The right whale got its name because during the height of whaling efforts, this was the 'right' whale to catch, as it is large, slow-moving and floats when dead. Following serious over-exploitation from the 1600s until the 1930s, the southern right whale population became dangerously low. International protection in 1935 allowed a slow increase in population, but illegal whaling continued into the 1960s. However, whilst this huge and unsustainable threat has largely been eliminated, pressures on the southern right whale still exist. Disturbance from vessels, divers, coastal industrial activity, entanglement in fishing gear and water pollution are all concerns.
This whale is easy to identify as it has a uniformly dark colour with white callosities (outgrowths of hard skin) on and around the head which can even be used to distinguish individuals. The body is rotund and the head is very large, making up one third of the total length. Unusually for baleen whales, the Southern right whale does not have a dorsal fin or a grooved throat. The flippers are short and wide, and the blow hole is V-shaped.
Southern right whales belong in separate breeding groups which travel to their own areas to reproduce. Up to eight males may mate with one female between July and August, but unusually for mammals, aggression between males is minimal. Females calve once every three years between June and August, with a gestation period of 11 to 12 months. Calving females go for four months during the winter months without eating, and give birth to a single, large calf weighing up to 1500 kilograms. Females will nurture and feed their calves in the shallows where they are well protected from attacks by orcas and great white sharks. Calves are weaned after a year, and will reach sexual maturity at nine to ten years. These enormous animals eat some of the smallest creatures in the ocean, filtering water through long and numerous baleen plates to feed on the small plankton including larval crustaceans and copepods. Southern right whales produce short, low-frequency moans, groans, belches and pulses. Typical feeding dives last between 10 and 20 metres and southern right whales are also frequently seen at or above the surface of the water, slapping the water with its tail and flippers, rolling, and breaching (launching out of the water and landing on the side or back). The function of these behaviours is not known.
- Encyclopedia of Earth. Lead Author: Encyclopedia of Life. 2011. Topic ed. C.Michael Hogan. ed.-in-chief Cutler J.Cleveland. National Council for Science and the Environment. Washington DC http://www.eoearth.org/article/Southern_Right_Whale?topic=49540
- Reilly, S.B., Bannister, J.L., Best, P.B., Brown, M., Brownell Jr., R.L., Butterworth, D.S., Clapham, P.J., Cooke, J., Donovan, G.P., Urbán, J. & Zerbini, A.N. 2008. Eubalaena australis. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4.
- Best, P. B. 1994. Seasonality of reproduction and the length of gestation in southern right whale Eubalaena australis. Journal of Zoology (London) 232: 175-189.
The Southern Right whale according to MammalMAP
Southern Right whales are relatively easy to identify – they are uniformly dark with white callosities on and around the head. They do not have a dorsal fin or ventral throat grooves like other baleen whales. But perhaps one of their most distinguished features is their blow hole. Southern Right whales have a well partitioned blowhole that displays a V-shaped exhaust of water vapour – this helps to identify the whale at a distance.
Southern Right whales are filter feeders. Their main food source is small plankton called copepods. These copepods aggregate in Antarctic waters and the whales will spend the first half of the year in these feeding grounds building up their energy reserves before migrating to the coast to mate or give birth to calves.
Southern Right whales are polygamous – having up to seven males to one female. However, there is no animosity between the males mating with the same female. Somewhat unusual for mammals. Southern Right whales only have one calf at a time. These calves weigh between 1000 -1500 kgs and are 5 – 6 meters in length. Born in sheltered bays between June and November, these calves will take 10 years to fully mature.
The IUCN lists Southern Right whales as a species of Least Concern. The population was estimated to be contain approximately 3 200 mature females in 2007 and there has been increased rate of sightings of Southern Right whales.
Found only in the southern hemisphere, southern right whales have a circumpolar distribution between 30 and 50 degrees south, inhabiting sub-Antartic waters (Ridgeway 1985).
Biogeographic Regions: atlantic ocean (Native ); pacific ocean (Native )
The map shows where the species may occur based on oceanography. The species has not been recorded for all the states within the hypothetical range as shown on the map. States for which confirmed records of the species exist are included in the list of native range states.
