Articles on this page are available in 1 other language: Spanish (2) (learn more)

Overview

Brief Summary

Description

Eastern chipmunks are found in forests, but also in suburban gardens and city parks, as long as there are rocks, stumps, or fallen logs to provide perching sites and cover for burrow entrances. They dig complex burrows with many entrances and chambers as well as short escape tunnels, and each chipmunk defends a small area around its burrow, threatening, chasing, and even fighting with a neighbor who invades the space. The chipmunks spend the winter underground, but venture to the surface occasionally on mild, sunny days. They enter torpor for a few days at a time, and then arouse to feed on stored nuts and seeds. Life expectancy in the wild is slightly more than a year.

Links:
Mammal Species of the World
Click here for The American Society of Mammalogists species account
  • Original description: Linnaeus, C., 1758.  Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classis, ordines, genera, species cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis, p. 64.  Tenth Edition, Vol. 1. Laurentii Salvii, Stockholm, 1:1-824.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Smithsonian Institution

Source: Smithsonian's North American Mammals

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Eastern chipmunks are widely distributed throughout the eastern United States and southeastern Canada. Their range extends from Nova Scotia, east to Saskatchewan and south to Oklahoma, where they occupy the eastern part of the state. Their range includes eastern Louisiana and the Florida Panhandle. This species does not occupy the peninsula of Florida or the coastal plains region, from Florida to North Carolina. They are not native to Newfoundland, but have been introduced.

Biogeographic Regions: nearctic (Introduced , Native )

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Range Description

This species is widely distributed throughout the eastern United States and adjoining Canada, from southeast Saskatchewan to Nova Scotia, south to western Oklahoma and eastern Louisiana (in the west) and to coastal Virginia (in the east). It is absent from peninsular Florida and the coastal plain between Florida and northern North Carolina. It is introduced to Newfoundland.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Global Range: Southern Manitoba to Nova Scotia, south through most of the eastern U.S. except much of Coastal Plain of Southeast.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Geographic Range

Eastern chipmunks are only native to the Nearctic region. They live throughout eastern and central United States as far south as Louisiana and Mississippi. They occur north into Canada including southern Ontario, Quebec, and Manitoba, and New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island.

Biogeographic Regions: nearctic (Native )

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: BioKIDS Critter Catalog

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Eastern chipmunks are small rodents with grayish to reddish brown fur and a distinguishing yellowish to reddish patch on their rumps. Their pelage color and pattern varies by geography. Their underparts are white. Their sides and back have five dark stripes; the longest stripe occurs along their midline. Between their dark lateral stripes, there is a narrow white band. Light and dark stripes occur on their face around their eyes. Their tail is hairy, but not bushy and is somewhat flattened. Their rounded ears measure less than 20 mm. Their forefeet have four toes and their hindfeet have five. Eastern chipmunks have large cheek pouches located on either side of their mouth. The stripe along their body distinguishes them from all other rodents except least chipmunks. However, least chipmunks' stripes extend to the base of their tail, whereas, eastern chipmunks' stripes stop before their rump patch. Eastern chipmunks are noticeably larger than least chipmunks, which helps to distinguish between the two species.

Range mass: 66 to 115 g.

Range length: 255 to 266 mm.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; bilateral symmetry

Average basal metabolic rate: 0.813 W.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Eastern chipmunks are reddish brown in color. Their backs are striped with alternating black, white, and reddish-brown. Their eyes are rimmed with white fur. Their stomach is usually a yellowish brown or white color. Their tails are reddish brown tipped with black and well-furred.  Eastern chipmunks have cheek pouches that they use to transport food items, nesting material, and soil from their burrows. When these cheek pouches are full each can be nearly the size of the chipmunk's head.

Range mass: 80.0 to 150.0 g.

Average mass: 130.0 g.

Range length: 215.0 to 285.0 mm.

