Overview

Brief Summary

Perna viridis

The Asian green mussel, Perna viridis, is a large (> 80 mm) bivalve, with a smooth, elongate shell typical of several mytilids (but see below). It has visible concentric growth rings and a ventral margin that is distinctly concave on one side. The characteristic green coloration comes from the periostrocum, the proteinaceous outer layer of the shell. It is uniformly bright green in juveniles, but dulls to brown with green margins in mature individuals. The inner surfaces of the valves are smooth and iridescent blue to bluish-green in color. A prominent, kidney-shaped retractor muscle scar is present, but the species lacks anterior adductor muscles. Close examination of the beak (i.e., where the two valves hinge together) reveals a pair of hinge teeth on the left valve that interlock with a single hinge tooth on the right valve (DeVictor and Knott undated, NIMPIS 2002, Rajagopal et al. 2005).

As is typical of most members of the family, P. viridis attaches to hard surfaces by means of proteinaceous byssal threads.

Green mussels are coastal bivalves, typically occurring at depths of less than 10 m, and shown to be tolerant of a wide range of turbidity and pollution (Power 2004).

The native range of the Asian green mussel broadly encompasses the Asia-Pacific and Indo-Pacific regions. The known introduced range of the species is extensive and includes portions of coastal Australia, Japan, the Caribbean, and North and South America (Benson et al. 2002; NIMPIS 2002).

Green mussels are large, with shells typically reaching 80-100 mm in length and occasionally growing larger than 160 mm (Rajagopal et al. 2005). They live for approximately three years (Power et al 2004).

In parts of their native range, rapid growth rates of up to 6-10 mm per month have been reported. In Tampa Bay where the species has been introduced, even more rapid growth rates of 4-5 mm per week have been reported (Power 2004).

Reproduction is sexual, sexes are separate, and fertilization is external. Onset of sexual maturity is rapid, occurring at 2-3 months of age in parts of the animal's native range and in as little as 1-2 months in parts of its non-native tange, e.g., Tampa Bay (Power 2004).

Green mussels occur in environments whose temperatures range from 10-35ºC and exhibit optimal response at temperatures between 26ºC and 32ºC (Power 2004). Although the reported native thermal range of the green mussel is broad, reduced temperatures have been demonstrated to significantly negatively impact growth rates (Chatterji et al. 1984).

The green mussel is euryhaline, able to tolerate both hypersaline conditions (80 ppt) and reduced salinities, e.g., 12 ppt (Sivalingam 1977, Chatterji et al. 1984, Morton, 1987). An optimal salinity range has been reported as 27-33 ppt (Power 2004).

Although economically important fisheries and aquaculture industries based green mussels exist within their native range, utilization as a food resource in areas into which they have been introduced is uncommon. Consumption of introduced green mussels taken from polluted waters is discouraged as they are known to accumulate some toxic substances.

  • Benson A.J., Marelli D.C., Frischer M.E., Danforth J.M., and J.D. Williams. 2002. Establishment of the green mussel, Perna viridis (Linnaeus 1758), (Mollusca: Mytilidae) on the west coast of Florida. Paper presented at the Eleventh International Conference on Aquatic Invasive Species, February 25 to March 1, 2002, Alexandria VA.
  • Chatterji A., Ansari Z.A., Ingole B.S., and A.H Parulekar. 1984. Growth of the green mussel Perna viridis L., in a sea water circulating system. Aquaculture 40:47-55.
  • Morton B. 1987. The functional morphology of the organs of the mantle cavity of Perna viridis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Bivalvia:Mytilacea). American Malacological Bulletin 5:159-164.
  • NIMPIS. 2002. Perna viridis species summary. CSIRO National Introduced Marine Pest Information System (Hewitt C.L., Martin R.B., Sliwa C., McEnnulty, F.R., Murphy, N.E., Jones T. and S. Cooper Eds). Available online.
  • Power A.J., Walker R.L., Payne K., and D. Hurley. 2004. First occurrence of the nonindigenous green mussel, Perna viridis in coastal Georgia, United States. Journal of Shellfish Research 23:741-744.
  • Rajagopal S., Venugopalan V.P., van der Velde G, and H.A. Jenner. 2006. Greening of the coasts: a review of the Perna viridis success story. Aquatic Ecology. 40:273-297.
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Comprehensive Description

Summary

"Perna viridis , commonly called the Asian Green Mussel, is an economically important bivavle found in the coastal waters of the Indo-pacific oceans."
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The Asian green mussel, Perna viridis, is a large (> 80 mm) bivalve, with a smooth, elongate shell typical of several mytilids (but see below). It has visible concentric growth rings and a ventral margin that is distinctly concave on one side. The characteristic green coloration comes from the periostrocum, the proteinaceous outer layer of the shell. It is uniformly bright green in juveniles, but dulls to brown with green margins in mature individuals. The inner surfaces of the valves are smooth and iridescent blue to bluish-green in color. A prominent, kidney-shaped retractor muscle scar is present, but the species lacks anterior adductor muscles. Close examination of the beak (i.e., where the two valves hinge together) reveals a pair of hinge teeth on the left valve that interlock with a single hinge tooth on the right valve (DeVictor and Knott undated, NIMPIS 2002, Rajagopal et al. 2005).As is typical of most members of the family, P. viridis attaches to hard surfaces by means of proteinaceous byssal threads.
  • Agard J., Kishore R., and B. Bayne. 1992. Perna viridis (Linnaeus, 1758): First record of the Indo-Pacific green mussel (Mollusca: Bivalvia) In the Caribbean. Caribbean Marine Studies 3:59-60.
  • Ahmed M. 1974. Chromosomes of two species of the marine mussel Perna (Mytilidae:Pelecypoda). Bol. Inst. Oceanogr. Univ. Oriente 13:17-22.
  • Baker S.M., Baker P., Benson A., Nunez J., Phlips E., and J. Williams. 2002. Biopollution by the green mussel, Perna viridis, in the southeastern United States. 2002 Progress Report. EPA Grant Number: R828898.
  • Benson A.J., Marelli D.C., Frischer M.E., Danforth J.M., and J.D. Williams. 2002. Establishment of the green mussel, Perna viridis (Linnaeus 1758), (Mollusca: Mytilidae) on the west coast of Florida. Paper presented at the Eleventh International Conference on Aquatic Invasive Species, February 25 to March 1, 2002, Alexandria VA.
  • Buddo D. St. A., Steele, R.D., and E.R. D'Oyen. 2003. Distribution of the invasive Indo-Pacific green mussel, Perna viridis, in Kingston Harbour, Jamaica. Bulletin of Marine Science 73:433-441.
  • Chatterji A., Ansari Z.A., Ingole B.S., and A.H Parulekar. 1984. Growth of the green mussel Perna viridis L., in a sea water circulating system. Aquaculture 40:47-55.
  • DeVictor and Knott. Undated. The Asian green mussel: Recent introduction to the South Atlantic Bight. South Carolina Department of natural Resources Species of the Month Fact Sheet.
  • Ingrao D.A., Mikklesen P.M., and D.W. Hicks. 2001. Another introduced marine mollusk in the Gulf of Mexico: the Indo-Pacific green mussel, Perna viridis, in Tampa Bay, Florida. Journal of Shellfish Research 20:13-19.
  • Manoj N.R., and K.K. Appukuttan. 2003. Effect of temperature on the development, growth, survival and settlement of green mussel Perna viridis (Linnaeus, 1758). Aquaculture Research 34:1037-1045.
  • Morton B. 1987. The functional morphology of the organs of the mantle cavity of Perna viridis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Bivalvia:Mytilacea). American Malacological Bulletin 5:159-164.
  • NIMPIS. 2002. Perna viridis species summary. CSIRO National Introduced Marine Pest Information System (Hewitt C.L., Martin R.B., Sliwa C., McEnnulty, F.R., Murphy, N.E., Jones T. and S. Cooper Eds). Available online.
  • Power A.J., Walker R.L., Payne K., and D. Hurley. 2004. First occurrence of the nonindigenous green mussel, Perna viridis in coastal Georgia, United States. Journal of Shellfish Research 23:741-744.
  • Rajagopal S., Venugopalan V.P., van der Velde G, and H.A. Jenner. 2006. Greening of the coasts: a review of the Perna viridis success story. Aquatic Ecology. 40:273-297.
  • Rylander K., Perez J., and J.A. Gomez. 1996. Status of the green mussel, Perna viridis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Mollusca: Mytilidae), In North-eastern Venezuela. Caribbean Marine Studies 5:86-87.
  • Siddall S.E. 1980. A clarification of the genus Perna (Mytilidae). Bulletin Of Marine Science 30:858-870.
  • Sivalingam P.M. 1977. Aquaculture of the green mussel, Mytilus viridis Linnaeus, in Malaysia. Aquaculture 11:297-312.
  • Stephen D., and H.P.C. Shetty. 1981. Induction of spawning in four species of bivalves of the Indian coastal waters. Aquaculture 25:153-159.
  • Tan W.H. 1975. Egg and larval development in the green mussel, Mytilus viridis Linnaeus. The Veliger 18:151-155.
  • Walter C. 1982. Reproduction and growth in the tropical mussel Perna viridis. (Bivalvia: Mytilidae). Kalikasan, Philippine Journal Of Biology 11:83-97.
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Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

