley; Eileen Mary Dee. 2011. Long-beaked common dolphin. Topic ed. C.Michael Hogan. Ed-in-chief C.J.Cleveland. National Council for Science and the Environment. Washington DC www.eoearth.org/article/Long-beaked_common_dolphin
  • Natoli, A., Cañadas, A., Peddemors, V.M., Aguilar, A., Vaquero, C., Fernández- Piqueras, P. and Hoelzel, A.R. (2006) Phylogeography and alpha taxonomy of the common dolphin (Delphinus sp.). Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 19: 953 - 954.
  • Heyning, John E., and William F. Perrin. 1994. Evidence for Two Species of Common Dolphins (Genus Delphinus) from the Eastern North Pacific. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County Contributions in Science, no. 442. 1-35
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Biology

Besides what is known about common dolphins in general, little is yet known about the specific behaviour of the long-beaked dolphin (2). Common dolphins are amongst the most gregarious mammals and are sometimes seen in groups of more than 1,000 individuals (4) (6). These large schools may comprise smaller social units of 10 to 30 closely related dolphins (5). At the surface, common dolphins are extremely energetic, moving in and out of the water in a series of high speed jumps, known as porpoising, or leaping vertically to create a dramatic splash on landing (5) (6). Speeds in excess of 40 kilometres per hour can be reached and these dolphins will often ride the bow waves of ships (4) (5). Common dolphins typically dive for two to three minutes in the pursuit of food and can reach depths of up to 280 metres (4). A large geographic range accounts for a diverse mix of prey, that includes various species of small schooling fish and squid (4) (5) (6). Breeding usually takes place between spring and summer, with a sexually mature female giving birth every two or three years. The calf is born following a gestation period of nine to eleven months and is weaned after around six months. The age at which sexual maturity is reached appears to vary with region such that males may take two to seven years and females may take between three and twelve years. The maximum life expectancy is estimated to be around 22 years (4) (5).
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Description

Since the mid-1990s, the common dolphin has been split into two species, the long-beaked common dolphin and the short-beaked common dolphin (2) (4). As implied by their respective names, beak length is important for distinguishing between the two species, but is not the only defining feature (2). Based on specimens from California, both species have a bold, light and dark hour-glass pattern on the side of the body, forming a V below the dorsal fin, but the colouration of the long-beaked species is noticeably muted. A slightly curved dorsal fin is equally characteristic of both species but the body of the long-beaked common dolphin is more slender and the head is less rounded (2) (5). The long-beaked dolphin has more teeth than any other dolphin with 47 to 67 pairs lining each jaw (6). Although an exceptionally long-beaked form occurring in parts of the Indo-Pacific is sometimes considered to be a separate species, the most recent evidence indicates that it is a subspecies of the long-beaked common dolphin, Delphinus capensis tropicalis (1) (4) (7). There is growing evidence that several scattered populations, currently labelled as long-beaked common dolphins, may have actually evolved independently of each other in response to similar ecological conditions. The implications of this convergent theory are that these populations potentially represent different subspecies of the short-beaked common dolphin, or even unique species. Supporters of this alternative taxonomic view point to the fact that, in parts of the long-beaked common dolphin's described range, it is very difficult to separate the two species of common dolphin on either morphological or genetic grounds (8). Needless to say, more research is needed before the true taxonomic status of this species will be revealed (9).
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Description

Several thousand long-beaked saddleback dolphins sometimes swim together, although the average size of a school is closer to 200 individuals. This species lives close to shore in tropical and temperate waters. In the eastern Pacific, they have been recorded from California south to Peru, and in the western Atlantic, from Venezuela to Argentina. The dolphins feed mainly at night, deep underwater, on fish and squid. Calves are usually born in the spring or summer, after a gestation period that is probably about 10 or 11 months. Much remains to be learned about this species.