Average length: 255.0 mm.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; bilateral symmetry

Sexual Dimorphism: sexes alike

Average basal metabolic rate: 0.813 W.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: BioKIDS Critter Catalog

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Size

Length: 30 cm

Weight: 139 grams

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Size in North America

Sexual Dimorphism: None

Length:
Average: 255 mm
Range: 215-285 mm

Weight:
Average: 130 g
Range: 80-150 g
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Smithsonian Institution

Source: Smithsonian's North American Mammals

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

In the western portion of their range, eastern chipmunks inhabit wooded areas, river valleys and are interspersed in habitats distant from deciduous forests. This ground dwelling mammal inhabits open deciduous forests where cover is readily available in the form of stumps, logs or rocky outcrops. Their prime habitat is mature beech-maple forests, but they will occupy bushy areas and coniferous forests, however, swampy sites are avoided.

Terrestrial Biomes: forest

Other Habitat Features: urban ; suburban ; agricultural

  • Da Silva, K., C. Mahan, J. Da Silva. 2002. The Trill of the Chase: Eastern Chipmunks Call to Warn Kin. Journal of Mammalogy, May 2002, Vol. 83, No. 2: 546-552.
  • Kurta, . 1995. Mammals of the Great Lakes Region. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
It prefers deciduous woodlands with ample cover, such as brush piles or logs, rocky forested slopes, ravines. Also found in brushlands and hedgerows. Commonly climbs trees and shrubs. Burrows often open at edge or rock, near base of tree, or under the edge of a building. Nest is generally constructed below ground in an extensive burrow system.

Breeding period is from mid-March to early April. A second breeding period occurs from mid-July to mid-August involving young of the previous year. Gestation lasts 31 days. Litter size is 4-15 (3-5 most often). One to two litters per year. Commonly lives 2-3 years, sometimes 5-6 years.

Home range is less than one hectare, typically 0.08-0.60 ha, largest in early summer and early fall; core area of home range is defended against conspecific neighbours; largest home ranges are those of breeding males; low water availability may result in increased home range size. Individuals may make long movements outside their usual range; non dispersing individuals have lifetime home range lengths of up to at least 0.5 km, and dispersal movements may extend to at least 0.9 km (Roberts 1976).

This species utilizes a wide variety of seeds, fruits, and nuts, some mushrooms and insects. Active during the day. In winter, becomes torpid, with frequent arousals.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Comments: Prefers deciduous woodlands with ample cover, such as brush piles/logs, rocky forested slopes, ravines. Also found in brushlands and hedgerows. Commonly climbs trees/shrubs. Burrows often open at edge or rock, near base of tree, or under edge of building. Nest is generally constructed below ground in an extensive burrow system.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Eastern chipmunks are found primarily in open, deciduous forests throughout their range. They are often found near rocks, stumps, or fallen logs which serve as perching and runway sites. They construct burrows in dry, well-drained soil. These burrows can be quite extensive and include storage chambers for food and multiple entrances. Eastern chipmunks hide burrow entrances with leaves and rocks and may live in them for several years.  Eastern chipmunks do well in urban and suburban areas by using parks, golf courses, cemeteries, and woodlots.

Habitat Regions: temperate ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: forest

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: BioKIDS Critter Catalog

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Migration

Non-Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species do not make significant seasonal migrations. Juvenile dispersal is not considered a migration.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

Home range is less than 1 ha, typically 0.08-0.60 ha, largest in early summer and early fall; core area of home range is defended against conspecific neighbors; largest home ranges are those of breeding males; low water availability may result in increased home range size.

Individuals may make long movements outside their usual range; nondispersing individuals have lifetime home range lengths of up to at least 0.5 km, and dispersal movements may extend to at least 0.9 km (Roberts 1976).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Trophic Strategy

Dietary staples include fruit, seeds and nuts. This is supplemented with insects, earthworms, slugs, bird’s eggs and mushrooms. Food is transported within cheek pouches located on either side of the mouth. Eastern chipmunks demonstrate food caching behavior throughout the year, but are particularly active in the early autumn to prepare for winter. Eastern chipmunks scatter-hoarder and will leave caches throughout their home range or in one of the rooms their burrow. They do not have the fat stores to hibernate, but instead enter periods of torpor. Chipmunks may arise frequently to feed and during mild winter weather they may forage above ground.