Southern right whales are characterized by their uniformly dark color and white callosities found on and around the head. Callosities, which are outgrowths of tough skin, are often used in identifying individual whales, as they are unique to each animal, similar to fingerprints in humans. The largest of these excrescences (callosities) is located on the anterior-most portion of the head and is referred to as the "bonnet." Other excrescences are on the upper edge of the lower jaw, behind the blowhole, and above the eye.
Eubalaena australis is on average between 16 and 18 meters long at maturity, males being slightly shorter than females. It has a rotund appearance, a very large girth relative to the length, with an enormous head (approximately 1/3 the body length). Southern right whales do not have any dorsal fins, nor do they have the grooved throat that is typical of the balaenopterids. The flippers are also broad and relatively short.
Another distinguishing physical feature of southern right whales is the blowhole. The exterior of the blow hole is well-partitioned, resulting in a V-shaped exhaust of condensation and water vapor. Furthermore, uncharacteristic of balaenopterids, southern right whales have a well-developed dermis without fat, whereas most balaenopterids lack a dermis (Cummings 1985).
Range mass: 36000 to 73000 kg.
Average mass: 49000 kg.
Range length: 16 to 18 m.
Other Physical Features: endothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry
While avoiding warm equatorial regions, southern right whales remain near continents and island masses.
Aquatic Biomes: coastal
Habitat and Ecology
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 80 samples.
Depth range (m): 0 - 0
Temperature range (°C): -0.857 - 25.748
Nitrate (umol/L): 0.085 - 28.535
Salinity (PPS): 33.841 - 36.938
Oxygen (ml/l): 4.611 - 8.135
Phosphate (umol/l): 0.098 - 1.987
Silicate (umol/l): 0.856 - 65.182
Temperature range (°C): -0.857 - 25.748
Nitrate (umol/L): 0.085 - 28.535
Salinity (PPS): 33.841 - 36.938
Oxygen (ml/l): 4.611 - 8.135
Phosphate (umol/l): 0.098 - 1.987
Silicate (umol/l): 0.856 - 65.182
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.
Using their long and numerous baleen plates, southern right whales feed on small plankton, including pelagic larval crustaceans and copepods. They are most often observed using one of two feeding techniques. The first, surface feeding, occurs when the whales selectively swim through densely-populated plankton slicks with their mouths wide open and baleen exposed. The other method occurs while submerged, presumably in highly dense populations of plankton.
Animal Foods: zooplankton
Foraging Behavior: filter-feeding
Primary Diet: planktivore
Life History and Behavior
Perception Channels: tactile ; chemical
Status: captivity: 70 years.
Lifespan, longevity, and ageing
Southern right whales are polygamous, having up to seven males per one female. Courtship and copulation is described as being tender and graceful (Cummings 1985). The duration of courting bouts varies, but usually lasts for an hour or two, after which the males and females separate from one another. There seems to be no animosity between males mating with the same female, which is quite unusual for mammals. It is believed that this passive behavior implies intra-uterine sperm competition.
Mating System: polygynous
Southern right whales, so named because they were historically considered the "right" whale to catch, reach reproductive maturity at approximately ten years of age. The gestation period ordinarily lasts for one year, and lactation continues for four to six months. Calves, which are born weighing 1000-1500 kg and are five to six meters long, grow at a rate of 3 cm per day.
Southern right whales mate and calve between 20 and 30° S and mostly in protected bays during the months of June to November.
Breeding season: Southern right whales mate and calve during the months of June to November.
Average number of offspring: 1.
Average gestation period: 12 months.
Range weaning age: 4 to 6 months.
Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 10 years.
Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 10 years.
Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; viviparous
Average birth mass: 910000 g.
Average gestation period: 365 days.
Average number of offspring: 1.
Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
Sex: female: 3285 days.
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Barcode data: Eubalaena australis
Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.
See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.
