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Overview

Distribution

Range Description

The oncilla is distributed from Costa Rica (north) to southern Brazil and NE Argentina (30 degrees south) (Oliveira et al. 2008). There are records from the Amazon basin, but the distribution could be discontinuous and patchy, and the species extremely rare (Oliveira 2004). The species is absent from the Colombian Llanos and the Paraguayan Chaco (Payan et al. 2007). It has been recorded from Costa Rica and northern Panama, but not from the remainder of the Darien Peninsula connecting Central America to South America. Although the species has been collected as high as 4,800 m (Cuervo et al. 1986), this is likely an outlier, as there are very few records at or slightly above 3,000 m (T. Oliveira, per. comm.).
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Historic Range:
Costa Rica to northern Argentina

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Geographic Range

Leopardus tigrinus is found primarily in South America with a small populations also occurring intermittently in Central America. It can be found as far north as Costa Rica and as far south as the northern tip of Argentina. Its geographic range extends throughout Brazil and the Guianas (i.e., Guyana, Guyane, Suriname) and in parts of Venezuela, Colombia, Equador, Bolivia and Paraguay. There is also speculation that it may be found in some parts of Nicaragua, and Panama.

Biogeographic Regions: neotropical (Native )

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Physical Description

Morphology

Physical Description

Oncillas are one of the smallest wild cats in South America. They range in mass from 1.5 kg to 3 kg. Males are slightly larger than females and can weigh up to 3 kg, whereas females generally weigh between 1.5 and 2.0 kg. Male head and body length ranges from 805 to 830 mm, with tail length ranging from 317 to 360 mm. Females range in length from 763 to 780 mm, with tail length ranging from 270 to 305 mm.

Oncillas have short, thick fur that is light brown to grey and is spotted with rosettes that are dark brown with a black outline. The venter is typically paler than the rest of the body, but is still marked with rosettes. The tail is lined with 7 to 13 dark rings and ends with a dark tip. The limbs are covered in randomly placed black spots, and the back of the ears are black with a white spot near the centre of the pinna. The eyes range from light to dark brown. Although melanism has been documented in this species, albinism has not.

Oncillas are often mistaken for ocelots and margays. Although oncillas are smaller than both of these species, they are otherwise very similar in appearance. Oncillas are more slender with larger ears and have a more narrow muzzle then ocelots or margays. The eyes are located more laterally than those of margays', and oncillas have longer tails than do ocelots. In addition, the skulls of oncillas are less robust than those of margays'. The brain case is more narrow, the zygomatic arches are less robust, and the auditory bullae are less inflated. The dorsal profile of the average oncilla skull is also less convex than that of a margay skull. The dental formula for an adult oncilla is 3/3, 1/1, 3/2, 1/1.

Range mass: 1.5 to 3 kg.

Average mass: 2 kg.

Range length: 763 to 830 mm.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry ; polymorphic

Sexual Dimorphism: male larger

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species is found in a broad range of habitats, but is especially associated with denser cover (Oliveira pers. comm.). In Costa Rica the species is almost entirely confined to montane forests along the flanks of Volcanos and other high mountains from 1,000 m up to the treeline (paramo) and occupy cloud forest and high elevation elfin forests (J. Schipper pers. comm.). Their distribution pattern in Costa Rica and Panama closely resembles that of the oak (Quercus sp.) dominated forests (J. Schipper pers. comm.). While in Central America and parts of northern South America it may be most common in montane cloud forest, it is mostly found in lowland areas in Brazil, being reported from rainforests to dry deciduous forest, savannas, semi-arid thorny scrub, and degraded secondary vegetation in close proximity to human settlement (Oliveira et al. 2008). The use of lowland Amazonian forests is practically unknown and requires attention.

