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Overview

Brief Summary

Description

The Spiny Pocket Mouse is somewhat shaggy. Its spines, which are mostly on the rump, are not nearly as stiff as porcupine quills. Like quills, they are modified hairs. This Pocket Mouse occurs throughout most of Baja California, Mexico, and on some of the islands off the coast. In the United States, it occurs only in extreme southeastern and south-central California west of the Colorado River. The Rock Pocket Mouse lives east of the river in identical habitat. Because these animals choose places of little agricultural value, their habitats are probably safe from development and their futures as species secure.

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Mammal Species of the World
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  • Original description: Merriam, C.H., 1889.  Preliminary revision of the North American pocket mice (genera Perognathus et Cricetodipus auct.) with descriptions of new species and subspecies and a key to the known forms, p. 21.  North American Fauna, 1:1-36.
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Distribution

Range Description

This species occurs in southern Nevada, southeast California (USA) south to the cape of Baja California Peninsula (Mexico); also occurs on many islands in the Gulf of California (Patton 2005). It occurs at elevations up to 900 m (Wilson and Ruff, 1999).

In the Gulf of California this species is found on Espiritu Santo Island, San Francisco Island, San Jose, Carmen, Coronados, San Marcos, San Lorenzo, Angel de la Guarda, Mejia islands, and in the Pacific on Margarita Island.
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occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Global Range: Southeastern and south-central California (including San Bernardino, Riverside, Imperial and San Diego counties), marginally in extreme southern Nevada, south to the southern end of Baja California, including adjacent offshore islands (but absent from the western third of northern and central Baja California). To 900 m in the Turtle Mountains in southeastern California and about 1500 m in the Sierra Laguna in the Cape region of southern Baja California.

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Physical Description

Size

Length: 23 cm

Weight: 20 grams

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Size in North America

Sexual Dimorphism: None

Length:
Average: 198 mm
Range: 164-225 mm

Weight:
Range: 13-18 g
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This rodent usually inhabits rough desert landscapes of boulders, washes, rocky slopes, coarse soil, and sparse vegetation characteristic of the lower Sonoran life zone. On islands it prefers rocky desert (Wilson and Ruff 1999).

Little is known about the natural history of the spiny pocket mouse despite its wide range and the many reports of its occurrence. It is nocturnal, thereby escaping the intense heat and aridity of the desert during the day. Its diet probably consists of seeds and it may eat green vegetation following the brief periods of rain. Because water is scarce in its habitat much of the time, this rodent probably finds water derived from its food. The only record of reproduction detailed the occurrence of four embryos in one specimen. Nothing is known about growth, development, physiological function, and behavior (Wilson and Ruff 1999).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Comments: Hot, dry, low deserts; on rough mesas and rocky slopes; sparse vegetation, with some xerophilous plants (Burt and Grossenheider 1964); rough beaches. Sleeps and rears young in underground burrows.

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Migration

Non-Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species do not make significant seasonal migrations. Juvenile dispersal is not considered a migration.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Trophic Strategy

Comments: Presumably feeds primarily on seeds of desert shrubs and grasses.

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Comments: Likely to become torpid or inactive in cold weather.

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Reproduction

April embryo counts of four comprise the only available reproductive data (Lackey 1991).

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Chaetodipus spinatus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There is 1 barcode sequence available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is the sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen.

Other sequences that do not yet meet barcode criteria may also be available.