-- end --
Download FASTA File
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Eubalaena australis
Public Records: 4
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
Southern right whale populations are showing a slow increase since international protection in 1935, when over-exploitation nearly eradicated the species. There are estimated to be approximately 3,000 to 4,000 currently surviving in the southern hemisphere. Aside from international protection, individual countries are also protecting these whales and improving their ability to survive and reproduce. In Brazil the Right Whale project has been in effect since 1981. The program's goal is to protect the whales in their breeding grounds off the coast of South Brazil. Program participants monitor and research the current situation, and inform the public about the importance of environmental protection. Since its establishment, the program has, among other beneficial actions, gotten the government for the State of Santa Catarina to declare the southern right whales a state natural monument, thereby assuring its full protection. Other countries have also vowed to minimize human impacts on whale populations. This idea has been followed through by reducing direct disturbance and coastal industrial activity, as well as increasing awareness of the hazards of oceanic dumping that may lead to bioaccumulation and possible extinction.
US Federal List: no special status
CITES: appendix i
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: critically endangered
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
- 1994Vulnerable(Groombridge 1994)
- 1990Vulnerable(IUCN 1990)
- 1988Vulnerable(IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 1988)
Following severe historical depletion by commercial whaling, several breeding populations (Argentina/Brazil, South Africa, and Australia) of southern right whales (E. australis) have shown evidence of strong recovery, with a doubling time of 10-12 years (Bannister 2001, Best et al. 2001, Cooke et al. 2001). The other breeding populations are still very small, and data are insufficient to determine whether they are recovering. Estimated total population size as of 1997 was 7,500 animals (of which 1,600 were mature females, including 547 from Argentina and 659 from South Africa), and the three main populations have continued to increase at a similar rate since then (Best et al. 2005, Cooke et al. 2003, IWC 2007). Illegal Soviet catches (mainly in the 1960s) temporarily inhibited recovery, but overall the population appears to have grown strongly since then (see below).
There appears to be substantial interchange between breeding grounds off the same continent, e.g. between Argentina and Brazil (Groch et al. 2004), but a much smaller rate of interchange between land masses, e.g. between Australia and New Zealand (Anon. 2004) and Argentina and Tristan da Cunha (Best et al. 1993).
Like their congeners in the Northern Hemisphere, southern right whales are subject to mortality due to entanglements in fishing gear and collisions with shipping (IWC 2001). However, this does not seem to have impeded their recovery, at least in some areas. The lower average density of human populations and thus fishing, shipping and other potentially harmful activities in the Southern Hemisphere, compared with the western North Atlantic, probably makes this species less affected by such activities than is the North Atlantic right whale.
Parasitism by kelp gulls Larus dominicanus, which gouge skin and blubber from the whales’ backs, has been increasing rapidly in the Península Valdés calving ground and may eventually drive the whales elsewhere (Rowntree et al. 1998). This appears to be a learned behaviour that has spread through the gull population, and which is likely exacerbated by the elevated gull populations provisioned by the prevalence of uncovered disposal sites for fishery and other waste.
Observed correlations between breeding success off Argentina and sea surface temperature anomalies at South Georgia suggest that as Antarctic feeding grounds warm up, the average calving rate of southern right whales can be expected to decline (Leaper et al. 2006).
The species is listed in Appendix I of CITES and CMS.
Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems
Although very rarely found stranded along beaches, southern right whales occasionally do cause harm to themselves and, indirectly, humans. They have collided with large vessels and entangled in fishing gear. This causes a loss or reduction of possible shipping routes (in order to avoid collisions) and an increased cost to the fishing industry.
For the past ten or fifteen years, humans have capitalized on southern right whales, as well as other whales and aquatic mammals. Currently, the increasing popularity of whale watching and coastal tourism has led to the whales having a positive economic impact on humans. The development of whale watching has promoted economic benefits to coastal communities while increasing the protection and awareness of the species - stressing the importance of environmental quality and conservation. This benefit to the whales and their habitat contrasts sharply with previous economic exploitation of southern right whales. They were extensively hunted for oil and meat before becoming protected.