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Distribution

Green mussels are coastal bivalves, typically occurring at depths of less than 10 m, and shown to be tolerant of a wide range of turbidity and pollution (Power 2004).The native range of the Asian green mussel broadly encompasses the Asia-Pacific and Indo-Pacific regions. The known introduced range of the species is extensive and includes portions of coastal Australia, Japan, the Caribbean, and North and South America (Benson et al. 2002; NIMPIS 2002).Atlantic and Caribbean occurrences of P. viridis have been reported from Trinidad and Tobago, Jamaica, and Venezuela (Agard et al. 1992, Rylander et al 1996, Benson et al. 2002, Buddo et al. 2003). In the southeastern U.S., Perna viridis has been reported from coastal Georgia and from both Florida coasts (Power et al 2004). Although the first Florida east coast reports of Perna virdis date back to 2002 from approximately St. Augustine south toward Ponce Inlet, the first positive identification of the organism from the India River Lagoon system proper only occurred in 2006. This initial discovery of green mussels was in Mosquito Lagoon within the boundaries of Canaveral National Seashore near the historic Eldora State House. This area is also the epicenter of India River Lagoon occurrence for the charru mussel (Mytella charruana). Since the initial discovery, findings of small numbers of new animals have been slow but steady and the number of green mussels thus far found remains lower than the numbers for charru mussels (Dr. Linda Walters, personal communication).
  • Agard J., Kishore R., and B. Bayne. 1992. Perna viridis (Linnaeus, 1758): First record of the Indo-Pacific green mussel (Mollusca: Bivalvia) In the Caribbean. Caribbean Marine Studies 3:59-60.
  • Ahmed M. 1974. Chromosomes of two species of the marine mussel Perna (Mytilidae:Pelecypoda). Bol. Inst. Oceanogr. Univ. Oriente 13:17-22.
  • Baker S.M., Baker P., Benson A., Nunez J., Phlips E., and J. Williams. 2002. Biopollution by the green mussel, Perna viridis, in the southeastern United States. 2002 Progress Report. EPA Grant Number: R828898.
  • Benson A.J., Marelli D.C., Frischer M.E., Danforth J.M., and J.D. Williams. 2002. Establishment of the green mussel, Perna viridis (Linnaeus 1758), (Mollusca: Mytilidae) on the west coast of Florida. Paper presented at the Eleventh International Conference on Aquatic Invasive Species, February 25 to March 1, 2002, Alexandria VA.
  • Buddo D. St. A., Steele, R.D., and E.R. D'Oyen. 2003. Distribution of the invasive Indo-Pacific green mussel, Perna viridis, in Kingston Harbour, Jamaica. Bulletin of Marine Science 73:433-441.
  • Chatterji A., Ansari Z.A., Ingole B.S., and A.H Parulekar. 1984. Growth of the green mussel Perna viridis L., in a sea water circulating system. Aquaculture 40:47-55.
  • DeVictor and Knott. Undated. The Asian green mussel: Recent introduction to the South Atlantic Bight. South Carolina Department of natural Resources Species of the Month Fact Sheet.
  • Ingrao D.A., Mikklesen P.M., and D.W. Hicks. 2001. Another introduced marine mollusk in the Gulf of Mexico: the Indo-Pacific green mussel, Perna viridis, in Tampa Bay, Florida. Journal of Shellfish Research 20:13-19.
  • Manoj N.R., and K.K. Appukuttan. 2003. Effect of temperature on the development, growth, survival and settlement of green mussel Perna viridis (Linnaeus, 1758). Aquaculture Research 34:1037-1045.
  • Morton B. 1987. The functional morphology of the organs of the mantle cavity of Perna viridis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Bivalvia:Mytilacea). American Malacological Bulletin 5:159-164.
  • NIMPIS. 2002. Perna viridis species summary. CSIRO National Introduced Marine Pest Information System (Hewitt C.L., Martin R.B., Sliwa C., McEnnulty, F.R., Murphy, N.E., Jones T. and S. Cooper Eds). Available online.
  • Power A.J., Walker R.L., Payne K., and D. Hurley. 2004. First occurrence of the nonindigenous green mussel, Perna viridis in coastal Georgia, United States. Journal of Shellfish Research 23:741-744.
  • Rajagopal S., Venugopalan V.P., van der Velde G, and H.A. Jenner. 2006. Greening of the coasts: a review of the Perna viridis success story. Aquatic Ecology. 40:273-297.
  • Rylander K., Perez J., and J.A. Gomez. 1996. Status of the green mussel, Perna viridis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Mollusca: Mytilidae), In North-eastern Venezuela. Caribbean Marine Studies 5:86-87.
  • Siddall S.E. 1980. A clarification of the genus Perna (Mytilidae). Bulletin Of Marine Science 30:858-870.
  • Sivalingam P.M. 1977. Aquaculture of the green mussel, Mytilus viridis Linnaeus, in Malaysia. Aquaculture 11:297-312.
  • Stephen D., and H.P.C. Shetty. 1981. Induction of spawning in four species of bivalves of the Indian coastal waters. Aquaculture 25:153-159.
  • Tan W.H. 1975. Egg and larval development in the green mussel, Mytilus viridis Linnaeus. The Veliger 18:151-155.
  • Walter C. 1982. Reproduction and growth in the tropical mussel Perna viridis. (Bivalvia: Mytilidae). Kalikasan, Philippine Journal Of Biology 11:83-97.
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Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