The little spotted cat is a small-sized (2.4 kg) solitary felid, with an average litter size of 1.12 kittens (1–4) (Oliveira and Cassaro 2005). Diel activity pattern is mostly nocturno-crepuscular, but with considerable amount of daytime activity. However, it could also be highly diurnal in some areas of Brazil. Prey base consists mostly of small mammals, birds and lizards, with average prey size at <100 g, but does include larger sized prey (>1 kg). Home range data from the few studies that have been carried out suggests that they are small - 0.9-2.8 km² for females and 4.8-17 km² for males (although studies from Brazil’s Emas National Park suggests ranges can be larger). However, these ranges are larger than would be expected from body size (Oliveira et al. in press). Densities vary 1-5/100 km², and in the Amazon may be as low as 0.01/100 km² (Oliveira et al. in submission). Little spotted cat occurs at low population densities throughout most of its range, especially on what would be expected by a felid of its size. Its numbers/densities are negatively impacted by the larger ocelot, its potential intra-guild predator/competitor (Oliveira et al. 2008, in press, in submission).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Oncillas, also known as little spotted cats and little tiger cats, have been recorded in elevations ranging from sea level to 3200 m. They prefer forested habitats and are found in a wide variety of forests ecosystems, including dense tropical forests at elevations ranging from sea level to 1500 m. From 350 to 1500 m, oncillas can be found in rainforests or humid premontane forests. At 1500 m and above, oncillas can be found in humid montane forests that or cloud forests. Evidence suggests that they are expanding into deciduous forests and subtropical forests, and in Brazil,they have successfully populated savannas and semiarid thorny scrub as well. Oncillas can also be found in plantations and eucalyptus monocultures. Although they are agile tree climbers, they are primarily terriculous.

Range elevation: 0 to 3200 m.

Habitat Regions: tropical ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: savanna or grassland ; forest ; rainforest ; scrub forest

Other Habitat Features: agricultural

  • 1986. Notes on the Biology and Status of the Small Wild Cats in Venezuela. Pp. 138-139 in Cats of the World: Biology, Conservation, and Management. United States: National Wildlife Federation.
  • Schipper, J., R. Leite-Pitman, E. Payan. 2010. "Leopardus tigrinus" (On-line). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Accessed October 09, 2010 at http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/11510/0.
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Trophic Strategy

Food Habits

Little information exists on the feeding habits of wild oncillas; however, their primary prey likely includes birds and small mammals such as rodents. When preying upon birds, oncillas are capable of cleaning their prey free of feathers prior to ingestion. In some regions of their geographic range, they are known to prey upon lizards. Oncillas instantly kill their prey by piercing the back of the skull and severing the the brain stem from the spinal chord.

Animal Foods: birds; mammals; reptiles

Primary Diet: carnivore (Eats terrestrial vertebrates)

  • Kiltie, R. 1984. Size ratios among sympatric neotropical cats. Oecologia, 61: 411-416. Accessed November 11, 2010 at http://www.springerlink.com/content/w1n16217u1v15x26/fulltext.pdf.
  • Wang, E. 2002. Diets of ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), margays (L. wiedii), and oncillas (L. tigrinus) in the Atlantic Rainforest in southeast Brazil.. Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment, 37/3: 207-212.
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Associations

Ecosystem Roles

Although there is no information on the potential ecosystem roles filled by oncillas, as small terrestrial predators, they may help control rodent pest species. There is no information available regarding parasites of this species.

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Predation

There is no information available regarding potential predators of oncillas. Oncillas are well adapted climbers and likely evade terriculous predators by hiding in the canopy. In addition, their nocturnal nature and cryptic coloration likely reduces risk of predation as well.

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Known prey organisms

Leopardus tigrinus preys on:
Aves
Mammalia

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Communication and Perception

Little is known about how oncillas communicate. Young oncilla kittens tend to purr, while grown oncillas have a vocalization described as a "gurgle" which is short and rhythmic.

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Life Expectancy

Lifespan/Longevity

Oncillas generally live for 10 to 14 years in the wild, and although they have been known to live for up to 23 years in captivity, most captive individuals live for 16 to 20 years.

Range lifespan

Status: captivity:
23 (high) years.

Typical lifespan

Status: wild:
10 to 14 years.

Average lifespan

Status: wild:
11 years.

Typical lifespan

Status: captivity:
16 to 20 years.

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Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 21.9 years (captivity)
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Reproduction

There is no information available regarding the mating system of Leopardus tigrinus in the wild; however, captive individuals appear to mate with the same partner for life.

Little information exists regarding the mating behavior of oncillas, and that which does exist, was recorded from observations of captive breeding pairs. Although oncillas are primarily solitary, occasionally a breeding pair may be documented. In captivity, oncillas appear to mate for life, however, this has not been confirmed for wild populations. In the wild, males are known to be very aggressive towards females, which may suggest that oncillas are highly solitary.

