The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.

References

  • 1. IUCN Red List (August, 2007) http://www.iucnredlist.orghttp://www.iucnredlist.org External link.
  • 1998. website, Mammal Species of the World
  • 2. Macdonald, D.W. (2001) The Encyclopedia of Mammals. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • 3. Alden, P.C., Estes, R.D., Schlitter, D. and McBride, B. (1996) Collins Guide to African Wildlife. Harpercollins Publishers, London.
  • 4. Mills, M.G.L. and Hofer, H. (1998) Hyaenas. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Hyaena Specialist Group, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
  • 5. Szykman, M., Engh, A.L., Van Horn, R.C., Scribner, K.T., Smale, L. and Holekamp, K.E. (2003) Rare male aggression directed toward females in a female-dominated society: baiting behavior in the spotted hyena. Aggressive Behavior, 29: 457 - 474.
  • 6. Schneider, K.M. (1926) Uber Hyanenzucht. Die Peltztierzucht, 2: 1 - 14.
  • 7. Wahaj, S.A., Place, N.J., Weldele, M.L., Glickman, S.E. and Holekamp, K.E. in press. Siblicide in the spotted hyena: analysis with ultrasonic examination of wild and captive individuals. Behavioral Ecology.
  • 8. Holekamp, K.E., Smale, L. and Szykman, M. (1996) Rank and reproduction in the female spotted hyaena. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, 108: 229 - 237.
  • Berger, J. 1994. Science, conservation, and black rhinos. Journal of Mammalogy 75:298-308.
  • Carbone, C., and J. L. Gittleman. 2002. A common rule for the scaling of carnivore density. Science 295:2273-2276.
  • Carey, J. R., and D. S. Judge. 2001. Mammals. Pages 32-65 in J. R. Carey and D. S. Judge, editors. Longevity Records: Life Spans of Mammals, Birds, Amphibians, Reptiles and Fish. Odense University Press.
  • Damuth, J. 1993. Cope's rule, the island rule and the scaling of mammalian population density. Nature 365:748-750.
  • Di Silvestre, I., O. Novelli, G. Bogliani. 2000. Feeding habits of the spotted hyaena in the Niokolo Koba National Park, Senegal. African Journal of Ecology, 38: 102-107.
  • East, M., H. Hofer. 2001. Male spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) queue for status in social groups dominated by females. Behavioral Ecology, 12/5: 558-568.
  • Eltringham, S. 1979. Ecology and Conservation of Large African Mammals. London: MacMillann Press Ltd.
  • Engh, A., K. Esch, L. Smale, K. Holekamp. 2000. Mechanisms of maternal rank ‘inheritance’ in the spotted hyaena, Crocuta crocuta . Animal Behaviour, 60: 323-332.
  • Estes, R. 1993. The Safari Companion: A Guide to Watching African Mammals. White River Junction: Chelsea Green Publishing Company.
  • Frank, L., K. Holekamp, L. Smale. 1995. Dominance, demography, and reproductive success of female spotted hyenas. Pp. 364-384 in A Sinclair, P Arcese, eds. Serengeti II: Dynamics, Management, and Conservation of an Ecosystem. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Gittleman, J. L. 1982. The behavioural ecology of carnivores. University of Sussex.
  • Hayssen, V., A. V. Tienhoven, and A. V. Tienhoven. 1993. Asdell's Patterns of Mammalian Reproduction: A Compendium of Species-Specific Data. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, USA.
  • Hofer, H. 2002. "Spotted Hyaena" (On-line). IUCN Species Survival Commission Hyaenidae Specialist Group. Accessed March 31, 2004 at http://www.hyaena.ge/spotted.htm.
  • Hofer, H., M. East. 1995. Population dynamics, population size, and the commuting system of Serengeti spotted hyenas. Pp. 332-363 in A Sinclair, P Arcese, eds. Serengeti II: Dynamics, Management, and Conservation of an Ecosystem. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Hofer, H., M. East. 2003. Behavioral processes and costs of co-existence in female spotted hyaenas: a life history perspective. Evolutionary Ecology, 17: 315-331.
  • Holekamp, K., S. Cooper, C. Katona, N. Berry, L. Frank, L. Smale. 1997. Patterns of association among female spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta). Journal of Mammalogy, 78/1: 55-64.
  • Kelt, D. A., and D. H. Van Vuren. 2001. The Ecology and Macroecology of Mammalian Home Range Area. American Naturalist 157:637-645.
  • Kingdon, J. 1977. East African Mammals: An Atlas of Evolution in Africa. New York: Academic Press.
  • Kruuk, H. 1972. The Spotted Hyena: A Study of Predation and Social Behavior. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Mills, G., L. Hes. 1997. The Complete Book of Southern African Mammals. Cape Town: Struik Winchester.
  • Muller, M., R. Wrangham. 2002. Sexual mimicry in hyenas. The Quarterly Review of Biology, 77/1: 3-16.
  • Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 16, 2011 at http://animaldiversity.org. http://www.animaldiversity.org
  • Nowak, R. 1999. Walker's Mammals of the World, Sixth Edition. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2013). ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Sept 12). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at www.catalogueoflife.org/col/. Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Richard Weigl (2005) Longevity of Mammals in Captivity; from the Living Collections of the World. Kleine Senckenberg-Reihe 48: Stuttgart.
  • Smith, F. A., S. K. Lyons, S. K. M. Ernest, K. E. Jones, D. M. Kaufman, T. Dayan, P. Marquet, J. H. Brown, and J. P. Haskell. 2003. Body size of late Quaternary mammals. Ecology 84:3403.
  • Type: Heller, E. 1914 Jan 26. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. 61 (22): 5.
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1992. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1993. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing. xviii + 1207
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 2005. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vols. 1 & 2
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 2005. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vols. 1 & 2. 2142
  • Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole. 2000. Common Names of Mammals of the World
  • Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole. 2000. Common Names of Mammals of the World. xiv + 204

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