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Physical Description

Morphology

"Shell large with its anterior end pointed downwards, arched and beak-like. Shell surface covered by a firm, smooth dark-green periostracum, becoming increasingly brownish towards its point of attachment, umbo, where it is lighter. Inner sides of shell show pale-blue sheen. Mantle cream-coloured. Foot large, mobile and used by mussel to climb vertically. A byssus at anterior end to attach to substratum."
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Size

Range: 80-100mm. May occasionally reach a size of 165mm.
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Green mussels are large, with shells typically reaching 80-100 mm in length and occasionally growing larger than 160 mm (Rajagopal et al. 2005). They live for approximately three years (Power et al 2004).In parts of their native range, rapid growth rates of up to 6-10 mm per month have been reported. In Tampa Bay where the species has been introduced, even more rapid growth rates of 4-5 mm per week have been reported (Power 2004).
  • Agard J., Kishore R., and B. Bayne. 1992. Perna viridis (Linnaeus, 1758): First record of the Indo-Pacific green mussel (Mollusca: Bivalvia) In the Caribbean. Caribbean Marine Studies 3:59-60.
  • Ahmed M. 1974. Chromosomes of two species of the marine mussel Perna (Mytilidae:Pelecypoda). Bol. Inst. Oceanogr. Univ. Oriente 13:17-22.
  • Baker S.M., Baker P., Benson A., Nunez J., Phlips E., and J. Williams. 2002. Biopollution by the green mussel, Perna viridis, in the southeastern United States. 2002 Progress Report. EPA Grant Number: R828898.
  • Benson A.J., Marelli D.C., Frischer M.E., Danforth J.M., and J.D. Williams. 2002. Establishment of the green mussel, Perna viridis (Linnaeus 1758), (Mollusca: Mytilidae) on the west coast of Florida. Paper presented at the Eleventh International Conference on Aquatic Invasive Species, February 25 to March 1, 2002, Alexandria VA.
  • Buddo D. St. A., Steele, R.D., and E.R. D'Oyen. 2003. Distribution of the invasive Indo-Pacific green mussel, Perna viridis, in Kingston Harbour, Jamaica. Bulletin of Marine Science 73:433-441.
  • Chatterji A., Ansari Z.A., Ingole B.S., and A.H Parulekar. 1984. Growth of the green mussel Perna viridis L., in a sea water circulating system. Aquaculture 40:47-55.
  • DeVictor and Knott. Undated. The Asian green mussel: Recent introduction to the South Atlantic Bight. South Carolina Department of natural Resources Species of the Month Fact Sheet.
  • Ingrao D.A., Mikklesen P.M., and D.W. Hicks. 2001. Another introduced marine mollusk in the Gulf of Mexico: the Indo-Pacific green mussel, Perna viridis, in Tampa Bay, Florida. Journal of Shellfish Research 20:13-19.
  • Manoj N.R., and K.K. Appukuttan. 2003. Effect of temperature on the development, growth, survival and settlement of green mussel Perna viridis (Linnaeus, 1758). Aquaculture Research 34:1037-1045.
  • Morton B. 1987. The functional morphology of the organs of the mantle cavity of Perna viridis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Bivalvia:Mytilacea). American Malacological Bulletin 5:159-164.
  • NIMPIS. 2002. Perna viridis species summary. CSIRO National Introduced Marine Pest Information System (Hewitt C.L., Martin R.B., Sliwa C., McEnnulty, F.R., Murphy, N.E., Jones T. and S. Cooper Eds). Available online.
  • Power A.J., Walker R.L., Payne K., and D. Hurley. 2004. First occurrence of the nonindigenous green mussel, Perna viridis in coastal Georgia, United States. Journal of Shellfish Research 23:741-744.
  • Rajagopal S., Venugopalan V.P., van der Velde G, and H.A. Jenner. 2006. Greening of the coasts: a review of the Perna viridis success story. Aquatic Ecology. 40:273-297.
  • Rylander K., Perez J., and J.A. Gomez. 1996. Status of the green mussel, Perna viridis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Mollusca: Mytilidae), In North-eastern Venezuela. Caribbean Marine Studies 5:86-87.
  • Siddall S.E. 1980. A clarification of the genus Perna (Mytilidae). Bulletin Of Marine Science 30:858-870.
  • Sivalingam P.M. 1977. Aquaculture of the green mussel, Mytilus viridis Linnaeus, in Malaysia. Aquaculture 11:297-312.
  • Stephen D., and H.P.C. Shetty. 1981. Induction of spawning in four species of bivalves of the Indian coastal waters. Aquaculture 25:153-159.
  • Tan W.H. 1975. Egg and larval development in the green mussel, Mytilus viridis Linnaeus. The Veliger 18:151-155.
  • Walter C. 1982. Reproduction and growth in the tropical mussel Perna viridis. (Bivalvia: Mytilidae). Kalikasan, Philippine Journal Of Biology 11:83-97.
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Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