Animal Foods: eggs; insects; terrestrial worms

Plant Foods: seeds, grains, and nuts; fruit

Other Foods: fungus

Foraging Behavior: stores or caches food

Primary Diet: herbivore (Granivore ); omnivore

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Comments: Utilizes a wide variety of seeds, fruits, and nuts, some mushrooms and insects.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Food Habits

Eastern chipmunks are omnivores. They eat a wide variety of foods including nuts, acorns, seeds, mushrooms, fruits, berries, and corn. They also eat Insecta, Aves, and sometimes small animals such as young Peromyscus leucopus.

Animal Foods: birds; mammals; eggs; insects

Plant Foods: seeds, grains, and nuts; fruit

Other Foods: fungus

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: BioKIDS Critter Catalog

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Associations

Eastern chipmunks are primarily 'larder hoarders'. Seeds stored in this way cannot establish seedlings and are not beneficial to plant dispersal. However, their occasional scatter-hoarding behavior can be beneficial in seedling establishment. They also are important to spore dispersal for different kinds of fungi. Because of their abundance, chipmunks are a valuable prey item for a variety of species.

Ecosystem Impact: disperses seeds

  • Vander Wall, S., S. Jenkins. 2011. Plant-animal interactions and climate: Why do yellow pine chipmunks (Tamias amoenus) and eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus) have such different effects on plants?. Ecoscience, 18(2): 130-137.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Eastern chipmunks are prey for most diurnal predators including weasels, felids and domestic dogs and cats. Large raptors including red-tailed hawks and goshawks also prey on chipmunks.

Known Predators:

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecosystem Roles

Eastern chipmunks are often common small mammals in the areas where they live. Because of this they are important as prey items for small predators such as bobcats, foxes, hawks, owls, and snakes. Eastern chipmunks also may disperse the seeds of the plants that they eat and aerate and recycle soil as a result of the burrowing.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: BioKIDS Critter Catalog

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Predation

Eastern chipmunks are alert and fast, they take refuge in their underground burrow systems to escape from predators. Eastern chipmunks are preyed on by Vulpes vulpes, Squamata, Accipitridae, Strigiformes, Falconidae, and Mustela.

Known Predators:

  • red foxes (Vulpes_vulpes)
  • snakes (Serpentes)
  • hawks (Accipitridae)
  • owls (Strigiformes)
  • falcons (Falconidae)
  • weasels (Mustela)

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: BioKIDS Critter Catalog

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Known predators

Tamias striatus is prey of:
Squamata
Strigiformes
Accipitridae
Falconidae
Mustela
Vulpes vulpes

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© SPIRE project

Source: SPIRE

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

General Ecology

Depending on the season, densities may vary from less than 1 to 15 per acre (Yerger 1953), sometimes up to 30 per acre. In Virginia, populations were highest in the year following a large mast crop (Wolff 1996, J. Mamm. 77:850-856).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Eastern chipmunks are extremely vocal and produce a variety of chips, trills and calls to alert others to the presence of predators or for territory defense. Territorial calls lead to aggressive behavior when another individual is present. High intense chases establish hierarchies among groups of males competing for access to females, individuals display aggressive and submissive postures during these behaviors. Sniffing hindquarters and touching noses provides chemical signals during these interactions. Alarm calls can be costly and the benefits must outweigh the costs to justify such behavior. Eastern chipmunks give three distinct calls: chipping, chucking and trilling. Chipping and chucking are repeated calls lasting up to thirty minutes. Trills are shorter in duration and are given during pursuit by a predator. The other calls are typically given when a predator is spotted.