Female oncillas reach sexual maturity after 2 years of age, whereas males reach sexual maturity after 18 months. Estrous lasts from 3 to 9 days and decreases in duration with age. Mating occurs during early spring and gestation lasts for approximately 75 days. Males have no further involvement after mating. Oncillas typically give birth to 1 kitten per breeding cycle, but can have up to 3 kittens. Neonates range in mass from 92 to 134 g and can open their eyes between 7 and 18 days after birth. Kittens begin eating solid food 5 to 7 weeks after birth, and weaning is usually complete by 3 months of age. Teeth begin to emerge after 21 days which is later than most felines; however, teeth typically emerge all together, within a matter of hours. Most oncillas are full grown by 11 months of age and are completely independent by 4 months of age.

Breeding season: Captive bred oncillas breed from early to late spring.

Range number of offspring: 1 to 3.

Average number of offspring: 1.

Range gestation period: 74 to 76 days.

Range birth mass: 92 to 134 g.

Average weaning age: 3 months.

Average time to independence: 4 months.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 2 years.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 18 months.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); fertilization ; viviparous

Average number of offspring: 1.5.

Most oncillas are completely weaned by 3 months of age, and young are completely independent 4 months of age. Paternal care is non-existent in this species. No further information exists regarding parental care in oncillas.

Parental Investment: altricial ; female parental care ; pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female); pre-independence (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Female)

  • Sarah Hartwell. 2008. "DOMESTIC X ONCILLA AND BLACK FOOTED CAT HYBRIDS" (On-line). http://www.messybeast.com. Accessed October 11, 2010 at http://www.messybeast.com/small-hybrids/nigripes-oncilla-hybrids.htm.
  • 1986. Notes on the Biology and Status of the Small Wild Cats in Venezuela. Pp. 138-139 in Cats of the World: Biology, Conservation, and Management. United States: National Wildlife Federation.
  • Feline Conservation Federation. 2010. "Oncilla" (On-line). Feline Conservation Federation. Accessed September 20, 2010 at http://www.felineconservation.org/feline_species/oncilla.htm.
  • Walton Beacham. 1998. Tiger Cat. Pp. 694-695 in Beacham's Guide to International Endangered Species, Vol. 2, 1 Edition. Osprey, Florida: Beacham Publishing Corporation.
  • Quillen, P. 1981. Hand-rearing the little spotted cat or oncilla Felis tigrinus. International Zoo Yearbook, 21: 240-242.
  • Sunquist, M., F. Sunquist. 2002. Wild Cats of the World. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Leopardus tigrinus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 5
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
VU
Vulnerable

Red List Criteria
A3c

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
de Oliveira, T., Eizirik, E., Schipper, J., Valderrama, C., Leite-Pitman, R. & Payan, E.

Reviewer/s
Nowell, K., Breitenmoser-Wursten, C., Breitenmoser, U. (Cat Red List Authority) & Schipper, J. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)

Contributor/s

Justification
While L. tigrinus has a broad range (extent of occurrence), including the Amazon basin, totaling over 11 million km² (J. Schipper pers. comm. 2008), its distribution is highly localized (i.e., has a small area of occupancy (AOO)). The Amazon is a stronghold for other Neotropical forest-dwelling cats, but there the Little Spotted Cat has been found to occur at very low densities, approximately 0.01 individuals per 100 km² (Oliveira et al. in submission). Since higher densities are achieved where ocelots are scarce (Oliveira et al. in press), most of the population probably occurs outside protected areas, and outside the Amazon basin lowland rainforest, in habitats which are undergoing high rates of loss - e.g., the Brazilian cerrado (Klink and Machado 2005). A future decline of 30% over the next 18 years (= three generations) is projected due to declining AOO and habitat quality (IUCN Cats Red List Workshop 2007).

History
  • 2002
    Near Threatened
  • 1994
    Insufficiently Known
    (Groombridge 1994)
  • 1990
    Vulnerable
    (IUCN 1990)
  • 1988
    Vulnerable
    (IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 1988)
  • 1986
    Vulnerable
    (IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 1986)
  • 1982
    Vulnerable
    (Thornback and Jenkins 1982)
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Current Listing Status Summary

Status: Endangered
Date Listed: 03/28/1972
Lead Region: Foreign (Region 10) 
Where Listed: Entire


Population detail:

Population location: Entire
Listing status: E

For most current information and documents related to the conservation status and management of Leopardus tigrinus, see its USFWS Species Profile

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Oncillas are classified as "vulnerable" on the IUCN's Red List of Threatened Species. Their population was significantly decreased during the 1970's and 80's due to overhunting, and current threats include habitat loss, fragmentation, roads, illegal trade (pets and pelts), and retaliatory killing by poultry farmers. From 1982 to 1990, oncillas were classified as vulnerable by the IUCN. After an 11 year period as a "near threatened" species from 1996 to 2007, oncillas began declining once again in 2008 and were subsequently reclassified as "vulnerable". Although oncillas are protected under Appendix I by CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora), they rarely occur in protected habitat. The phylogenetics of this species are not well established, and it has been suggested that populations occurring in the northern-most part of their geographic range could be a distinct species.