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Look Alikes

Perna canaliculus
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At least 12 different mytilid mussels have been documented within the IRL region. The most commonly encountered of these are readily distinguishable from P. viridis. The scorched mussel (Brachidontes exustus), ribbed mussel (Geukensia demissa), and hooked mussel (Ischadium recurvum) all exhibit prominent radial ribs that are lacking in P. viridis, while the horsemussels (Modiolus spp.) are smaller and possess a shell that is brown on the outside and whitish inside and is partially covered by a mossy periostracum in living specimens (UF/IFAS Green Mussel Homepage). The non-native charru mussel (Mytella charruana) is also readily differentiated from P. viridis; its shell is mostly dark brown to black and exhibits a wavy dark pattern on a lighter background.Within the genus Perna, karyotypeing (counting chromosomes) reveals that P. viridis possesses 30 chromosomes while congeners such as the brown mussel the brown mussel (P. perna) only have 28 (Ahmed 1974).
  • Agard J., Kishore R., and B. Bayne. 1992. Perna viridis (Linnaeus, 1758): First record of the Indo-Pacific green mussel (Mollusca: Bivalvia) In the Caribbean. Caribbean Marine Studies 3:59-60.
  • Ahmed M. 1974. Chromosomes of two species of the marine mussel Perna (Mytilidae:Pelecypoda). Bol. Inst. Oceanogr. Univ. Oriente 13:17-22.
  • Baker S.M., Baker P., Benson A., Nunez J., Phlips E., and J. Williams. 2002. Biopollution by the green mussel, Perna viridis, in the southeastern United States. 2002 Progress Report. EPA Grant Number: R828898.
  • Benson A.J., Marelli D.C., Frischer M.E., Danforth J.M., and J.D. Williams. 2002. Establishment of the green mussel, Perna viridis (Linnaeus 1758), (Mollusca: Mytilidae) on the west coast of Florida. Paper presented at the Eleventh International Conference on Aquatic Invasive Species, February 25 to March 1, 2002, Alexandria VA.
  • Buddo D. St. A., Steele, R.D., and E.R. D'Oyen. 2003. Distribution of the invasive Indo-Pacific green mussel, Perna viridis, in Kingston Harbour, Jamaica. Bulletin of Marine Science 73:433-441.
  • Chatterji A., Ansari Z.A., Ingole B.S., and A.H Parulekar. 1984. Growth of the green mussel Perna viridis L., in a sea water circulating system. Aquaculture 40:47-55.
  • DeVictor and Knott. Undated. The Asian green mussel: Recent introduction to the South Atlantic Bight. South Carolina Department of natural Resources Species of the Month Fact Sheet.
  • Ingrao D.A., Mikklesen P.M., and D.W. Hicks. 2001. Another introduced marine mollusk in the Gulf of Mexico: the Indo-Pacific green mussel, Perna viridis, in Tampa Bay, Florida. Journal of Shellfish Research 20:13-19.
  • Manoj N.R., and K.K. Appukuttan. 2003. Effect of temperature on the development, growth, survival and settlement of green mussel Perna viridis (Linnaeus, 1758). Aquaculture Research 34:1037-1045.
  • Morton B. 1987. The functional morphology of the organs of the mantle cavity of Perna viridis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Bivalvia:Mytilacea). American Malacological Bulletin 5:159-164.
  • NIMPIS. 2002. Perna viridis species summary. CSIRO National Introduced Marine Pest Information System (Hewitt C.L., Martin R.B., Sliwa C., McEnnulty, F.R., Murphy, N.E., Jones T. and S. Cooper Eds). Available online.
  • Power A.J., Walker R.L., Payne K., and D. Hurley. 2004. First occurrence of the nonindigenous green mussel, Perna viridis in coastal Georgia, United States. Journal of Shellfish Research 23:741-744.
  • Rajagopal S., Venugopalan V.P., van der Velde G, and H.A. Jenner. 2006. Greening of the coasts: a review of the Perna viridis success story. Aquatic Ecology. 40:273-297.
  • Rylander K., Perez J., and J.A. Gomez. 1996. Status of the green mussel, Perna viridis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Mollusca: Mytilidae), In North-eastern Venezuela. Caribbean Marine Studies 5:86-87.
  • Siddall S.E. 1980. A clarification of the genus Perna (Mytilidae). Bulletin Of Marine Science 30:858-870.
  • Sivalingam P.M. 1977. Aquaculture of the green mussel, Mytilus viridis Linnaeus, in Malaysia. Aquaculture 11:297-312.
  • Stephen D., and H.P.C. Shetty. 1981. Induction of spawning in four species of bivalves of the Indian coastal waters. Aquaculture 25:153-159.
  • Tan W.H. 1975. Egg and larval development in the green mussel, Mytilus viridis Linnaeus. The Veliger 18:151-155.
  • Walter C. 1982. Reproduction and growth in the tropical mussel Perna viridis. (Bivalvia: Mytilidae). Kalikasan, Philippine Journal Of Biology 11:83-97.
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Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

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Ecology

Habitat

General Habitat

"Marine: open coasts, harbours, mouths of estuaries and rivers. Depth: from low water mark to about three metres below sea level."
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Depth range based on 5 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1 sample.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 7.5 - 8
  Temperature range (°C): 23.636 - 23.636
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.325 - 0.325
  Salinity (PPS): 35.785 - 35.785
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.855 - 4.855
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.110 - 0.110
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.756 - 0.756

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 7.5 - 8
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Trophic Strategy

"Filter feeder that feeds on phytoplankton, zooplankton and suspended detritus."
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Like other mussels, Perna viridis is a cilliary-mucus suspension feeder. Firmly attached to a substrate, immobile mussels use their incurrent siphon to draw in food-laden water that is then carried by ciliary action to the branchial chamber. Water is discharged through the excurrent siphon while appropriately sized food particles are funneled by the labial palps into the mouth for ingestion and digestion.
  • Agard J., Kishore R., and B. Bayne. 1992. Perna viridis (Linnaeus, 1758): First record of the Indo-Pacific green mussel (Mollusca: Bivalvia) In the Caribbean. Caribbean Marine Studies 3:59-60.
  • Ahmed M. 1974. Chromosomes of two species of the marine mussel Perna (Mytilidae:Pelecypoda). Bol. Inst. Oceanogr. Univ. Oriente 13:17-22.
  • Baker S.M., Baker P., Benson A., Nunez J., Phlips E., and J. Williams. 2002. Biopollution by the green mussel, Perna viridis, in the southeastern United States. 2002 Progress Report. EPA Grant Number: R828898.
  • Benson A.J., Marelli D.C., Frischer M.E., Danforth J.M., and J.D. Williams. 2002. Establishment of the green mussel, Perna viridis (Linnaeus 1758), (Mollusca: Mytilidae) on the west coast of Florida. Paper presented at the Eleventh International Conference on Aquatic Invasive Species, February 25 to March 1, 2002, Alexandria VA.
  • Buddo D. St. A., Steele, R.D., and E.R. D'Oyen. 2003. Distribution of the invasive Indo-Pacific green mussel, Perna viridis, in Kingston Harbour, Jamaica. Bulletin of Marine Science 73:433-441.
  • Chatterji A., Ansari Z.A., Ingole B.S., and A.H Parulekar. 1984. Growth of the green mussel Perna viridis L., in a sea water circulating system. Aquaculture 40:47-55.
  • DeVictor and Knott. Undated. The Asian green mussel: Recent introduction to the South Atlantic Bight. South Carolina Department of natural Resources Species of the Month Fact Sheet.
  • Ingrao D.A., Mikklesen P.M., and D.W. Hicks. 2001. Another introduced marine mollusk in the Gulf of Mexico: the Indo-Pacific green mussel, Perna viridis, in Tampa Bay, Florida. Journal of Shellfish Research 20:13-19.
  • Manoj N.R., and K.K. Appukuttan. 2003. Effect of temperature on the development, growth, survival and settlement of green mussel Perna viridis (Linnaeus, 1758). Aquaculture Research 34:1037-1045.
  • Morton B. 1987. The functional morphology of the organs of the mantle cavity of Perna viridis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Bivalvia:Mytilacea). American Malacological Bulletin 5:159-164.
  • NIMPIS. 2002. Perna viridis species summary. CSIRO National Introduced Marine Pest Information System (Hewitt C.L., Martin R.B., Sliwa C., McEnnulty, F.R., Murphy, N.E., Jones T. and S. Cooper Eds). Available online.
  • Power A.J., Walker R.L., Payne K., and D. Hurley. 2004. First occurrence of the nonindigenous green mussel, Perna viridis in coastal Georgia, United States. Journal of Shellfish Research 23:741-744.
  • Rajagopal S., Venugopalan V.P., van der Velde G, and H.A. Jenner. 2006. Greening of the coasts: a review of the Perna viridis success story. Aquatic Ecology. 40:273-297.
  • Rylander K., Perez J., and J.A. Gomez. 1996. Status of the green mussel, Perna viridis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Mollusca: Mytilidae), In North-eastern Venezuela. Caribbean Marine Studies 5:86-87.
  • Siddall S.E. 1980. A clarification of the genus Perna (Mytilidae). Bulletin Of Marine Science 30:858-870.
  • Sivalingam P.M. 1977. Aquaculture of the green mussel, Mytilus viridis Linnaeus, in Malaysia. Aquaculture 11:297-312.
  • Stephen D., and H.P.C. Shetty. 1981. Induction of spawning in four species of bivalves of the Indian coastal waters. Aquaculture 25:153-159.
  • Tan W.H. 1975. Egg and larval development in the green mussel, Mytilus viridis Linnaeus. The Veliger 18:151-155.
  • Walter C. 1982. Reproduction and growth in the tropical mussel Perna viridis. (Bivalvia: Mytilidae). Kalikasan, Philippine Journal Of Biology 11:83-97.
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Associations