IUCN Red List Category
- IUCN (2008) Cetacean update of the 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
IUCN Red List Category
- IUCN (2008) Cetacean update of the 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
Southern right whale
The southern right whale (Eubalaena australis) is a baleen whale, one of three species classified as right whales belonging to the genus Eubalaena. Like other right whales, the southern right whale is readily distinguished from others by the callosities on its head, a broad back without a dorsal fin, and a long arching mouth that begins above the eye. Its skin is very dark grey or black, occasionally with some white patches on the belly. The right whale's callosities appear white due to large colonies of cyamids (whale lice). It is almost indistinguishable from the closely related North Atlantic and the North Pacific right whales, displaying only minor skull differences. It may have fewer callosities on its head and more on its lower lips than the two northern species. Approximately 10,000 southern right whales are spread throughout the southern part of the Southern Hemisphere.
The size of an adult female is 15 m (49 ft) and can weigh up to 47 tonnes (46 long tons; 52 short tons), with the larger records of 17.5–18 m (57–59 ft) in length and 80 tonnes (79 long tons; 88 short tons) in weight, making them slightly smaller than other right whales in Northern Hemisphere. The testicles of right whales are likely to be the largest of any animal, each weighing around 500 kg (1,100 lb). This suggests that sperm competition is important in the mating process. Right whales cannot cross the warm equatorial waters to connect with the other (sub)species and (inter)breed: their thick layers of insulating blubber make it impossible for them to dissipate their internal body heat in tropical waters.
The proportion and numbers of molten-coloured individuals are notable in this species compared with the other species in the Northern Hemisphere. Some whales remain white even after growing up.
The right whales were first classified in the Balaena genus in 1758 by Carolus Linnaeus, who at the time considered all of the right whales (including the bowhead) as a single species. Through the 1800s and 1900s, in fact, the Balaenidae family has been the subject of great taxonometric debate. Authorities have repeatedly recategorized the three populations of right whale plus the bowhead whale, as one, two, three or four species, either in a single genus or in two separate genera. In the early whaling days, they were all thought to be a single species, Balaena mysticetus.
The southern right whale was initially described as Balaena australis by Desmoulins in 1822. Eventually, it was recognized that bowheads and right whales were in fact different, and John Edward Gray proposed the Eubalaena genus for the right whale in 1864. Later, morphological factors such as differences in the skull shape of northern and southern right whales indicated at least two species of right whale—one in the Northern Hemisphere, the other in the Southern Ocean. As recently as 1998, Rice, in his comprehensive and otherwise authoritative classification, Marine mammals of the world: systematics and distribution, listed just two species: Balaena glacialis (all of the right whales) and Balaena mysticetus (the bowheads).
In 2000, Rosenbaum et al. disagreed, based on data from their genetic study of DNA samples from each of the whale populations. Genetic evidence now clearly demonstrates that the northern and southern populations of right whale have not interbred for between 3 million and 12 million years, confirming the southern right whale as a distinct species. The northern Pacific and Atlantic populations are also distinct, with the North Pacific right whale being more closely related to the southern right whale than to the North Atlantic right whale.
It is believed that the right whale populations first split because of the joining of North and South America. The rising temperatures at the equator then created a second split, into the northern and southern groups, preventing them from interbreeding.
The cladogram is a tool for visualizing and comparing the evolutionary relationships between taxa. The point where a node branches off is analogous to an evolutionary branching – the diagram can be read left-to-right, much like a timeline. The following cladogram of the Balaenidae family serves to illustrate the current scientific consensus as to the relationships between the southern right whale and the other members of its family.
Other junior synonyms for E. australis have included B. antarctica (Lesson, 1828), B. antipodarum (Gray, 1843), Hunterus temminckii (Gray, 1864), and E. glacialis australis (Tomilin, 1962) (see side panel for more synonyms).
Like other right whales, they are rather active on the water surface, and being curious and playful towards human vessels. According to the quantity of observations, Southern rights seem more active and tend to interact with human more than other two species in Northern Hemisphere. One behavior unique to the southern right whale, known as sailing, is that of using their elevated flukes to catch the wind, remaining in the same position for considerable amount of time. It appears to be a form of play and is most commonly seen off the coast of Argentina and South Africa. Some other species such as Humpback whales are also known to display. Right whales are often seen interacting with other cetaceans, especially Humpback whales and dolphins. There is a record of a Southern right and a Humpback thought to be involved in mating activities off Mozambique.