AATCGTTGATTATTTTCAACAAACCACAAAGACATCGGTACCTTATATTTGATTTTTGGTGCATGAGCCGGAATGGTAGGAACTGGCCTT---AGCATTTTAATCCGAGCTGAGCTTGGACAACCAGGTGCATTATTGGGGGAT---GATCAAATCTATAACGTAGTAGTTACAGCCCATGCTTTCGTAATAATCTTCTTTATAGTTATGCCAATTATAATTGGTGGATTTGGAAACTGGTTAGTTCCTTTAATA---ATTGGGGCACCAGATATAGCATTCCCTCGAATAAATAATATAAGTTTCTGACTTCTCCCACCTTCTTTCCTTCTTCTCCTAGCTTCTTCAATAATTGAGGCAGGAGCCGGAACTGGTTGAACTGTTTACCCCCCATTAGCTGGCAACTTAGCTCACGCAGGAGCATCAGTTGACCTG---ACTATTTTCTCTCTTCACCTAGCCGGGGTATCCTCAATTTTAGGTGCTATTAATTTTATTACAACAATTATTAATATAAAACCACCTGCAGTCTCCCAATACCAAACACCCTTATTTGTCTGATCAGTTTTAATTACTGCCGTCCTGCTTCTTCTGTCTTTACCAGTTCTAGCTGCT---GGTATTACTATACTTTTAACAGACCGAAACCTTAATACCACTTTCTTTGACCCTGCAGGAGGAGGAGATCCTATTCTATATCAACATCTATTCTGATTCTTTGGCCATCCTGAAGTTTATATTCTTATTCTTCCTGGATTTGGGATTATCTCTCACATCGTCACTTTTTATTCAGGTAAGAAA---GAGCCATTCGGCTATATAGGAATAGTTTGAGCAATAATATCTATTGGATTCCTAGGCTTTATTGTTTGAGCTCACCATATGTTTACGGTGGGAATAGATGTAGATACTCGAGCATACTTCACATCTGCAACTATAATCATTGCAATCCCTACTGGAGTTAAAGTATTTAGCTGACTA---GCTACT
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Chaetodipus spinatus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 117
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Linzey, A.V., Timm, R., Álvarez-Castañeda, S.T., Castro-Arellano, I. & Lacher, T.

Reviewer/s
McKnight, M. (Global Mammal Assessment Team) & Amori, G. (Small Nonvolant Mammal Red List Authority)

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining at nearly the rate required to qualify for listing in a threatened category.
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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N3 - Vulnerable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Population

Population
It is frequent and stable (Wilson and Ruff 1999). Very common on the Baja peninsula.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
There are no major threats known. Most populations are probably secure because the species inhabits areas of little agricultural value (Wilson and Ruff 1999). However, some populations on islands are threatened by predation from feral cats, and on Meija and Coronados Islands other species of rodents have been extirpated (Peromyscus guardia and Neotomys bunkeri).
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no known conservation measures specific to this species. However, there are several protected areas within its range.
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Wikipedia

Spiny pocket mouse

The spiny pocket mouse (Chaetodipus spinatus) is a species of rodent in the family Heteromyidae and order Rodentia. Spiny Pocket Mouse have two genera, Heteromys and Liomys.[2] It is found in Baja California in Mexico and in Arizona, California and Nevada in the United States.[1]

Description[edit]

The Spiny Pocket Mouse has long hairs. It has spines on its back that are more flexible.[3] The existence of the spines differentiates whether it’s Chaetodipus Spinatus from pocket mice in other genera.[4]Their ears are small and round.[5]They have long tails that are 126% of the length of their head and body.[6]Their coat colors vary among islands but are generally brown on the tops of their bodies and tan on their sides.[7] A Spiny Pocket Mouse weighs about 13-18 g. Their length ranges anywhere from 164 to 225 mm.[8]

Range and Habitat[edit]

Spiny Pocket Mouse is found in Southern Nevada, and in the islands of the Gulf of California at elevations up to 900m (2952.76 ft).[9]They also range from southeast California to the south by the cape of Baja California Peninsula (Mexico) where they are native. Because of its wide range in distribution, the Spiny Pocket Mouse population has little concern of extinction.[10]

Diet[edit]

The Spiny Pocket Mouse’s diet is impacted by the habitat it lives in. Their diet mainly consists of seeds, desert shrubs, and grasses.[11]At times of rainfall, they look for green vegetation. The Spiny Pocket Mouse has to look for a water source in its food because finding a water source in their habitat is uncommon.[12]

Behavior[edit]