"Host to the ectoparasite Anthessius mytilicolus Reddiah, 1966. Preyed upon by fishes, crustaceans, seastars, octopuses and humans."
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The likely nature of the association between green mussels and co-occurring fouling organisms will be as spatial and/or food resource competitors.Invasion History: Several aspects of the life history of Perna viridis are responsible for its success as an invasive animal. These include broad temperature, salinity, turbidity, and pollution tolerances, rapid growth and onset of maturity, and broadcast dispersal of planktonic larvae.The first reported Caribbean appearance of the species dates to the 1990s in Trinidad (Agard et al. 1992, Power et al. 2004). Rylander et al. (1996) suggest that current-mediated larval dispersal from this population resulted in successive introductions in Venezuela. Green mussels have also been reported in Jamaican waters (Benson et al. 2002, Buddo et al. 2003).The first occurrence of P. viridis in U.S. coastal waters apparently occurred as a result of accidental release into Tampa Bay on the Gulf coast of Florida in 1999 (Ingrao et al. 2001, Benson et al. 2002). The most likely pathway for this invasion has been identified as larval release in ballast water (Power et al. 2004). Current-facilitated dispersal of larvae originating from in situ reproduction of the Tampa Bay population has subsequently led to southward range expansion along western peninsular Florida to Boca Grande outside of Charlotte Harbor (Benson et al. 2002, Power et al. 2004).A subsequent Florida occurrence of P. viridis was reported near St. Augustine on the northeast coast in 2002. The most likely vector for accidental introduction in this case is overland transport between Florida coasts, perhaps occuirring on or in recreational or fishing boats or possibly gear that was not cleaned properly (Power et al. 2004).The green mussel population introduced to St. Augustine waters is the likely source of larvae that dispersed northward via currents along the Atlantic cost to Jacksonville and then into Georgia. As of 2003 the Atlantic distribution of this invasive species had been extended northward through the entirety of coastal Georgia. This represents the northernmost U.S. occurrence of the species (Power et al 2004).In 2006, small numbers of P. viridis began to be uncovered within Mosquito Lagoon within a couple miles of Ponce Inlet (Linda Walters, pers. comm.). These individuals also likely originated from the previously detected St. Augustine population. Potential to Compete With Natives: Juvenile settlement densities of several thousand individuals per square meter in Tampa Bay suggest Perna viridis is a formidable spatial competitor (Power 2004). Large non-native green mussel populations may also represent a significant source of competition for planktonic food resources.Baker and Benson (2002) report that oyster reefs composed of native eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) have been displaced by invading green mussels in Tampa Bay. Possible Economic Consequences of Invasion: Although economically important fisheries and aquaculture industries based green mussels exist within their native range, utilization as a food resource in areas into which they have been introduced is uncommon. Consumption of introduced green mussels taken from polluted waters is discouraged as they are known to accumulate some toxic substances.Green mussels are common nuisance organisms fouling manmade structures such as intake and outfall pipes, buoys, bridges, pilings, and seawalls. Power et al. (2004) suggest the species may eventually become the marine equivalent of the highly invasive freshwater Asian zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). Zebra mussels currently occur in more than 40% of inland US waterways and their partial-control in this country cost nearly $1 billion over a span of 15 years.
  • Agard J., Kishore R., and B. Bayne. 1992. Perna viridis (Linnaeus, 1758): First record of the Indo-Pacific green mussel (Mollusca: Bivalvia) In the Caribbean. Caribbean Marine Studies 3:59-60.
  • Ahmed M. 1974. Chromosomes of two species of the marine mussel Perna (Mytilidae:Pelecypoda). Bol. Inst. Oceanogr. Univ. Oriente 13:17-22.
  • Baker S.M., Baker P., Benson A., Nunez J., Phlips E., and J. Williams. 2002. Biopollution by the green mussel, Perna viridis, in the southeastern United States. 2002 Progress Report. EPA Grant Number: R828898.
  • Benson A.J., Marelli D.C., Frischer M.E., Danforth J.M., and J.D. Williams. 2002. Establishment of the green mussel, Perna viridis (Linnaeus 1758), (Mollusca: Mytilidae) on the west coast of Florida. Paper presented at the Eleventh International Conference on Aquatic Invasive Species, February 25 to March 1, 2002, Alexandria VA.
  • Buddo D. St. A., Steele, R.D., and E.R. D'Oyen. 2003. Distribution of the invasive Indo-Pacific green mussel, Perna viridis, in Kingston Harbour, Jamaica. Bulletin of Marine Science 73:433-441.
  • Chatterji A., Ansari Z.A., Ingole B.S., and A.H Parulekar. 1984. Growth of the green mussel Perna viridis L., in a sea water circulating system. Aquaculture 40:47-55.
  • DeVictor and Knott. Undated. The Asian green mussel: Recent introduction to the South Atlantic Bight. South Carolina Department of natural Resources Species of the Month Fact Sheet.
  • Ingrao D.A., Mikklesen P.M., and D.W. Hicks. 2001. Another introduced marine mollusk in the Gulf of Mexico: the Indo-Pacific green mussel, Perna viridis, in Tampa Bay, Florida. Journal of Shellfish Research 20:13-19.
  • Manoj N.R., and K.K. Appukuttan. 2003. Effect of temperature on the development, growth, survival and settlement of green mussel Perna viridis (Linnaeus, 1758). Aquaculture Research 34:1037-1045.
  • Morton B. 1987. The functional morphology of the organs of the mantle cavity of Perna viridis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Bivalvia:Mytilacea). American Malacological Bulletin 5:159-164.
  • NIMPIS. 2002. Perna viridis species summary. CSIRO National Introduced Marine Pest Information System (Hewitt C.L., Martin R.B., Sliwa C., McEnnulty, F.R., Murphy, N.E., Jones T. and S. Cooper Eds). Available online.
  • Power A.J., Walker R.L., Payne K., and D. Hurley. 2004. First occurrence of the nonindigenous green mussel, Perna viridis in coastal Georgia, United States. Journal of Shellfish Research 23:741-744.
  • Rajagopal S., Venugopalan V.P., van der Velde G, and H.A. Jenner. 2006. Greening of the coasts: a review of the Perna viridis success story. Aquatic Ecology. 40:273-297.
  • Rylander K., Perez J., and J.A. Gomez. 1996. Status of the green mussel, Perna viridis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Mollusca: Mytilidae), In North-eastern Venezuela. Caribbean Marine Studies 5:86-87.
  • Siddall S.E. 1980. A clarification of the genus Perna (Mytilidae). Bulletin Of Marine Science 30:858-870.
  • Sivalingam P.M. 1977. Aquaculture of the green mussel, Mytilus viridis Linnaeus, in Malaysia. Aquaculture 11:297-312.
  • Stephen D., and H.P.C. Shetty. 1981. Induction of spawning in four species of bivalves of the Indian coastal waters. Aquaculture 25:153-159.
  • Tan W.H. 1975. Egg and larval development in the green mussel, Mytilus viridis Linnaeus. The Veliger 18:151-155.
  • Walter C. 1982. Reproduction and growth in the tropical mussel Perna viridis. (Bivalvia: Mytilidae). Kalikasan, Philippine Journal Of Biology 11:83-97.
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Population Biology