Eastern chipmunks react to alarm calls by altering their foraging behavior and becoming more alert. After an alarm call, they expend greater energy and spend more time exposed at feeding stations because they decrease the amount of food carried to caches after hearing the call. Eastern chipmunks increase vigilance, run shorter more direct distances and delay emergence from burrows after hearing an alarm call, which suggest that the calls directly affected behavior. Trill vocalizations are complicated and more difficult to understand than the other two types of calls. Adult females are most likely to trill when close (10 m from the burrow) to relatives. Females do not disperse as far as males and have more relatives living close to their burrows. Juvenile females trill at a lower rate than adults, this may indicate their higher predation risk or smaller fitness gain. Males trill farther from the burrow, 100 m or greater. This could be because males are uncertain of kinship and trilling would put an individual at higher risk.  Trilling occurs in all active seasons, not just during juvenile emergence, which discounts the hypothesis that trilling is a mechanism of parental care. The primary function of trill calls is likely to warn nearby relatives of predators. This increases an individual’s overall fitness by helping related individuals.

Communication Channels: acoustic ; chemical

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Communication and Perception

Eastern chipmunks have excellent vision, hearing, and sense of smell. They communicate with each other by making a variety of sounds, including the 'chip' for which they are named.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: BioKIDS Critter Catalog

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Cyclicity

Comments: Active during the day. In winter, becomes torpid, with frequent arousals. Activity may be reduced in late summer (Lacki et al. 1984). Active mostly late April-December, especially in fall, at southern limit of range.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life Expectancy

Most eastern chipmunks survive less than two years, but there are accounts of chipmunks living up to eight years.

Range lifespan

Status: wild:
2 to 8 years.

Average lifespan

Status: wild:
8 years.

Average lifespan

Status: wild:
3.0 years.

Average lifespan

Status: captivity:
8.0 years.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Lifespan/Longevity

About half of all chipmunks in any given year are young that were born in that season. Chipmunks in the wild live, on average, just over one year.

Average lifespan

Status: wild:
1.0 years.

Average lifespan

Status: wild:
3.0 years.

Average lifespan

Status: captivity:
8.0 years.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: BioKIDS Critter Catalog

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 9.5 years (captivity) Observations: These animals have been known to live at least 2-3 years in the wild (Ronald Nowak 1999). One specimen lived 9.5 years in captivity. Another specimen of unknown sex lived over 9 years at London Zoo but could have been older because the exact date of birth is not known (Richard Weigl 2005).
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Joao Pedro de Magalhaes

Source: AnAge

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Reproduction

Eastern chipmunks are polygamous. During a brief estrous period, females mate with multiple males. Typically females in estrous stay within their home range and males come from outside areas to mate. On average, males travel 170 meters from their burrow to mate.

Mating System: polygynous

Eastern chipmunks produce two litters per year; one in early spring and one in midsummer. Their gestation period lasts 35 days. Litters consist of 2 to 5 altricial young, which are born blind and hairless in underground nests. Litter sizes are dependent on resource availability and the age of the mother.

Breeding interval: Eastern chipmunks have 2 breeding seasons.

Breeding season: One of their breeding seasons begins in February and lasts until April and the second begins in June and ends in August.

Range number of offspring: 2 to 5.

Average gestation period: 35 days.

Average weaning age: 40 days.

Average time to independence: 2 months.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 1 years.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 1 years.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; viviparous

Average birth mass: 3.4 g.

Average gestation period: 31 days.

Average number of offspring: 5.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)

Sex: male:
228 days.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)

Sex: female:
187 days.

At birth, young weigh just 3 grams. The neonates are weaned 40 days after birth. After weaning, females move to a new burrow, leaving their young in the natal burrow until they disperse. Young become independent two months after birth. Males disperse farther than females. Females stay close to their home burrow with their range sometimes overlapping. Most young do not breed until the spring following their birth.

Parental Investment: female parental care

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Breeding period is from mid-March to early April. A second breeding period occurs from mid-July to mid-August involving young of the previous year. Gestation lasts 31 days. Litter size is 4-15 (3-5 most often). One to two litters per year. Commonly lives 2-3 years, sometimes 5-6 years.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Eastern chipmunks have 2 breeding seasons. One season begins in February and lasts until April and the second begins in June and ends in August. Males and females do not stay together after they mate. Eastern chipmunks can begin having babies when they are about 1 year old. The time from when a female gets pregnant to when she gives birth is 31 days and the usual litter size is 4 to 5, although litters as large as 9 have been found. Young Eastern Chipmunks do not appear above ground for 6 weeks after they are born.