The Spiny Pocket Mouse is nocturnal. This characteristic allows the Spiny Pocket Mouse to live in rough, rocky desert landscapes by disappearing during the hot days.[13] Spiny Pocket Mouse sleeps and breeds their young in underground burrows.[14]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Linzey, A. V., Timm, R., Álvarez-Castañeda, S. T., Castro-Arellano, I. & Lacher, T. (2008). Chaetodipus spinatus. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 27 March 2009.
  2. ^ Robert P. Anderson , Marcelo Weksler , Duke S. Rogers. "PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSES OF SPINY POCKET MICE (HETEROMYIDAE: HETEROMYINAE) BASED ON ALLOZYMIC AND MORPHOLOGICAL DATA", American Society of Mammalogists, 2006. Retrieved on 23 April 2014.
  3. ^ Merriam, C.H. "North American pocket mice", North American Fauna, 1889. Retrieved on 21 April 2014.
  4. ^ Merriam, C.H. "North American pocket mice", North American Fauna, 1889. Retrieved on 21 April 2014.
  5. ^ Lackey, James Alden. " Chaetodipus Spinatus ", The American Society of Mammalogists, 6 November 1991. Retrieved on 21 April 2014 .
  6. ^ Lackey, James Alden. " Chaetodipus Spinatus ", The American Society of Mammalogists, 6 November 1991. Retrieved on 21 April 2014 .
  7. ^ Lackey, James Alden. " Chaetodipus Spinatus ", The American Society of Mammalogists, 6 November 1991. Retrieved on 21 April 2014 .
  8. ^ Merriam, C.H. "North American pocket mice", North American Fauna, 1889. Retrieved on 21 April 2014.
  9. ^ Linzey, A.V., Timm, R., Álvarez-Castañeda, S.T., Castro-Arellano, I. & Lacher, T. " Chaetodipus spinatus ", IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, 2008. Retrieved on 23 April 2014.
  10. ^ Linzey, A.V., Timm, R., Álvarez-Castañeda, S.T., Castro-Arellano, I. & Lacher, T. " Chaetodipus spinatus ", IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, 2008. Retrieved on 23 April 2014.
  11. ^ Linzey, A.V., Timm, R., Álvarez-Castañeda, S.T., Castro-Arellano, I. & Lacher, T. " Chaetodipus spinatus ", IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, 2008. Retrieved on 23 April 2014.
  12. ^ Linzey, A.V., Timm, R., Álvarez-Castañeda, S.T., Castro-Arellano, I. & Lacher, T. " Chaetodipus spinatus ", IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, 2008. Retrieved on 23 April 2014.
  13. ^ Linzey, A.V., Timm, R., Álvarez-Castañeda, S.T., Castro-Arellano, I. & Lacher, T. " Chaetodipus spinatus ", IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, 2008. Retrieved on 23 April 2014.
  14. ^ Merriam, C.H. "North American pocket mice", North American Fauna, 1889. Retrieved on 21 April 2014.
  • Patton, J. L. 2005. Family Heteromyidae. pp. 844–858 in Mammal Species of the World a Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder eds. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.
  • Merriam, C.H., 1889. Preliminary revision of the North American pocket mice (genera Perognathus et Cricetodipus auct.) with descriptions of new species and subspecies and a key to the known forms, p. 21. North American Fauna, 1:1-36.
  • Merriam, C.H., 1889. Preliminary revision of the North American pocket mice (genera Perognathus et Cricetodipus auct.) with descriptions of new species and subspecies and a key to the known forms, p. 21. North American Fauna, 1:1-36.
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: This species formerly was included in the genus Perognathus. Subgenus Chaetodipus was elevated to full genus status by Hafner and Hafner (1983); this treatment was supported by a phylogenetic analysis of Heteromyidae based on myology (Ryan 1989). Chaetodipus was accepted as a full genus by Jones et al. (1992), Patton (in Wilson and Reeder 1993), and most other authors subsequent to Hafner and Hafner (1983). In a phylogeny based on molecular data, Riddle (1995) found support for the monophyly of Chaetodipus, including C. formosus, relative to Perognathus.

Eighteen subspecies, many of them on islands in the Gulf of California, were recognized by Hall (1981).

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