"India: West Coast: In northen parts, seen in small numbers. Abundant in northj Kerala, at Cochin and Malabar. East Coast: seen as stragglers, except at harbours."
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Baker et al. (2002) report Tampa Bay intertidal densities of Perna viridis attaining peaks ranging between 3,675 and 4,117 individuals per square meter at three study locations. The authors report significantly higher densities of 9,000-12,000 individuals per square meter when they found several layers of mussels on pilings at the mouth of the Little Manatee River.
  • Agard J., Kishore R., and B. Bayne. 1992. Perna viridis (Linnaeus, 1758): First record of the Indo-Pacific green mussel (Mollusca: Bivalvia) In the Caribbean. Caribbean Marine Studies 3:59-60.
  • Ahmed M. 1974. Chromosomes of two species of the marine mussel Perna (Mytilidae:Pelecypoda). Bol. Inst. Oceanogr. Univ. Oriente 13:17-22.
  • Baker S.M., Baker P., Benson A., Nunez J., Phlips E., and J. Williams. 2002. Biopollution by the green mussel, Perna viridis, in the southeastern United States. 2002 Progress Report. EPA Grant Number: R828898.
  • Benson A.J., Marelli D.C., Frischer M.E., Danforth J.M., and J.D. Williams. 2002. Establishment of the green mussel, Perna viridis (Linnaeus 1758), (Mollusca: Mytilidae) on the west coast of Florida. Paper presented at the Eleventh International Conference on Aquatic Invasive Species, February 25 to March 1, 2002, Alexandria VA.
  • Buddo D. St. A., Steele, R.D., and E.R. D'Oyen. 2003. Distribution of the invasive Indo-Pacific green mussel, Perna viridis, in Kingston Harbour, Jamaica. Bulletin of Marine Science 73:433-441.
  • Chatterji A., Ansari Z.A., Ingole B.S., and A.H Parulekar. 1984. Growth of the green mussel Perna viridis L., in a sea water circulating system. Aquaculture 40:47-55.
  • DeVictor and Knott. Undated. The Asian green mussel: Recent introduction to the South Atlantic Bight. South Carolina Department of natural Resources Species of the Month Fact Sheet.
  • Ingrao D.A., Mikklesen P.M., and D.W. Hicks. 2001. Another introduced marine mollusk in the Gulf of Mexico: the Indo-Pacific green mussel, Perna viridis, in Tampa Bay, Florida. Journal of Shellfish Research 20:13-19.
  • Manoj N.R., and K.K. Appukuttan. 2003. Effect of temperature on the development, growth, survival and settlement of green mussel Perna viridis (Linnaeus, 1758). Aquaculture Research 34:1037-1045.
  • Morton B. 1987. The functional morphology of the organs of the mantle cavity of Perna viridis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Bivalvia:Mytilacea). American Malacological Bulletin 5:159-164.
  • NIMPIS. 2002. Perna viridis species summary. CSIRO National Introduced Marine Pest Information System (Hewitt C.L., Martin R.B., Sliwa C., McEnnulty, F.R., Murphy, N.E., Jones T. and S. Cooper Eds). Available online.
  • Power A.J., Walker R.L., Payne K., and D. Hurley. 2004. First occurrence of the nonindigenous green mussel, Perna viridis in coastal Georgia, United States. Journal of Shellfish Research 23:741-744.
  • Rajagopal S., Venugopalan V.P., van der Velde G, and H.A. Jenner. 2006. Greening of the coasts: a review of the Perna viridis success story. Aquatic Ecology. 40:273-297.
  • Rylander K., Perez J., and J.A. Gomez. 1996. Status of the green mussel, Perna viridis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Mollusca: Mytilidae), In North-eastern Venezuela. Caribbean Marine Studies 5:86-87.
  • Siddall S.E. 1980. A clarification of the genus Perna (Mytilidae). Bulletin Of Marine Science 30:858-870.
  • Sivalingam P.M. 1977. Aquaculture of the green mussel, Mytilus viridis Linnaeus, in Malaysia. Aquaculture 11:297-312.
  • Stephen D., and H.P.C. Shetty. 1981. Induction of spawning in four species of bivalves of the Indian coastal waters. Aquaculture 25:153-159.
  • Tan W.H. 1975. Egg and larval development in the green mussel, Mytilus viridis Linnaeus. The Veliger 18:151-155.
  • Walter C. 1982. Reproduction and growth in the tropical mussel Perna viridis. (Bivalvia: Mytilidae). Kalikasan, Philippine Journal Of Biology 11:83-97.
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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Dioecious. Hermaphrodites seen rarely. Spawning bi-annual in most of its range. Fertilisation external.
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Reproduction is sexual, sexes are separate, and fertilization is external. Onset of sexual maturity is rapid, occurring at 2-3 months of age in parts of the animal's native range and in as little as 1-2 months in parts of its non-native tange, e.g., Tampa Bay (Power 2004).Male and female green mussels release gametes directly into the water column. As with many marine bivalves, the presence of gametes in the water can trigger other individuals to release gametes, thereby synchronizing spawning to a degree. Salinity reductions (i.e., such as those often experienced in estuarine environments particularly in the wet seasons) can also elicit spawning in P. viridis (Stephen and Shetty 1981). Within their native Pacific range, spawning peaks coincide with the monsoon seasons, although the species is known to be capable of reproducing year-round in some locations (Sivalingam 1977, Stephen and Shetty 1981, Walter 1982).
  • Agard J., Kishore R., and B. Bayne. 1992. Perna viridis (Linnaeus, 1758): First record of the Indo-Pacific green mussel (Mollusca: Bivalvia) In the Caribbean. Caribbean Marine Studies 3:59-60.
  • Ahmed M. 1974. Chromosomes of two species of the marine mussel Perna (Mytilidae:Pelecypoda). Bol. Inst. Oceanogr. Univ. Oriente 13:17-22.
  • Baker S.M., Baker P., Benson A., Nunez J., Phlips E., and J. Williams. 2002. Biopollution by the green mussel, Perna viridis, in the southeastern United States. 2002 Progress Report. EPA Grant Number: R828898.
  • Benson A.J., Marelli D.C., Frischer M.E., Danforth J.M., and J.D. Williams. 2002. Establishment of the green mussel, Perna viridis (Linnaeus 1758), (Mollusca: Mytilidae) on the west coast of Florida. Paper presented at the Eleventh International Conference on Aquatic Invasive Species, February 25 to March 1, 2002, Alexandria VA.
  • Buddo D. St. A., Steele, R.D., and E.R. D'Oyen. 2003. Distribution of the invasive Indo-Pacific green mussel, Perna viridis, in Kingston Harbour, Jamaica. Bulletin of Marine Science 73:433-441.
  • Chatterji A., Ansari Z.A., Ingole B.S., and A.H Parulekar. 1984. Growth of the green mussel Perna viridis L., in a sea water circulating system. Aquaculture 40:47-55.
  • DeVictor and Knott. Undated. The Asian green mussel: Recent introduction to the South Atlantic Bight. South Carolina Department of natural Resources Species of the Month Fact Sheet.
  • Ingrao D.A., Mikklesen P.M., and D.W. Hicks. 2001. Another introduced marine mollusk in the Gulf of Mexico: the Indo-Pacific green mussel, Perna viridis, in Tampa Bay, Florida. Journal of Shellfish Research 20:13-19.
  • Manoj N.R., and K.K. Appukuttan. 2003. Effect of temperature on the development, growth, survival and settlement of green mussel Perna viridis (Linnaeus, 1758). Aquaculture Research 34:1037-1045.
  • Morton B. 1987. The functional morphology of the organs of the mantle cavity of Perna viridis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Bivalvia:Mytilacea). American Malacological Bulletin 5:159-164.
  • NIMPIS. 2002. Perna viridis species summary. CSIRO National Introduced Marine Pest Information System (Hewitt C.L., Martin R.B., Sliwa C., McEnnulty, F.R., Murphy, N.E., Jones T. and S. Cooper Eds). Available online.
  • Power A.J., Walker R.L., Payne K., and D. Hurley. 2004. First occurrence of the nonindigenous green mussel, Perna viridis in coastal Georgia, United States. Journal of Shellfish Research 23:741-744.
  • Rajagopal S., Venugopalan V.P., van der Velde G, and H.A. Jenner. 2006. Greening of the coasts: a review of the Perna viridis success story. Aquatic Ecology. 40:273-297.
  • Rylander K., Perez J., and J.A. Gomez. 1996. Status of the green mussel, Perna viridis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Mollusca: Mytilidae), In North-eastern Venezuela. Caribbean Marine Studies 5:86-87.
  • Siddall S.E. 1980. A clarification of the genus Perna (Mytilidae). Bulletin Of Marine Science 30:858-870.
  • Sivalingam P.M. 1977. Aquaculture of the green mussel, Mytilus viridis Linnaeus, in Malaysia. Aquaculture 11:297-312.
  • Stephen D., and H.P.C. Shetty. 1981. Induction of spawning in four species of bivalves of the Indian coastal waters. Aquaculture 25:153-159.
  • Tan W.H. 1975. Egg and larval development in the green mussel, Mytilus viridis Linnaeus. The Veliger 18:151-155.
  • Walter C. 1982. Reproduction and growth in the tropical mussel Perna viridis. (Bivalvia: Mytilidae). Kalikasan, Philippine Journal Of Biology 11:83-97.
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Growth