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Distribution

occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Global Range: In the eastern Pacific, recorded from Point Conception, California, south to Peru, including the Gulf of California; in the western Pacific, known from the coasts of Korea, southern Japan, and Taiwan; records from the Atlantic are from coastal Venezuela south to the La Plata region of Argentina; also occurs along the west coast of Africa and in waters off South Africa, Madagascar, and the Arabian Peninsula; nominal species D. TROPICALIS, occurring around the edges of the Arabian Sea and some areas off southeastern Asia, may be this species (Heyning and Perrin 1994).

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circum-global
  • UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms
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Range Description

Long-beaked common dolphins generally occur within about 180 km of the coast. The overall distribution of this species remains imperfectly known, because until 1994, all common dolphins around the world were classified as a single species: D. delphis (Heyning and Perrin 1994).

There are two subspecies recognized:

D. c. capensis – This subspecies appears to be found in distinct areas and apparently-disjunct subpopulations are known from the east coast of South America, West Africa, southern Japan, Korea and northern Taiwan (and possibly China), central California to southern Mexico, Peru, and South Africa.

D. c. tropicalis – This subspecies ranges in the Indo-Pacific from at least the Red Sea/Somalia to western Taiwan/southern China and Indonesia, and including the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Thailand (Jefferson and Van Waerebeek 2002).
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Range

As the long-beaked common dolphin was only given distinct species status in 1994, its exact distribution in the three major oceans is yet to be fully identified (1) (5). The nominate subspecies, D. c. capensis is known from disjunctive populations on the east and west coast of South America, southern Mexico, central California, West Africa, South Africa, southern Japan, Korea, northern Taiwan and possibly China (1). The less widespread subspecies, D. c. tropicalis, is known only from the northern Indian Ocean and Southeast Asia (5).
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Physical Description

Size

Size in North America

Sexual Dimorphism: Males are 5% larger than females.

Length:
Range: 2-2.5 m males; 1.9-2.2 m females

Weight:
Range: 135 kg
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat Type: Marine

Comments: Nearshore tropical and temperate waters (Heyning and Perrin 1994).

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tropical to warm temperate waters
  • UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms
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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Long-beaked common dolphins inhabit tropical and warm-temperate waters of all three major oceans. D. capensis seems to prefer shallower and warmer water and occurs generally closer to the coast than does D. delphis (Perrin 2002). It is found mostly over continental shelf water depths (< 180 m), and generally does not occur around oceanic islands far from mainland coasts (Jefferson and Van Waerebeek 2002). It sometimes associate with other species of cetaceans.

Systems
  • Marine
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Depth range based on 136 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 65 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 0
  Temperature range (°C): 15.098 - 24.488
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.026 - 4.527
  Salinity (PPS): 33.370 - 35.311
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.776 - 5.880
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.349 - 1.086
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.121 - 12.244

Graphical representation

Temperature range (°C): 15.098 - 24.488

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.026 - 4.527

Salinity (PPS): 33.370 - 35.311

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.776 - 5.880

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.349 - 1.086

Silicate (umol/l): 2.121 - 12.244
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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The long beaked common dolphin is generally found within 180 km of the coast in warm temperate and tropical waters. It rarely occurs near islands that are far from mainland coasts (1) (5).
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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Trophic Strategy

Comments: Feeds opportunistically on schooling fishes (e.g., smelt, herring, mackerel, mullet, lantern fish) and squid.

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General Ecology

Travels in groups.

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Comments: Active day and night.

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Reproduction

Presumably similar to D. DELPHIS.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Delphinus capensis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 2 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

