Overview

Distribution

Catopuma badia is endemic to the island of Borneo. (Nowak, 1991)

Biogeographic Regions: oriental (Native )

Other Geographic Terms: island endemic

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Range Description

Found only on the island Borneo, where its distribution is poorly known, with increasing but relatively few recent records (Nowell and Jackson 1996, Meijaard 1997, Dinets 2003, Azlan et al. 2003, Hearn and Bricknell 2003, Kitchener et al. 2004, Meijaard et al. 2005, Azlan and Sanderson 2007, Yasuda et al. 2007, Azlaand Sanderson 2007).

Historically it probably occurred islandwide (Meijaard 1997, Azlan and Sanderson 2007). However, there are still no confirmed records from Brunei (J. Sanderson pers. comm. 2008). Meijard's (1997) records went up to 500 m elevation, and it may range up to 800 m (Giman and Boeadi, Indonesia mammal assessment, 2006) or higher - there is an unconfirmed record from 1,800 m on Mt. Kinabulu (Payne et al. 1985).

The map shows range within forest cover (European Commission, Joint Research Centre, 2003) to reflect patchiness caused by deforestation upon recommendation of the assessors (IUCN Cats Red List workshop 2007).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Catopuma badia occurs in two different colors, chestnust red, which is more common, and gray. Catopuma badia has dark colored, rounded ears, and a whitish stripe that runs down the ventral side of the body. Catopuma badia weighs between three and five kilograms, and is between 530 and 700 mm in length. (Sunquist et al. 1994)

Range mass: 3 to 5 kg.

Range length: 530 to 700 mm.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; bilateral symmetry

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Catopuma badia inhabits dense primary forests and area of rocky limestone. Catopuma badia has also been seen in highland areas and near rivers. (The World Conservation Union, 1996)

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
The Borneo Bay Cat appears to be forest dependent, with records from hill and lowland forest as well as swamp forest (Meijaard 1997, Azlan et al. 2003, Hearn and Bricknell 2003, Azlan and Sanderson 2007, Yasuda et al. 2007). It has been recorded from regenerating logged forest (Nowell and Jackson 1996, Hearn and Bricknell 2003, Kitchener et al. 2004, Meijaard et al. 2005a). It has never been studied and there is no information about its diet (Nowell and Jackson 1996, Sunquist and Sunquist 2002). It occurs in both a reddish and grey colour phase. Observations and camera trap photos have occurred at mid-day (Azlan et al. 2003, Yasuda et al. 2007), early morning (Hearn and Bricknell 2003), and at night (Dinets 2003, Meijaard et al. 2005a).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Trophic Strategy

The foods of this species include small rodents and birds, carrion, and even monkeys. While this cat is very small and rare, Catopuma badia can be extremely vicious, and it attack animals much bigger than itself. (Postanowicz, 2001)

Animal Foods: birds; mammals; carrion

Primary Diet: carnivore (Eats terrestrial vertebrates)

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Perception Channels: tactile ; chemical

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Reproduction

Key Reproductive Features: gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual

Parental Investment: altricial

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

Catopuma badia is very rare, and little is known about it. Catopuma badia is protected in all environments where it is thought to be located (Rang, 2000).

CITES: appendix i

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: endangered

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
EN
Endangered

Red List Criteria
C1

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Hearn, A., Sanderson, J., Ross, J., Wilting, A. & Sunarto, S.

Reviewer/s
Nowell, K., Breitenmoser-Wursten, C., Breitenmoser, U. (Cat Red List Authority) & Schipper, J. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)

Contributor/s

Justification
The Borneo Bay Cat is forest-dependent, and forest cover on the island of Borneo, if current deforestation rates continue, is projected to decline from 50% to less than one-third by 2020 (Rautner et al. 2005). A decline of >20% in the Borneo Bay Cat population is thus projected over the next 12 years (= two generations) (IUCN Cats Red List Workshop 2007).

The Borneo Bay Cat appears to occur at low densities relative to other sympatric small felids, based on the paucity of both historical and recent records (Nowell and Jackson 1996, Meijaard 1997, Sunquist and Sunquist 2002, Dinets 2003, Azlan et al. 2003, Hearn and Bricknell 2003, Meijaard et al. 2005, Yasuda et al. 2007). The effective population size is suspected to be below 2,500 mature individuals (IUCN Cats Red List Workshop 2007).

History
  • 2002
    Endangered
  • 1996
    Vulnerable
  • 1994
    Insufficiently Known
    (Groombridge 1994)
  • 1990
    Rare
    (IUCN 1990)
  • 1988
    Rare
    (IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 1988)
  • 1986
    Rare
    (IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 1986)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Population

Population
The Borneo Bay Cat appears relatively rare compared to sympatric felids, based on the paucity of historical as well as recent records.

Population Trend
Decreasing
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

Major Threats
Habitat loss due to commercial logging and oil palm plantations are the major threat. Oil palm plantations are likely to expand in the future as a result of the push for biofuels, and forest cover on the island of Borneo, if current deforestation rates continue, is projected to decline from 50% to less than one-third by 2020 (Rautner et al. 2005). Wildlife traders are aware of the species' rarity, and bay cats have been captured illegally from the wild for the skin and pet markets (Sunquist and Sunquist 2002, Kitchener et al. 2004, Azlan and Sanderson 2007).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Included on CITES Appendix II (as Catopuma badia). It is fully protected by national legislation across most of its range. Hunting and trade are prohibited in Indonesia (Kalimantan) and Malaysia (Sabah and Sarawak) (Nowell and Jackson 1996). It has been confirmed to occur in the following protected areas:

Sabah: Danum Valley Conservation Area (Nowell and Jackson 1996)

Sarawak - Gunung Mulu National Park (Dinets 2003), Lanjak-Entimau Wildlife Sanctuary (Azlan et al. 2003)

Kalimantan: Gunung Palung National Park, Bentuang Karimum National Park (Meijaard 1997), Sungai Wain Protection Forest (Yasuda et al. 2007)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!