Overview

Brief Summary

Lasioderma serricorne is a small (2-3 mm) brown beetle of the family Anobiidae, commonly known as the cigarette beetle, cigar beetle, or tobacco beetle. Its common name refers to the fact that this beetle is the most significant pest of all forms of stored tobacco, from cigarette packets to hogsheads and bales. It is also a pest of stored dried foodstuffs and non-food household items (dried plants, furniture stuffing, paper items and much more). Some were even found in dried resin from the tomb of Egyptian King Tutankhamun, and are known pests in museum herbariums. Locations with warm climates can see up to four generations a year; cooler climates just one. The small, grub-like larvae are C-shaped, white, and hairy, and constitute the main pest phase of this insect; they infest foodstuffs and feed for 5-10 weeks before pupating. Adults live up to six weeks, are strong fliers and become a nuisance by swarming at windows, but do not feed. Females lay 10-100 eggs upon a food source. Adult beetles carry a symbiotic yeast, Symbiotaphrina kochii, in their mycetome, a specialized organ linked to their gut. As the adult passes eggs through the oviduct, the yeast attaches to the beetles’ eggs and upon hatching, the larvae consume it to inoculate their own mycetome. The yeast supplies vitamin B and resistance to some toxins to the insect, and allows the larvae to survive on less nutritional food sources.

Populations of cigarette beetles can be monitored using pheromone traps. Sanitary practices and tight storage help control this pest, and deep freezing or heating products can rid contaminated items of this species. For heavy infestations, insecticides are sometimes applied, but in limited use around food products.

Cigarette beetles are easily confused with the similar looking drugstore beetle (Stegobium paniceum) and the common furniture beetle (Anobium punctatum), all of which are pests of dried goods and belong to the family Anobiidae. All three harbor symbiotic yeasts for nutritional needs, but interestingly, these yeasts are of different species.

(Cabrera 2007; Koehler 2008; Lyon; Wikipedia 2011)

  • Cabrera, B. J. 2007. Cigarette beetle Lasioderma serricorne. Featured Creatures, Department of Entomology and Nematology. Retrieved November 3, 2011 from http://entomology.ifas.ufl.edu/creatures/urban/stored/cigarette_beetle.htm" target= "_blank">http://entomology.ifas.ufl.edu/creatures/urban/stored/cigarette_beetle.htm
  • Koehler, P. G. 2008. Cigarette Beetle, Lasioderma serricorne (Coleoptera, Anobiidae). Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, EDIS. Publication ENY-265. Retrieved online November 3, 2011 from http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ig116" target= "_blank">http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ig116
  • Lyon, W.F. Cigarette and Drugstore Beetles. HYG-2083-97. Ohio State University Extension Fact Sheet. Retrieved November 3, 2011 from http://ohioline.osu.edu/hyg-fact/2000/2083.html" target = "_blank">http://ohioline.osu.edu/hyg-fact/2000/2083.html
  • Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 30 July, 2011. "Lasioderma serricorne". Retrieved November 3, 2011 from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lasioderma_serricorne&oldid=442273179" target = "_blank">http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lasioderma_serricorne&oldid=442273179
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Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Lasioderma serricorne

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Wikipedia

Lasioderma serricorne

Lasioderma serricorne, commonly known as the cigarette beetle, cigar beetle, or tobacco beetle, is very similar in appearance to the drugstore beetle (Stegobium paniceum) and the common furniture beetle (Anobium punctatum), and all three species belong to the family Anobiidae.

L. serricorne is around 2–3 mm long, and brown in colour. The beetles, which can fly, live 2–6 weeks and do not feed as adults. They can be distinguished from A. punctatum, by the fact that A. punctatum has a thorax which has a pronounced "hump" shape. S. paniceum and L. serricorne have thoraxes which have a much less obtuse looking angle when viewed from the side compared to A. punctatum, and thus could be difficult to tell apart. However S. paniceum has a distinct three-segment "club" at the end of each antenna whereas L. serricorne has uniform filament antennae of eleven segments. L. serricorne also has much weaker punctures on the surface of the wing covers (elytra) than the other two species.

As indicated by its common name, the cigarette beetle is a pest of tobacco, both in the refined cigarette packet presentation and also as stored in hogsheads and bales, but is also a minor pest of oilcake, oilseeds, cereals, dried fruit, sage, flour, and some animal products.

The female beetle lays around 100 eggs loosely on the commodity. The hatching larvae are the "grow bag" stage of the insect are active and will move around on and bore into the product, feeding as they go. The complete life cycle takes 26 days at 37 °C and 120 days at 20 °C. L. serricorne cannot tolerate the cold; adults die within 6 days at 4 °C, and eggs survive 5 days at 0–5 °C.

The beetles carry a symbiotic yeast, Symbiotaphrina kochii, that is transmitted to the next generation superficially on the eggs and carried internally in larvae and adults in the mycetome, a specialized organ that is linked to the gut.[1] The yeast cells assist in the digestion of less nutritious foods, supply needed B-vitamins and sterols, and provide resistance to certain toxins.[2][3]

Pest control[edit]

several views

Insect monitoring traps are available for L. serricorne, which contain specific pheromones to attract male beetles, and help detect and monitor infestations. Infested bulk tobacco in the form of bales or hogsheads can be fumigated using methyl bromide or phosphine.

Dosage rates and treatment times with methyl bromide are 20 grams/m3 at 21 °C above and 32 grams/m3 for 48–72 hours at 7–20 °C. Methyl bromide is not recommended for cigar tobacco since it can produce off odours in the product.

With phosphine dosage rates are one gram of phosphine (equivalent to a 3-gram table) per m3 for 5 days at 12–15 °C and 4 days at 16–20 °C and 3 days above 20 °C. For localised infestations the approach is to find the infested product, dispose of it, and treat around the area with a residual insecticide such as cypermethrin to kill off any remaining beetles.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Noda H, Kodama K (1996). "Phylogenetic position of yeastlike endosymbionts of anobiid beetles". Appl Environ Microbiol 62 (1): 162–7. PMC 167783. PMID 8572692. 
  2. ^ Dowd PF, Shen SK (1990). "The contribution of symbiotic yeast to toxin resistance of the cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne)". Entomol Exp Appl 56 (3): 241–8. doi:10.1007/BF00163695. 
  3. ^ Nasir H, Noda H (2003). "Yeast-like symbiotes as a sterol source in anobiid beetles (Coleoptera, Anobiidae): possible metabolic pathways from fungal sterols to 7-dehydrocholesterol". Arch Insect Biochem Physiol 52 (4): 175–82. doi:10.1002/arch.10079. PMID 12655605. 
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: The species epithet is spelled serricornis in Poole and Gentili (1996).

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