AACCGATGACTATTCTCTACCAATCACAAAGACATTGGTACCCTATATTTACTATTTGGCGCTTGGGCAGGAATAGTAGGTACCGGTCTG---AGTTTGTTGATTCGTGCTGAATTAGGTCAACCTGGCACACTTATCGGAGAC---GACCAGCTTTATAATGTTCTAGTGACAGCTCATGCCTTCGTAATAATTTTCTTTATAGTTATACCTATCATAATTGGAGGTTTTGGGAACTGATTAGTCCCCTTAATA---ATTGGAGCTCCTGACATAGCATTCCCTCGTCTAAACAACATAAGCTTCTGACTACTCCCCCCTTCCTTTCTACTACTAATAGCATCTTCAATAATTGAGGCCGGCGCAGGTACAGGCTGAACTGTTTACCCTCCTCTAGCCGGAAATCTAGCACATGCAGGAGCCTCAGTAGACCTT---ACTATTTTCTCTCTACATTTAGCCGGTGTATCTTCAATCCTTGGAGCTATTAACTTCATCACAACTATCATTAATATAAAACCACCCGCTATAACTCAATACCAAACACCTCTCTTCGTCTGATCAGTCTTAGTCACAGCAGTCTTACTTTTACTATCATTACCTGTTCTAGCAGCC---GGAATTACCATACTATTAACCGATCGAAACCTAAACACAACCTTTTTCGACCCGGCAGGAGGAGGTGACCCAATCTTATATCAACACTTATTCTGATTTTTTGGCCATCCTGAAGTATATATTTTAATTCTACCCGGCTTTGGAATAATTTCACACATCGTTACTTATTATTCAGGGAAAAAA---GAACCTTTTGGGTATATGGGAATAGTATGAGCTATAGTTTCTATTGGTTTCCTAGGTTTCATTGTATGAGCTCATCATATGTTCACAGTTGGAATAGACGTAGACACACGAGCATATTTTACATCAGCTACTATAATTATCGCAATTCCTACAGGAGTAAAAGTTTTCAGTTGACTA---GCAACACTTCACGGAGGA---AATATTAAATGATCTCCTGCCCTAATATGAGCTCTAGGCTTTATCTTCTTATTCACAGTAGGAGGCCTAACCGGTATCATCCTAGCTAACTCATCCCTAGATATCATCCTTCATGACACCTATTATGTAGTTGCTCATTTTCACTACGTA---CTTTCAATAGGAGCTGTATTTGCCATCATAGGAGGCTTCGTTCACTGATTCCCACTATTTTCAGGGTATACACTCAACCCAACATGAACAAAAATTCAATTCGTAATTATATTCGTAGGTGTAAATATGACATTCTTCCCACAACACTTCCTAGGCCTATCTGGAATGCCTCGC---CGATATTCTGACTATCCAGATGCTTACACA---ACATGAAACACCATTTCATCAATAGGCTCATTTATCTCACTAACAGCAGTTATACTAATAATCTTCATTATCTGAGAAGCATTCGCATCTAAACGAGAGGTA---TTAGCGGTAGATCTCACTTCCACAAAC
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Delphinus capensis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NU - Unrankable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G4 - Apparently Secure

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
DD
Data Deficient

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Hammond, P.S., Bearzi, G., Bjørge, A., Forney, K., Karczmarski, L., Kasuya, T., Perrin, W.F., Scott, M.D., Wang, J.Y., Wells, R.S. & Wilson, B.

Reviewer/s
Rojas-Bracho, L. & Smith, B.D. (Cetacean Red List Authority)

Contributor/s

Justification
Although the species is widespread and its aggregate abundance probably numbers in the high tens or low hundreds of thousands, in several areas (most notably West Africa, the east and west coasts of South America and East Asia) there are known incidental and directed takes of unknown, but possibly large, magnitude, making it difficult to make a reliable assessment of the impact on the species. Therefore, the Long-beaked Common Dolphin is listed as Data Deficient
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Status

Classified as Data Deficient (DD) on the IUCN Red List (1) and listed on Appendix II of CITES (3).
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Population

