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BiologyBlack rhinoceros are mainly solitary creatures, occupying overlapping home ranges (5). In this long-lived species females reach sexual maturity at around five to seven years old and give birth to a single calf every two to four years (6). Births can occur throughout the year and each calf tends to remain with its mother until the birth of her next offspring. Rhinoceros have poor eyesight but a keen sense of smell and hearing (5). They are inquisitive and often aggressive towards humans and other animals (4). Using their prehensile lip, black rhinoceros feed on the leaves and twigs of a variety of woody plants and herbs (4). Foraging often occurs in the cool of dawn and dusk; they spend much of the rest of the day resting in the shade or wallowing in shallow water holes, coating their skin in mud to protect it from the harsh sun and to deter biting flies (2).