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Range DescriptionPropyrrhura maracana formerly occupied a huge range in Brazil (Pernambuco, Piauí, Maranhão, Pará, Tocantins, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Bahia, Espírito Santo, São Paulo, Paraná, Santa Catarina, Rio de Janeiro and Rio Grande do Sul), Paraguay (Concepción, Canindeyú, Amambay, Alto Paraná and Caazapá) and Argentina (Misiones and north Corrientes), but has undergone a decline (Chebez 1994, Juniper and Parr 1998). The species is found in Marajó island, Pará (where it is common in mangrove forest and cerrado), over most of Brazil to Paraná and adjoining parts of Paraguay. There are no recent records from Misiones, Argentina and it is thought to be virtually extinct in the country (Bodrati et al. 2006). In São Paulo state, the species has its stronghold in and around Caetetus Ecological Station. In Brazil, this macaw is found in a broad range of habitats, including mangrove forest in Marajó, semi-deciduous and humid forest in southern Pará and São Paulo, Atlantic forest in Rio de Janeiro, Bahia and Espirito Santo, cerrado in Tocantins, and caatinga in Bahia and Piauí. Despite declines in the southern part of its range the species remains widespread over most of its Brazilian range, and has even recolonised areas in its historical range in southern Rio de Janeiro, including the environs of Itatiaia National Park (Collar 1997a). Some areas considered as strongholds for the species are largely protected (Serra do Cachimbo in Pará is mostly under care of the Brazilian military, who bar colonists and loggers, although they conduct weapon tests in parts of the range) or not under strong pressure (Marajó). Previously unreported populations have been found in the Atlantic forest of Itarana (Barra Encoberta, Santa Joana, Alto Jatiboca e Limoeiro [de Jetibá 2003]).