Population
There are no estimates of global abundance for D. capensis and few local abundance estimates. Off California, USA, at the northern part of this species' range, abundance estimates have ranged from about 11,000 to 49,000, averaging about 22,000 (CV = 50%) dolphins between 1999 and 2005 (Barlow and Forney, in press). Dolphins found off California are part of a larger population extending southward through Mexico, where Gerrodette and Palacios (1996) estimated 55,000 within Pacific coast waters of the Mexican EEZ and 69,000 in the Gulf of California. One relatively well-studied variant of the long-beaked form is the Baja neritic race, which is found in the Gulf of California (Sea of Cortez), Mexico, and the coastal warm-temperate eastern North Pacific, north of 20°N. About 15,000-20,000 are estimated to occur off South Africa (Cockcroft and Peddemors 1990). The tropicalis subspecies is widespread in the Indian and western Pacific oceans, but there are no estimates of abundance for any portion of its range.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
Long-beaked common dolphin are known to be taken in bottom-set gillnets and purse seine fisheries off southern California, but potential impacts are uncertain. Some bycatch has also been documented in drift gillnets off California (Carretta et al. 2005). They are only occasionally involved as bycatch in the eastern tropical Pacific tuna fishery. They are present off Japan, and some have been taken in drive fisheries there. There are anecdotal reports of potentially large numbers of dolphins, including long-beaked common dolphins, killed for bait in some coastal fisheries off Baja California, Mexico (K. Forney pers. comm.). Long-beaked common dolphins have been taken opportunistically by harpoon in northeastern Taiwan and are caught incidentally by oceanic driftnets off eastern Taiwan (J. Wang pers. comm.). There is a large direct kill around Margarita Island, off eastern Venezuela, in which dolphins are harpooned in large numbers (Romero et al. 2001). In the Indian Ocean and Chinese waters, they are taken in gillnets, trawls, and purse seines. There is growing concern about the large numbers of long-beaked common dolphins killed off Peru and used for human food or shark bait (K. Van Waerebeek pers. comm.). Incidental catches of Delphinus sp. in pelagic driftnets in southern and south-eastern Brazil have been recorded (Zerbini and Kotas 1998), but no current estimates of bycatch are available. Given that this fishery occurs in the presumed range of the species, some of these individuals may belong to this species.
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Despite having a smaller distribution than the short-beaked dolphin and probably a far smaller overall population, the long-beaked dolphin is thought to still have a relatively widespread population in the high tens of thousands or even low hundreds of thousands (1) (7). However, in some regions, such as West Africa, East Asia and the east and west coasts of South America, undetermined numbers of long-beaked dolphin are being directly exploited, or taken as incidental bycatch in other fisheries (1). In Peru and West Africa in particular, there is increasing concern about the number of long-beaked dolphin being caught and used for human food and shark-bait (1) (6) (7). Given the lack of data quantifying these impacts, the long-beaked dolphin is currently listed as Data Deficient on the IUCN Red List (1).
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
The species is listed in Appendix II of CITES. Vessel quotas for incidental take for Delphinus sp. are issued under an international agreement managed by the IATTC for the eastern tropical Pacific.
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Conservation

The long-beaked common dolphin benefits from The Pacific Offshore Cetacean Reduction Plan which was implemented in 1997 to reduce the number of cetaceans killed or injured incidentally in driftnets. Amongst other obligations, the plan requires that vessels use 'pingers' which send out an acoustic pulse to deter marine mammals such as the long-beaked common dolphin (6). In West Africa, WWF are working to develop an action plan for the conservation of small cetaceans in the region. This plan is to be built around formulating and implementing protective policies and laws, and improving scientific knowledge and public awareness (10).
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Risks

IUCN Red List Category

Data Deficient (DD)
  • IUCN (2008) Cetacean update of the 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
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Wikipedia

Long-beaked common dolphin

The long-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus capensis) is a species of common dolphin. It has a more restricted range than the short-beaked common dolphin (D. delphis). It has a disjointed range in coastal areas in tropical and warmer temperate oceans. The range includes parts of western and southern Africa, much of western South America, central California to central Mexico, coastal Peru, areas around Japan, Korea and Taiwan, and possibly near Oman.[1][3] Vagrants have been recorded as far north as Vancouver Island. They live in shallow, warmer temperature waters near the coast. They also live in the tropical and subtropical regions.[4]

Physical characteristics[edit]