CITES: appendix i

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: vulnerable

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Population

Population
Estimated population densities vary greatly. In the Amazon density is very low, expected at approximately 0.01/100 km². Camera-trap surveys in other portions of its range indicates that the species generally occurs in densities between 1-5/100 km² (Oliveira et al. in submission). In Central America the species rarely shows up in camera traps even where they are known to occur, suggesting that they either avoid traps or are naturally rare and elusive in that area (Schipper pers. comm.). A similar trend is also found in several areas in Brazil, where authors found it in most areas as in intrinsically low numbers, not camera-trap shyness (Oliveira pers. comm.) The oncilla is negatively impacted by ocelot numbers and does not seem to attain effective population size for long term persistence in any Conservation Unit possibly due to the “ocelot effect” (Oliveira et al. in press). Thus, it is found mostly outside protected areas in the Cerrado and Atlantic Forest biomes, which are both under severe threats, and where ocelots are absent or have declined (Oliveira et al. in submission). It seems that where ocelots are rare or absent the average population density ranges from 5-20 indiv/100 km² but expected to be much lower than 5/100 km² where ocelots are present (high density estimates, ca. 20/100 km², are obtained only in very few and isolated areas) (Oliveira et al. in submission). This species is vulnerable in Argentina (Diaz and Ojeda 2000), Brazil (Machado et al. 2005) and in Colombia (MAVDT, 2005; Rodriguez-Mahecha et al., 2006).

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
The oncilla was heavily exploited for the fur trade decades ago, following the decline of the ocelot trade. Although international trade ceased, there is still some localized illegal hunting, usually for the domestic market. Current threats to this species include habitat loss, fragmentation, roads, illegal trade (pets and pelts), retaliatory killing due to depredation of poultry. Populations are severely fragmented and are being reduced severely by habitat conversion to plantations and pasture. Change in native species dynamics (predator/competitor) could represent another previously undetected potential threat (IUCN Cats Red List workshop, 2007). There is hybridization with Geoffroy's cat in the southernmost part of its range and with the pampas cat in central Brazil; this may be a natural or anthropogenic process and the extent of this as a threat is unknown (Eizirk et al. 2007).
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Included on CITES Appendix I. Hunting of the species is prohibited in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, French Guiana, Paraguay, Suriname and Venezuela (Nowell and Jackson 1996). In the Amazon, field records suggest that populations are extremely low - therefore these areas should not be perceived to be safeguards for the species as it is for other felids (Oliveira 2004). Populations in protected areas are expected to be very low, likely because of the impact of higher ocelot (L. pardalus) densities (Oliveira pers. comm.). Further studies are required on the species ecology, demographics, natural history, and threats. This species needs to be evaluated at the subspecies level due to genetic diversity within the species. A reassessment on the taxonomy of this species is an urgent research priority as the northern portion of the population might be a distinct species (IUCN Cats Red List workshop, 2007).
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Economic Importance for Humans: Negative

Oncillas are known to occasionally attack and kill poultry throughout its geographic range.

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Economic Importance for Humans: Positive

Oncillas are illegally hunted at localized points throughout their geographic range for their pelt, which is similar to that of ocelots and margays. Oncilla pelts were one of the most heavily traded cat furs between 1976 and 1982 and is occasionally traded in various domestic markets. They are also sought for illegal trade on the exotic pet market.

Positive Impacts: body parts are source of valuable material

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Wikipedia

Oncilla

Tiger Cat redirects here. For the Tom and Jerry Tales episode, see Tiger Cat (Tom and Jerry Tales).
Tiger Cat may also be an erroneous name for the Tiger Quoll.

The oncilla (Leopardus tigrinus), also known as the little spotted cat, tigrillo, or tiger cat, is a small spotted cat native to montane and tropical rainforests of Central and South America. It is active during the night and in twilight, but has also been recorded during the day.[2]

The oncilla is a close relative of the ocelot and the margay, and has a rich ochre coat, spotted with black rosettes.