Breeding season: February-April, June-August

Range number of offspring: 1.0 to 9.0.

Average number of offspring: 4.0.

Average gestation period: 31.0 days.

Average weaning age: 6.0 weeks.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 1.0 years.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 1.0 years.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); fertilization ; viviparous

Average birth mass: 3.4 g.

Average gestation period: 31 days.

Average number of offspring: 5.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)

Sex: male:
228 days.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)

Sex: female:
187 days.

Young are cared for in the nest by their mother until they are weaned at about 6 weeks old. Soon after that they disperse from their mother's range.

Parental Investment: altricial ; female parental care

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: BioKIDS Critter Catalog

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Tamias striatus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 15 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

AACTTTATACCTCCTATTTGGTGCTTGAGCAGGAATGGTTGGCACAGCACTTAGCCTACTAATCCGAGCGGAATTGGGTCAGCCCGGGGCTTTATTAGGAGATGACCAAATTTATAATGTCATTGTAACCGCACATGCATTTGTAATAATTTTCTTTATAGTTATACCAATTATAATCGGCGGCTTTGGAAACTGATTAGTTCCACTAATAATTGGCGCCCCTGACATAGCATTTCCACGAATAAACAATATAAGCTTCTGACTTCTTCCACCATCCTTTCTACTCCTTTTAGCCTCATCAATAGTTGAAGCTGGGGCGGGGACAGGTTGAACAGTTTATCCTCCTTTAGCTGGAAATCTAGCACATGCAGGAGCCTCAGTAGATTTAACAATTTTTTCCTTGCACCTAGCAGGAGTATCATCTATTCTCGGAGCAATTAATTTCATTACAACTATTATTAACATAAAACCTCCCGCAATATCTCAATATCAAACTCCACTATTTGTGTGATCAGTATTAATCACAGCAGTACTGCTTCTTCTATCCCTCCCAGTTCTAGCCGCAGGAATTACAATATTATTAACGGACCGAAACTTAAATACAACATTTTTTGATCCTGCAGGGGGTGGAGACCCTATTCTCTACCAACACTTATTT
-- end --

Download FASTA File

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Tamias striatus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 5
Specimens with Barcodes: 20
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

Eastern chipmunks are listed as a species of Least Concern according to the IUCN Red List.

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

State of Michigan List: no special status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Linzey, A.V. & NatureServe (Hammerson, G.)

Reviewer/s
Amori, G. (Small Nonvolant Mammal Red List Authority) & Chanson, J. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Least Concern because it is very widespread, abundant, and there are no major threats.

History
  • 1996
    Lower Risk/least concern
    (Baillie and Groombridge 1996)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Eastern Chipmunks are not in danger unless where they live is destroyed. The main threat to their survival is farmers who kill them to save their crops.

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

State of Michigan List: no special status

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: BioKIDS Critter Catalog

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Population

Population
This species is abundant. Depending on the season, population densities may vary from less than one to 15 per acre (Yerger 1953), and sometimes up to 30 per acre.

Population Trend
Stable
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

Major Threats
There are no major threats to this species.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Comments: Mahan and Yahner (1998) found no evidence of a population response to forest fragmentation in central Pennsylvania. Nupp and Swihart (1998) found that this species may be negatively affected by forest fragmentation, possibly through increased rates of predation.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
The range of this species includes several protected areas.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Some Sciurids cause destruction to crops in gardens, fields and in food storage areas. Eastern chipmunks are not noted for causing this type of damage.

Negative Impacts: crop pest

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Eastern chipmunks are not significantly important to the economy. Eastern chipmunks eat insects and may be helpful in controlling the population of some pest species. They are also easily tamed and can make unique pets.