The long-beaked common dolphin is medium-sized, but smaller than the more popular bottlenose dolphin. Adults range between 1.9 and 2.5 m (6.2 and 8.2 ft), long, and can weigh between 80 and 235 kg (176 and 518 lb), although a range between 80 and 150 kg (180 and 330 lb) is more common.[5] Males are generally longer and heavier.[5] The color pattern on the body is unusual. The back is dark and the belly is white, while on each side is an hourglass pattern colored light grey, yellow or gold in front and dirty grey in back.[6] This species also has a rounded melon on tops of their heads used for echolocation.[4] It has a long, thin rostrum with up to 60 small, sharp, interlocking teeth on each side of each jaw.[7] They have more teeth than any other delphinids.[8]

Taxonomy[edit]

The long-beaked common dolphin is a member of common dolphin genus, Delphinus within the dolphin family, Delphinidae in the cetaceans order.[4] Until the mid-1990s, the different forms within Delphinus were not recognized as separate species, but were all considered members of the species D. delphis.[3][5] In 1994, Heyning and Perrin[9] did research on these species and then Kingston and Rosel[10] confirmed there were two separate species. Currently, the two recognized species of Delphinus  are the short-beaked common dolphin (D. delphis) and the long-beaked common dolphin.[1] The long-beaked common dolphin is generally larger with a longer beak than the short-beaked common dolphin and has a longer rostrum.

The Indo-Pacific common dolphin is sometimes considered a separate species (D. tropicalis), but is more often considered a form of the long-beaked common dolphin.[1][3]

Behavior[edit]

Long-beaked common dolphins can live in aggregations of hundreds or even thousands.[3] Within these large groups, smaller subgroups of 10 to 30, related in either sex or age, typically are found.[4] They sometimes associate with other dolphin species, such as pilot whales.[3] They have also been observed bow riding on baleen whales, and they also bow ride on boats.[3] Breaching behavior and aerial acrobatics are common with this species.[5]

Diet[edit]

The long-beaked common dolphin has a varied diet consisting of small schooling fish, such as sardines, anchovies, or pilchards, and krill and cephalopods. This species may work in groups to herd their prey together.[11] They are able to dive in the water to about 900 ft (280 m) and hold their breath for up to 8 min to catch prey.[4]

Reproduction[edit]

The long-beaked common dolphin has a gestation period of 10 to 11 months typically during spring or autumn.[4][5] The newborn calf has a length of between 80 and 100 cm (2.6 and 3.3 ft) and a weight of about 10 kilograms (22 lb).[5] The young and juvenile dolphins coloration and patterns are darker than the adults.[11] Typical interbirth interval ranges from one to three years.[5] In captivity, this dolphin has hybridized with the common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).[3][12] One of the hybrids has been bred back to a bottlenose dolphin, demonstrating such hybrids are fertile.[12] The long-beaked common dolphin can live up to 40 years.[4]

Conservation[edit]