Within eight hours of fertilization, Perna viridis larvae enter a ciliated, free-swimming stage known as the trochophore stage. Eight to twelve hours later the larvae have reached a stage known as the veliger stage which is characterized by the presence of a shell and a ciliated membrane or skirt called the velum. Metamorphosis and settlement to the benthic habit typically occur within 8-12 days to as many as 20 days. Settlement-stage individuals are capable of secreting byssal threads (Tan 1975, Siddall 1980, Manoj Nair and Appukuttan 2003).
  • Agard J., Kishore R., and B. Bayne. 1992. Perna viridis (Linnaeus, 1758): First record of the Indo-Pacific green mussel (Mollusca: Bivalvia) In the Caribbean. Caribbean Marine Studies 3:59-60.
  • Ahmed M. 1974. Chromosomes of two species of the marine mussel Perna (Mytilidae:Pelecypoda). Bol. Inst. Oceanogr. Univ. Oriente 13:17-22.
  • Baker S.M., Baker P., Benson A., Nunez J., Phlips E., and J. Williams. 2002. Biopollution by the green mussel, Perna viridis, in the southeastern United States. 2002 Progress Report. EPA Grant Number: R828898.
  • Benson A.J., Marelli D.C., Frischer M.E., Danforth J.M., and J.D. Williams. 2002. Establishment of the green mussel, Perna viridis (Linnaeus 1758), (Mollusca: Mytilidae) on the west coast of Florida. Paper presented at the Eleventh International Conference on Aquatic Invasive Species, February 25 to March 1, 2002, Alexandria VA.
  • Buddo D. St. A., Steele, R.D., and E.R. D'Oyen. 2003. Distribution of the invasive Indo-Pacific green mussel, Perna viridis, in Kingston Harbour, Jamaica. Bulletin of Marine Science 73:433-441.
  • Chatterji A., Ansari Z.A., Ingole B.S., and A.H Parulekar. 1984. Growth of the green mussel Perna viridis L., in a sea water circulating system. Aquaculture 40:47-55.
  • DeVictor and Knott. Undated. The Asian green mussel: Recent introduction to the South Atlantic Bight. South Carolina Department of natural Resources Species of the Month Fact Sheet.
  • Ingrao D.A., Mikklesen P.M., and D.W. Hicks. 2001. Another introduced marine mollusk in the Gulf of Mexico: the Indo-Pacific green mussel, Perna viridis, in Tampa Bay, Florida. Journal of Shellfish Research 20:13-19.
  • Manoj N.R., and K.K. Appukuttan. 2003. Effect of temperature on the development, growth, survival and settlement of green mussel Perna viridis (Linnaeus, 1758). Aquaculture Research 34:1037-1045.
  • Morton B. 1987. The functional morphology of the organs of the mantle cavity of Perna viridis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Bivalvia:Mytilacea). American Malacological Bulletin 5:159-164.
  • NIMPIS. 2002. Perna viridis species summary. CSIRO National Introduced Marine Pest Information System (Hewitt C.L., Martin R.B., Sliwa C., McEnnulty, F.R., Murphy, N.E., Jones T. and S. Cooper Eds). Available online.
  • Power A.J., Walker R.L., Payne K., and D. Hurley. 2004. First occurrence of the nonindigenous green mussel, Perna viridis in coastal Georgia, United States. Journal of Shellfish Research 23:741-744.
  • Rajagopal S., Venugopalan V.P., van der Velde G, and H.A. Jenner. 2006. Greening of the coasts: a review of the Perna viridis success story. Aquatic Ecology. 40:273-297.
  • Rylander K., Perez J., and J.A. Gomez. 1996. Status of the green mussel, Perna viridis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Mollusca: Mytilidae), In North-eastern Venezuela. Caribbean Marine Studies 5:86-87.
  • Siddall S.E. 1980. A clarification of the genus Perna (Mytilidae). Bulletin Of Marine Science 30:858-870.
  • Sivalingam P.M. 1977. Aquaculture of the green mussel, Mytilus viridis Linnaeus, in Malaysia. Aquaculture 11:297-312.
  • Stephen D., and H.P.C. Shetty. 1981. Induction of spawning in four species of bivalves of the Indian coastal waters. Aquaculture 25:153-159.
  • Tan W.H. 1975. Egg and larval development in the green mussel, Mytilus viridis Linnaeus. The Veliger 18:151-155.
  • Walter C. 1982. Reproduction and growth in the tropical mussel Perna viridis. (Bivalvia: Mytilidae). Kalikasan, Philippine Journal Of Biology 11:83-97.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Perna viridis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 25 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