They have very strong maternal connections with locations and gene pools they were born in, and they are known to return to their 'birth spots' on 3-years intervals.
All species of right whales are curious, playful, and very gentle to other species including humans. In water, they are known to avoid themselves not to harm swimmers. Legends of the Whale Rider are renowned in New Zealand.
Population and distribution
The southern right whale spends summer in the far Southern Ocean feeding, probably close to Antarctica. It migrates north in winter for breeding and can be seen by the coasts of Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Chile, Namibia, Mozambique, Peru, Tristan de Cunha, Uruguay, Madagascar, New Zealand and South Africa. The total population is estimated to be around 10,000. Since hunting ceased, stocks are estimated to have grown by 7% a year. It appears that the South American, South African and Australasian groups intermix very little if at all, because maternal fidelity to feeding and calving habitats is very strong. The mother also passes these choices to her calves.
The most recent population estimates, published by National Geographic in October 2008, put the southern whale population at 10,000. The estimate of 7,000 followed a March 1998 IWC workshop. Researchers used data about adult female populations from three surveys (one in each of Argentina, South Africa and Australia, collected during the 1990s) and extrapolated to include unsurveyed areas, number of males and calves using available male:female and adult:calf ratios to give an estimated 1999 figure of 7,500 animals.
Many locations throughout Southern Hemisphere were named after presences of Southern rights and associations with mankind where whales are rare today in some of these locations, such as Walvis Bay, Punta Ballena, Right Whale Bay, Otago Harbour, Whangarei Harbour, South Taranaki Bight, Wineglass Bay, and so on.
Hermanus in South Africa has become known as a mecca for whale watching, during the southern hemisphere winter months (June - October) the Southern Right Whales migrate to the coastal waters of South Africa, with in excess of 100 whales known to be in the Hermanus area. Whilst in the area, the whales can be seen with their young as they come to Walker Bay to calve and mate. Many behaviours such as breaching, sailing, lobtailing, or spyhopping can be witnessed. In False Bay whales can be seen from the shore from July to October while both Plettenberg Bay and Algoa Bay are also home to the Southern Right Whales from July to December. They can be viewed from land as well as by boat with licensed operators conducting ocean safaris throughout the year.
In Namibia, most of confirmed whales are restricted to the south of Luderitz, the southern edge of the country, and only a handful animals, but with good increases in numbers, venture further north of historical breeding grounds such as at Walvis Bay. Until the cease of any sorts of hunting including illegal mass hunts by Soviet Union with helps by Japan, whales were rare along Namibian shores as there had been no sighting records north of Orange River unitl 1971, and the first of calving activities was confirmed as late as 80s. Historical records suggest that whales' regular range could have reached further north up until Angolan coasts such as at Baja dos Tigres (Tiger Bay).
In contrast to the case in South Africa, right whales are becoming regular migrants but with very small numbers off Mozambique and Madagascar. The first sighting off Mozambique since the end of whaling was in 1997. Recent increases in numbers of whales visiting the north-eastern part of South Africa, the so-called Dolphin Coast such as around Ballito and off Umdloti Beach, indicates the whales' normal ranges are expanding and that re-colonising historical habitats will likely continue as more whales migrate further north.
In Brazil, more than 300 individuals have been cataloged through photo identification (using head callosities) by the Brazilian Right Whale Project, maintained jointly by Petrobras (the Brazilian state-owned oil company) and the International Wildlife Coalition. The State of Santa Catarina hosts a concentration of breeding and calving right whales from June to November, and females from this population also calve off Argentinian Patagonia and Uruguay. In recent years, possibly due to changing habitat environments by human activities and conflicts with local fisheries, the number of whales visiting the coasts is decreasing.