Delphinus capensis is covered by the Memorandum of Understanding Concerning the Conservation of the Manatee and Small Cetaceans of Western Africa and Macaronesia[13] and the Memorandum of Understanding for the Conservation of Cetaceans and Their Habitats in the Pacific Islands Region (Pacific Cetaceans MoU).[14] One of the main threats to the Long-Beaked Common Dolphin is fisheries. Out of 930 dolphins observed off of Peru between 1985 and 2000, 120 of them had many lacerations on their head, skin, appendages, and teeth. Most of these injuries were from fisheries-related connection.[15] Another threat to this species is pollution because many of them have shown signs of organochlorine residue on their blubber.[16] On the coast of California there are only about 25,000 to 43,000 dolphins and on the coast of South Africa there are 15,000 to 20,000.[17]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Mead, J. G.; Brownell, R. L., Jr. (2005). "Order Cetacea". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 723–743. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494. 
  2. ^ Hammond, P.S., Bearzi, G., Bjørge, A., Forney, K., Karczmarski, L., Kasuya, T., Perrin, W.F., Scott, M.D., Wang, J.Y., Wells, R.S. & Wilson, B. (2008). Delphinus capensis. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 7 October 2008.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Perrin, W. (2002). "Common Dolphins". In Perrin, W.; Wursig, B. and Thewissen, J. Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals. Academic Press. pp. 245–248. ISBN 0-12-551340-2. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Mark McGinley, Eileen Mary Dee (December 2011). "Long-beaked common dolphin". Encyclopedia of earth. Retrieved April 2013. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Shirihai, H. & Jarrett, B. (2006). Whales, Dolphins and Other Marine Mammals of the World. pp. 174–176. ISBN 0-691-12757-3. 
  6. ^ Reeves, Stewart, Clapham, Powell. Guide to Marine Mammals of the World. p. 388. ISBN 0-375-41141-0. 
  7. ^ "The Common Dolphin". Retrieved 2008-07-03. 
  8. ^ Jefferson TA, Webber MA , Pitman RL (2008) Marine mammals of the world. Elsevier, Amsterdam. ISBN 0123838533.
  9. ^ Heyning JE, Perrin W F (1994) Evidence for two species of common dolphins (genus Delphinus) from the eastern North Pacific. Los Angeles County Mus. Nat. Hist. Contr. Sci. 442: 1–35.
  10. ^ Kingston SE, Rosel PE (2004). "Genetic differentiation among recently diverged delphinid taxa determined using AFLP markers". The Journal of heredity 95 (1): 1–10. doi:10.1093/jhered/esh010. PMID 14757724. 
  11. ^ a b "Long-Beaked Common Dolphin (Delphinus capensis)". NOAA Fisheries, Office of Protected Resources. 2012. Retrieved April 2013. 
  12. ^ a b Zornetzer H.R.; Duffield D.A. (October 1, 2003). "Captive-born bottlenose dolphin × common dolphin (Tursiops truncatus × Delphinus capensis) intergeneric hybrids". Canadian Journal of Zoology (NRC Research Press) 81 (10): 1755–1762. doi:10.1139/z03-150. 
  13. ^ Memorandum of Understanding Concerning the Conservation of the Manatee and Small Cetaceans of Western Africa and Macaronesia. Convention on Migratory Species. Cms.int (2008-10-03). Retrieved on 2014-01-04.
  14. ^ Memorandum of Understanding for the Conservation of Cetaceans and Their Habitats in the Pacific Islands Region. Pacificcetaceans.org. Retrieved on 2014-01-04.
  15. ^ Van Bressem M-F, Van Waerebeek K, Montes D, Kennedy S, Reyes JC, Garcia-Godos IA, Onton-Silva K, Alfaro-Shigueto Joanna (2006). "Diseases, lesions and malformations in the long-beaked common dolphin Delphinus capensis from the Southeast Pacific". Diseases of aquatic organisms 68 (2): 149–65. doi:10.3354/dao068149. PMID 16532606. 
  16. ^ Kajiwara N, Matsuoka S, Iwata H, Tanabe S, Rosas FCW, Fillmann G, Readman JW (2004). "Contamination by persistent organochlorines in cetaceans incidentally caught along Brazilian coastal waters". Archives of environmental contamination and toxicology 46 (1): 124–34. doi:10.1007/s00244-003-2239-y. PMID 15025172. 
  17. ^ Shirihai, H. and B. Jarrett (2006). Whales, Dolphins and Other Marine Mammals of the World. Princeton, Princeton University Press. pp. 174–176. ISBN 0691127573.
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Mead and Brownell (in Wilson and Reeder 1993) included D. bairdii, D. capensis, and D. tropicalis in D. delphis. Heyning and Perrin (1994) examined variation in Delphinus in the eastern North Pacific and found two distinct forms, a short-beaked form that they recognized as D. capensis (D. bairdii is a junior synonym), and a long-beaked form regarded as D. delphis. They noted that the status of D. tropicalis needs to be examined to determine if it is an extremely long-beaked form along a cline of D. capensis or a third species of Delphinus. Mead and Brownell (in Wilson and Reeder 2005) recognized D. capensis and D. delphis (but not D. tropicalis) as distinct species.

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