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Range DescriptionThis species is found in northern Myanmar, Lao PDR, China, Japan, DPR Korea, Republic of Korea, Pakistan, Nepal, India (Himalayas), Bhutan, Russia (from Kirov Province, Tataria and western Ural Mountains throughout Siberia to Far East), Taiwan, and northern Thailand (Pocock 1941, Duckworth 1997, Wozencraft, 2005). In Japan, it has been introduced to Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu Islands (Abe, 2005). It is native on the islands of Sakhalin, Kamishima, and Jeju (Abe, 2005). The distribution in southeast Asia is poorly known (A. Abramov pers. comm. 2006). The species was recorded recently in two locations in national parks in Thailand (Kanchanasaka pers. comm) and in one location in Lao PDR, Nakai-Nam Theun National Biodiversity Conservation Area in 1996 (Duckworth, 1997; sight record only). Gao and Sun (2005) conducted a study of the effects of this species on Liadong oak (Quercus wutaishanica) in Beijing Forest Ecosystem Research Station (BFERS, 40 00 N, 115 26 E), one of the research stations affiliated to the Chinese Ecosystem Research Network (CERN) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). This species seems to prefer mountains from 1500 to 5000 m in the southern part of its range (Lekagul and McNeely, 1988) but there is one provisional sighting in Khammouan Limestone National Biodiversity Conservation Area in valley semi-evergreen forest amid karst at about 500 m in 1998 (Robinson and Webber, 1998).