During the 2012 annual meeting of the International Whaling Commission's Scientific Committee, data was presented regarding the continued phenomena of southern right whale strandings and high rate of mortality at Península Valdés, Argentina. Between 2003 and 2011, a total of 482 dead right whales were recorded at Península Valdés. There were at least 55 whale deaths in 2010, and 61 in 2011. As in previous years, the vast majority of strandings were calves of the season. There are increasing sightings along Golfo San Jorge and on Tierra del Fuego in recent years.
In Uruguay, coastal areas such as Punta del Este host congregating sites for whales in breeding seasons, but not likely as calving grounds. Their recovery helped create a whale-sanctuary off Latin America; the creation of this protected area had been prevented for nearly a decade by pro-whaling nations such as Japan.
For the critically endangered Chile/Peru population, the Cetacean Conservation Center (CCC) has been working on a separate program for right whales. Aside from vagrants' records, Peru's coastlines possibly host the northernmost confirmed range of the species. The Alfaguara project may possibly target this species as well in the future. Forging grounds of this population is currently undetected, but possibly down south of Caleta Zorra to southern fiords. Some hope arising for establishment of new tourism industry in eastern side of the Strait of Magellan as the number of sightings increases. It is unknown whether these increases are due to re-colonisation by whales from the Patagonian population.
Historically, populations in Oceanian regions had been very robust. There were stories of early settlers complaining that sounds of cavorting whales kept them awake at night in various locations such as on Wellington Bay and River Derwent. Satellite tracking conducted suggests that there are at least some interactions between populations in these two nations, but the extent thereof is unknown.
Southern Right Whales can be found in many parts of southern Australia, with the largest population to be found at the Head of the Bight in South Australia. Over 100 individuals are seen there annually from June to October. Visitors can view the whales from cliff top boardwalks and lookouts, with whales swimming almost directly below. The Head of the Bight is located in a sparsely populated area in the middle of the Nullabor. A more accessible location for viewing whales in South Australia is Encounter Bay where the whales can be seen just off the beaches of the Fleurieu Peninsula centred around the surfing town of Middleton, South Australia. A newer nursery ground has been established on Eyre Peninsula especially at Fowlers Bay as well. Numbers are much smaller at these locations compared to the Bight, with an average of a couple of whales per day. In recent years there have been regular sightings of more than ten whales at a time off Basham Beach. A Whale Centre for information on the history of whaling and now whale watching in the area can be found at Victor Harbor. Whale numbers are scarcer in Victoria that the only established breeding ground where whales use each year had been at Warrnambool, but in very small numbers. However, the whales seem to be increasing and extending their wintering habitats into other areas, as the numbers of whales seen at Warrnambool do not show dramatic increases. The number of sightings occurring in other areas are showing slow but good increases. These are around Melbourne such as in Port Phillip Bay, along Waratah Bay, at Ocean Grove, on Mornington Peninsula, in Apollo Bay, and on Gippsland coasts and at Wilsons Promontory. Tasmania is also a newer wintering ground showing dramatic increases in recent years. The waters off the Western Australia, New South Wales, and Queensland coasts had been previously inhabited by whales. The historical range was much wider and was spread around the coast of the continent excluding the region along the Northern Territory), up to Exmouth and Shark Bay on the west coast and Hervey Bay and Moreton Bay on the east coast. The east coast population is still endangered and very small (in low-tens), contributing in small numbers and limited re-colonization, but increases have been confirmed in many areas such as the vicinity to Sydney Harbor, Port Stephens, Twofold Bay, Jervis Bay, at Broulee, Moruya River, Narooma, Byron Bay, and so on.
Some whales can be seen around in sub-Antarctic regions such as Macquarie Island. It is unknown whether historical oceanic habitats such as Norfolk Island and Lord Howe Island (known as the "Middle Ground" for whalers) would be re-colonised by Australian populations in the future.