Characteristics[edit]

The oncilla resembles the margay and the ocelot.[3] But it is smaller, with a slender build and narrower muzzle. It grows to 38 to 59 centimetres (15 to 23 in) long, plus a 20 to 42 centimetres (7.9 to 16.5 in) tail.[4] While this is somewhat longer than the average domestic cat, Leopardus tigrinus is generally lighter, weighing 1.5 to 3 kilograms (3.3 to 6.6 lb).[5]

The fur is thick and soft, ranging from light brown to dark ochre, with numerous dark rosettes across the back and flanks. The underside is pale with dark spots and the tail is ringed. The backs of the ears are black with bold ocelli. The rosettes are black or brown, open in the center, and irregularly shaped. The legs have medium-sized spots tapering to smaller spots near the paws. This coloration helps the oncilla blend in with the mottled sunlight of the tropical forest understory. The oncilla's jaw is shortened, with fewer teeth, but with well-developed carnassials and canines.[3]

Some melanistic oncillas have been reported from the more heavily forested parts of its range.[4]

Behavior[edit]

The oncilla is a primarily terrestrial animal, but is also an adept climber. Like all cats, the oncilla is an obligate carnivore, requiring meat for survival. This cat eats small mammals, lizards, birds, eggs, invertebrates, and the occasional tree frog. Occasionally, the cat will eat grasses. The oncilla stalks its prey from a distance, and once in range, it pounces to catch and kill the prey.[6]

They are generally nocturnal, but in areas such as Caatinga, where their main food source consists of diurnal lizards, they are more likely to be active during the day. Young oncillas have been observed to purr, while adults are known to make short, gurgling calls when close to one another.[4]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Oncillas are typically distributed from Costa Rica through Northern Argentina, and show a strong preference for montane forest. They are usually found in elevations higher than those of the margay or ocelot. They have been found in habitats as high as 4500m in Colombia, in the Andean highlands in Ecuador and Peru, and in the subtropical forest highlands in Brazil.[7] They have also been identified in cerrado and scrubland environments.[4]

They have been recorded in northern Panama, but the remainder of the country appears to be a gap in the range of the species.[8]

In 2013, the population in southern Brazil was assigned to a new species, L. guttulus, after it was found not to be interbreeding with the L. tigrinus population in northeast Brazil.[9]

Reproduction[edit]

Museum specimen in Genoa, Italy

Estrus lasts from 3 to 9 days, with older cats having shorter cycles.[8] Oncillas produce 1 to 3 kittens (usually only one), after a gestation of 74 to 76 days.[8] The kittens' eyes open after eight to seventeen days, an unusually long period for a cat of this size. Unlike other cats, in which the incisor teeth tend to appear first, the teeth of an oncilla kitten erupt more or less simultaneously, at around 21 days of age.[10] The kittens do not begin to take solid food until they are 38 to 56 days old (much older than in the domestic cat), but are fully weaned at three months.[4]

Oncillas reach sexual maturity at around two to two and a half years of age. They have a life span of about 11 years in the wild, but there are records of these cats reaching an age of 17 years.[8]

Subspecies[edit]

The following are the currently recognized subspecies:[1]

Although the Central American oncilla is listed as a separate subspecies, based on analysis of mitochondrial DNA, Johnson et al. (1999) found strongly supported differences between L.t. oncilla in Costa Rica and L.t. guttulus in southern Brazil, comparable to differences between different neotropical species. Researchers have argued that there should be a splitting of the oncilla into two species, as there is pronounced difference in appearance between the oncillas in Costa Rica as compared to those in central and southern Brazil. The level of divergence between oncillas from Costa Rica and from central and southern Brazil suggest that the two populations have been isolated, perhaps by the Amazon River, for approximately 3.7 million years.[12] Further samples of L.t. oncilla are needed from northern South America to determine whether this taxon ranges outside Central America, and whether it should be considered a distinct species rather than a subspecies.[11]

In 2013 genetic research revealed that the former subspecies L. t. guttulus is a separate cryptic species that does not interbreed with L. tigrinus.[13]

A zone of hybridization between the oncilla and the colocolo has been found through genetic analyses of specimens from central Brazil.[14]

Conservation[edit]

Oncillas are often killed for their fur

The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has classified the oncilla as vulnerable. The chief threats to these felines are deforestation and poaching. Oncillas are killed for their pelts, which are highly prized and often sold or made into clothing.[2] Reports in 1972 and 1982 in South America showed that the oncilla is one of the four most heavily hunted of all the small cats.[15]