Positive Impacts: pet trade ; controls pest population

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Economic Importance for Humans: Negative

Eastern chipmunks sometimes search for food in farm fields causing destruction of crops.

Negative Impacts: crop pest

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: BioKIDS Critter Catalog

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Economic Importance for Humans: Positive

Eastern chipmunks have played a small role in the fur trade. They eat insects and may help to control the numbers of insects. They also can distribute seeds of different plants to new areas.

Positive Impacts: body parts are source of valuable material; controls pest population

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: BioKIDS Critter Catalog

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Eastern chipmunk

The eastern chipmunk (Tamias (Tamias) striatus) is a chipmunk species found in eastern North America. It is the sole living member of the chipmunk subgenus Tamias, sometimes recognised as a separate genus.[2] The name "chipmunk" comes from the Odawa (Ottawa) word ajidamoonh or the Ojibwe word ajidamoo, which translates literally as "one who descends trees headlong."[4]

Description[edit]

A small species, it reaches about 30 cm in length including the tail, and a weight between 66 and 150 g.[5] It has reddish-brown fur on its upper body and five dark brown stripes contrasting with light brown stripes along its back, ending in a dark tail. It has lighter fur on the lower part of its body. It has a tawny stripe that runs from its whiskers to below its ears, and light stripes over its eyes. It has two fewer teeth than other chipmunks and four toes each on the front legs but five on the hind legs.[6]

Habitat[edit]

The eastern chipmunk lives in deciduous wooded areas and urban parks throughout the eastern United States and southern Canada. It prefers locations with rocky areas and shrubs to provide cover.

Behavior[edit]

It can climb trees well but constructs underground nests with extensive tunnel systems, often with several entrances. To hide the construction of its burrow, the eastern chipmunk carries dirt to a different location in its cheek pouches. It also lines the burrow with leaves, rocks, sticks, and other material, making it even harder to see.[7] It has several bird-like or chattering calls; one is a trill at the rate of 130 vibrations per minute and another is a lower-pitched, clicking sound.[6]

Diet[edit]

It is mainly active during the day, spending most of its day foraging. It prefers bulbs, seeds, fruits, nuts, green plants, mushrooms, insects, worms, and bird eggs. Like other chipmunks, it transports food in pouches in its cheeks.

Life cycle[edit]

The eastern chipmunk defends its burrow and lives a solitary life, except during mating season. Females usually produce one or two litters of three to five young.[6] There are two breeding seasons, one from February to April, and the other from June to August. During the winter, the chipmunk may enter long periods of torpor, but does not truly hibernate.[8]

Predators of the eastern chipmunk include hawks, foxes, raccoons, weasels, snakes, bobcats, lynx, and domestic cats. On average, eastern chipmunks live three or more years in the wild, but in captivity they may live as long as eight years.[6]

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Linzey, A. V.; NatureServe (2008). "Tamias striatus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 25 November 2010. 
  2. ^ a b Thorington, R. W., Jr.; Hoffman, R. S. (2005). "Tamias (Tamias) striatus". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 817. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494. 
  3. ^ Tamias, funet.fi
  4. ^ Chipmunk, Online Etymology Dictionary
  5. ^ http://www.arkive.org/eastern-chipmunk/tamias-striatus/
  6. ^ a b c d Eastern Chipmunk, West Virginia Wildlife Series
  7. ^ Chipmunks, Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Nebraska. p.B-14.
  8. ^ The mother of all hangovers, McGill University WARM SPARK
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Based on ectoparasites (Jameson 1999) and genetics (Piaggio and Spicer 2001), the Texas Tech North American mammal checklist (Baker et al. 2003) adopted Neotamias as the generic name for all North American chipmunks (except Tamias striatus).

Thorington and Hoffmann (in Wilson and Reeder 2005) noted that chipmunks could be legitimately allocated to one (Tamias), two (Neotamias, Tamias), or three (Tamias, Neotamias, Eutamias) genera; they chose to adopt the single-genus (Tamias) arrangement.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!