Many features are still unknown about Right Whale populations in New Zealand waters. However, studies by the Department of Conservation and sightings reported by locals helped to deepen understanding. Scientists used to believe there was a very small, remnant population of southern right whales inhabiting New Zealand's main islands (North and South Island), containing probably 11 reproductive females. In winter, whales migrate north to New Zealand waters and large concentrations occasionally visit the southern coasts of South Island. Bay areas along Foveaux Strait from Fiordland region to northern Otago are important breeding habitats for right whales, especially Preservation Inlet, Te Waewae Bay, and Otago Peninsula. Calving activities are observed all around the nation, but with more regularity around North Island shores from the Taranaki coast in the west to Hawke's Bay, Bay of Plenty in the east, and areas in Hauraki Gulf such as Firth of Thames or Bay of Islands in the north. The population at the sub-Antarctic Auckland Islands is showing a remarkable recovery while the recovery state in Campbell Islands is slower. There are arious parts of the nation where large numbers of whales were seen historically, but sightings are less common nowadays. These areas include the Marlborough Region especially from Clifford Bay and Cloudy Bays to Port Underwood, Golden Bay, Awaroa Bay, and coastlines on West Coast and Hokianga Harbour in Northland. Other than a handful of confirmed observations, very little information are available for whether whales still migrating to historical oceanic habitats of Kermadec Islands and Chatham Islands.
Recent study revealed that the right whale populations from New Zealand's main islands and the sub-Antarctic islands interbreed, though it is still unknown whether the two stock originally came from a single population.
In oceanic islands and offshore waters other than the abovementioned areas, very little about the presence and recovery status of southern right whales is known. Whales' historical ranges were much broader than today as whales were known to occur at lower latitude areas such as around Pacific Islands during whaling days, and were also frequent lower latitude of central Indial Ocean near Equator line, being comparable to the range of the Chile/Peru stock, the northern most of all the populations known today. Due to illegal whaling by the Soviet Union with the helps by Japan, the recovery of many stocks including the population off Tristan da Cunha and adjacent areas such as Gough Island had been severely hindered, resulting in relatively few numbers of visiting animals.
By 1750 the North Atlantic right whale was as good as extinct for commercial purposes and the Yankee whalers moved into the South Atlantic before the end of the 18th century. The southernmost Brazilian whaling station was established in 1796, in Imbituba. Over the next one hundred years, Yankee whaling spread into the Southern and Pacific Oceans, where the American fleet was joined by fleets from several European nations.
The southern right whale had been coming to New Zealand waters in large numbers before the 19th century, but was extensively hunted from 1830-1850. Hunting gradually declined with the whale population and then all but ended in coastal New Zealand waters. The beginning of the 20th century brought industrial whaling, and the catch grew rapidly. By 1937, according to whalers' records, 38,000 were captured in the South Atlantic, 39,000 in the South Pacific, and 1,300 in the Indian Ocean. Given the incompleteness of these records, the total take was somewhat higher.
As it became clear that stocks were nearly depleted, right whaling was banned in 1937. The ban was largely successful, although some illegal whaling continued for several decades. Madeira took its last two right whales in 1968. Illegal whaling continued off the coast of Brazil for many years and the Imbituba station processed right whales until 1973. The Soviet Union admitted illegally taking over 3,300 during the 1950s and '60s with the helps from Japan, although it only reported taking 4.
Whales began to be seen again in Australian and New Zealand waters from the early 1960s. It is claimed that if none of illegal hunts by Soviet Union with helps by Japan never happened, New Zealand population would have be three or four times larger than current size.
The southern right whale, listed as "endangered" by CITES, is protected by all countries with known breeding populations (Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Chile, New Zealand, South Africa and Uruguay). In Brazil, a federal Environmental Protection Area encompassing some 1,560 km2 (600 sq mi) and 130 km (81 mi) of coastline in Santa Catarina State was established in 2000 to protect the species' main breeding grounds in Brazil and promote regulated whale watching.
The Southern right whale is listed on Appendix I of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS) as this species has been categorized as being in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant proportion of their range.