Another factor contributing to oncilla mortality is human expansion, settling what was once open terrain for wild cats. Coffee plantations are most often established in cloud forest habitats, causing the reduction of preferred habitats.[16]

CITES places the oncilla on Appendix I, prohibiting all international commerce in oncillas or products made from them.[2] Hunting is still allowed in Ecuador, Guyana, Nicaragua, and Peru.[15]

Hybridization of the oncilla with the Geoffroy's cat (Leopardus geoffroyi) has been found in the southernmost part of its range; hybridization with the pampas cat (Leopardus pajeros) has also been found in central Brazil. Such hybridization may be a natural process, and the extent of this as a threat to the oncilla is unknown.[17]

Cat specialist groups are involved in studies and conservation of cats in all continents.[15] In situ management programs are increasingly being emphasized.[16]

There is a breeding facility in Brazil for several small native felines, where their natural conditions and native food encourage reproduction similar to that in the wild.[15] There are a few oncillas in captivity in North America, and a few in zoos in Europe and South America. In captivity, the oncilla tends to have high infant mortality rate.[16]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Wozencraft, W. C. (2005). "Order Carnivora". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 539. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494. 
  2. ^ a b c d de Oliveira, T., Eizirik, E., Schipper, J., Valderrama, C., Leite-Pitman, R. and Payan, E. (2008). "Leopardus tigrinus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. 
  3. ^ a b Leyhausen, P. (1963). "Über südamerikanische Pardelkatzen". Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie. 20(5): 627–640. 
  4. ^ a b c d e Sunquist, M.; Sunquist, F. (2002). Wild Cats of the World. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 130–134. ISBN 0-226-77999-8. 
  5. ^ University of Michigan Museum of Zoology
  6. ^ Leyhausen, P. and Tonkin, B. A. (1979). Cat behaviour. The predatory and social behaviour of domestic and wild cats. New York: Garland STPM Press. 
  7. ^ Mondolfi, E., Hoogesteijn, R. (1986). "Notes on the biology and status of the small wild cats in Venezuela". Miller, S. D., Everett, D. D. (eds.), Cats of the World: Biology, Conservation and Management. Washington, DC: National Wildlife Federation. pp. 125–146. 
  8. ^ a b c d Nowell, K., Jackson, P. (1996). The Wild Cats: A Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. Gland: IUCN. 
  9. ^ Trigo, Tatiane C.; Schneider, Alexsandra; de Oliveira, Tadeu G.; Lehugeur, Livia M.; Silveira, Leandro; Freitas, Thales R.O.; Eizirik, Eduardo (November 2013). "Molecular Data Reveal Complex Hybridization and a Cryptic Species of Neotropical Wild Cat". Current Biology. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2013.10.046. 
  10. ^ Quillen, P. (1981). "Hand-rearing the little spotted cat or oncilla". International Zoo Yearbook 21: 240–242. doi:10.1111/j.1748-1090.1981.tb01994.x. 
  11. ^ a b de Oliveira, T., Schipper, J. and Gonzalez-Maya, J. F. (2008). "Leopardus tigrinus ssp. oncilla". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. 
  12. ^ http://felids.wordpress.com/2010/11/03/featured-feline-oncilla/ International Society for Endangered Cats
  13. ^ Trigo TC, Schneider A, de Oliveira TG, Lehugeur LM, Silveira L, Freitas TR, Eizirik E (2013). "Molecular Data Reveal Complex Hybridization and a Cryptic Species of Neotropical Wild Cat". Current Biology.  Read more at Mongabay
  14. ^ Pereira, J., Lucherini, M., de Oliveira, T., Eizirik, E., Acosta, G. and Leite-Pitman, R. (2008). "Leopardus colocolo". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. 
  15. ^ a b c d Foreman, G. E. (ed.) (1988). Felid bibliography 1781-1988. Columbus, Ohio: Felid Research and Conservation Interest Group. pp. 34–72. 
  16. ^ a b c Fuller, K.S., Swift, B. (1985). Latin American Wildlife Trade Laws. Washington, DC: Traffic (USA). 
  17. ^ Eizirik, E., Trigo, T. C. and Haag, T. (2007). Conservation genetics and molecular ecology of Neotropical felids. In: J. Hughes and R. Mercer (eds.), Felid Biology and Conservation Conference 17–19 September: Abstracts. Pp. 40–41. WildCRU, Oxford, UK.
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