One possibly significant contributor to the calf mortality rate has alarmed scientists – since at least 1996, kelp gulls off the coast of Patagonia have been observed attacking and feeding on live right whales. The kelp gull uses its powerful beak to peck down several centimetres into the skin and blubber, often leaving the whales with large open sores – some of which have been observed to be half a meter in diameter. This predatory behavior, primarily targeted towards mother/calf pairs, has been continually documented in Argentinian waters, and continues today. Observers note that the whales are spending up to a third of their time and energy performing evasive maneuvers – therefore, mothers spend less time nursing, and the calves are thinner and weaker as a result. Researchers speculate that many years ago, waste from fish processing plants allowed the gull populations to soar. Their resulting overpopulation, combined with reduced waste output, caused the gulls to seek out this alternative food source. Scientists fear that the gulls' learned behaviour could proliferate, and the IWC Scientific Committee has urged Brazil to consider taking immediate action if and when similar gull behaviour is observed in their waters. Such action may include the removal of attacking gulls, following Argentina's lead in attempting to reverse the trend.
The southern right whale has made Hermanus, South Africa one of the world centers for whale watching. During the winter months (June to October), southern right whales come so close to the shoreline that visitors can watch them from the shore as well as from strategically placed hotels. Hermanus also has two boat–based whale watching operators. The town employs a "whale crier" (cf. town crier) to walk through the town announcing where whales have been seen. Southern right whales can also be watched at other winter breeding grounds. In False Bay whale-watching can be done from the shore or from the boats of licensed operators in Simon's Town. Plettenberg Bay along the Garden Route of South Africa is another mecca for whale watching not only for Southern Rights (July to December)but throughout the year. There are both land based and Ocean Safaris boat based Whale encounters on offer in this beautiful town. Southern right whales can also be seen off the coast of Port Elizabeth with marine eco tours running from the Port Elizabeth harbour, as some southern right whales make Algoa Bay their home for the winter months.
Whales are occasionally observed during tours in Namibia, Mozambique and Madagascar, where sighting rates along Namibian coasts shows dramatic increases in the recent years.
In Brazil, Imbituba in Santa Catarina has been recognized as the National Right Whale Capital and holds annual Right Whale Week celebrations in September, when mothers and calves are more often seen. The old whaling station there is now a museum that documents the history of right whales in Brazil. In Argentina, Península Valdés in Patagonia hosts (in winter) the largest breeding population, with more than 2,000 catalogued by the Whale Conservation Institute and Ocean Alliance. As in the south of Argentina, the whales come within 200 m (660 ft) of the main beach in the city of Puerto Madryn and form a part of the large ecotourism industry. Uruguay's Parliament on September 4, 2013, has become the first country in the world to make all of its territorial waters a safehaven for whales and dolphins. Every year, dozens of whales are sighted, especially in the departments of Maldonado and Rocha during the months of winter. Swimming activities for commercial objectives had been banned in the area in 1985, but is legalized in Gulf of San Matías where this is the only location in the world for tourists to be permissioned to swim with the species.
Though their number is dangerously small, land-based sightings of whales are on increase in recent years off Chile and Peru, with some hope to create new tourism industries, especially in the strait of Magellan.
In Australia's winter and spring, southern right whales can be seen from the Bunda Cliffs and Twin Rocks, both along the remote Great Australian Bight in South Australia. In Warrnambool, Victoria, there exists a nursery which is popular with tourists in the winter and spring. Their normal range is extending as the species recovering and re-colonizing to other areas of continents, especially around coastal waters of New South Wales and Tasmania. In Tasmania, the first birth record since 19th century and several more following birth were recorded in River Derwent since after in 2010.
For same reason, southern rights may provide chances for public to observe whales from shore on New Zealand coasts with more regularity than in the past decades, especially in southern Fiordland, Southland to Otago coast, and on North Island coast especially in Northland and some other locations such as Bay of Plenty and South Taranaki Bight. Births of calves could have always been occurred on main islands' coast, but firstly confirmed of two cow-calf pairs in 2012.
In the Subantarctic Islands and general vicinity to Antarctica, where few regulations exist or are enforced, whales can be observed on expedition tours with increasing probabilities. The Auckland Islands are a specially designated sanctuary for right whales, where any kind of whale-watching tourism is prohibited without permission.
Breaching in De Hoop Nature Reserve.
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