ATTACTCCA------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------TTATGTATTGGTGGTGTTGATTTAATTTTTCCTCGTTTAAATAATTTGAGATTTTGGTTGGCACCTAATGCTTTGTACTTACTTATTTTGTCTTTTATAACGGAGAAAGGAGCTGGGAGAGGTTGAACTATTTATCCACCTTTATCTTCTGGGTTGTACCATACTGGGCCTGCTGTTGATATT---TTGATTACGTCTTTACATTTAATTGGATTGAGTTCTTTATTAGGTTCGATTAATTTTGTGAGGACTAATAAGAATATGCCTACAATAAAAATAAAGGGTGAGAAATCTGAGTTGTATTTGTGGAGGATTACCGTAACCGGTGTTCTTTTAATTATTTCTGTGCCAGTTCTGGCCGGT---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------GGGATT------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ACT---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ATA
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Perna viridis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 26
Specimens with Barcodes: 35
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

Not evaluated by IUCN Redlist.
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Legislation

Listed in CITES: No. Listed in Wildlife (Protection) Act: No
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

"Caught and sold in large amounts for human consumption all along the west coast of India, but also on the east coast."
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Wikipedia

Perna viridis

The Asian green mussel (Perna viridis), is an economically important mussel, a bivalve belonging to the family Mytilidae. It is harvested for food but is also known to harbor toxins and cause damage to submerged structures such as drainage pipes. It is native in the Asia-Pacific region but has been introduced in the Caribbean, and in the waters around Japan, North America, and South America.[1]

Description[edit]

Perna viridis ranges from 80 to 100 millimeters in length and may occasionally reach 165 mm. Its shell ends in a downward-pointing beak. The smooth periostracum is dark green, becoming increasingly brownish towards its point of attachment (umbo), where it is lighter. Younger mussels are bright green and that becomes darker as it ages.[2] The shell’s interior has a pale-blue sheen.[3] The mussel has a large mobile foot which it uses to climb vertically should it be covered by sediments. It also produce byssus to help it attach to its substrate.[4]

Perna canaliculus and Perna perna are two similar species, native to the waters of New Zealand and Africa respectively.[5]

Habitat and distribution[edit]

The Asian green mussel is found in the coastal waters of the Indo-Pacific region. However the mussels are introduced to other areas as invasive species via boat hulls and water ballasts.[1]

The mussel inhabits estuarine habitats and is found in densities as high as 35,000 individuals per square meter in any submerged marine object. Although vivid green in appearance, the mussels are shrouded with overgrowth and are often hard to find. The mussels live in waters that are 11-32°C with a wide-ranging salinity of about 18-33 ppt.[3] P. viridis grows fastest at 2 meters below the surface, in high salinity and high concentration of phytoplankton although it can tolerate a range of salinity and turbid water.[5]

Ecology and life history[edit]

A group of Perna viridis attached on a rocky substrate

The Asian green mussel has separate sexes and fertilizes externally. There are a very few functional hermaphrodites (<0.1%). The mussel's sexual development was shown to be affected by temperature.[6] Spawning ordinarily occurs twice a year between early spring and late autumn; however, the mussels found in the Philippines and Thailand are known to spawn all year round.[3] The zygote transforms to a larva 7–8 hours after fertilization. The larvae stay in the water column for 10–12 days before undergoing metamorphosis into a juvenile and settling onto a surface.[5] The juveniles become sexually mature when they are 15–30 mm in length, a size reached within 2–3 months. Growth is influenced by the availability of food, temperature, water movement,[3] mussel's age, and caging. Cage culturing can prevent entry of predators and barnacles increases marketability but slows down the mussel's growth rate.[7] The adult can live to up 2–3 years. Due to its fast growth, it can outcompete other fouling organisms and cause changes in marine ecological relationships.[3]

The mussel is a filter feeder that feeds on phytoplankton, zooplankton and suspended organic materials. They are eaten by fishes, crustaceans, seastars, octopuses and humans.[3]

Importance to humans[edit]

A worker in Chonburi, Thailand, cutting the beards and knocking the barnacles off of Asian green mussels

P. viridis is harvested in the Indo-Pacific region as a food source due to its fast growth. However, it can harbor deadly Saxitoxin produced by the dinoflagellates that it feeds upon. It can also be used as a biomonitor to indicate pollution caused by heavy metals, organochlorides and petroleum products.[1] Mussels that are in contaminated areas have labile lysosomal membranes due to metal-induced stress.[8]

The mussel is also notorious for clogging water pipes used by industrial complexes and fouling marine equipment. It has fouled the intake condenser tunnels of power plants in India and Florida and the navigational buoys in China where their biomass has grown to up to72 kg/m2.[2] Chlorination of pipes and using high velocity water was shown to decrease or remove P. viridis population.[1] However, the mussel excretes ammonia which reacts with the chlorine to form chloramine, a weaker disinfectant than chlorine. Ammonia can also accelerate the corrosion of copper-based alloys found in the water pipes.[9] Heat treatment is also being considered as an alternative to chlorination due to the safety and environmental concerns raised by the latter method.[10]

As an invasive species, the mollusk is viewed as threat to the United States' oyster fishery. It might also displace native mussels by introducing harmful parasites and diseases.[2]

Dishes[edit]

The green mussel is edible. In Malabar, especially in Thalassery region in South India, a few delicacies are prepared with this mussel locally called "Kallumma-kkaya" (translation - fruit on the stone). 'Arikkadukka' is prepared by oil-frying the mussel filled with a savory paste of rice, cumin seeds and Shallot. For enhancing the unique aroma and taste, some of the sea water inside the fresh mussel shell which is rich in umami and salty components is added while preparing this filling. Mussel pickles are also popular.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Asian Green Mussel". Global Invasive Species Database. Retrieved 2007-09-25. 
  2. ^ a b c Florida Caribbean Science Center (2001-05-15). "NONINDIGENOUS SPECIES INFORMATION BULLETIN: Green mussel, Perna viridis (Linnaeus,". U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved 2008-04-25. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f "Asian Green Mussel". National Introduced Pest Marine Information System. Retrieved 2007-09-25. 
  4. ^ Seed, R; C. A. Richardson (273-287). "Evolutionary traits in Perna viridis (Linnaeus) and Septifer virgatus (Wiegmann) (Bivalvia: Mytilidae)". Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 239 (2): 273–287. doi:10.1016/S0022-0981(99)00043-X. Retrieved 2008-04-26. 
  5. ^ a b c "Perna viridis (Linnaeus, 1758)". Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission. Retrieved 2007-09-25. 
  6. ^ Lee, S.Y. (1988). "THE REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE AND SEXUALITY OF THE GREEN MUSSEL PERNA VIRIDIS (L.) (BIVALVIA: MYTILACEA) IN VICTORIA HARBOUR, HONG KONG". Journal of Molluscan Studies 54 (3): 317–323. doi:10.1093/mollus/54.3.317. Retrieved 2007-09-25. 
  7. ^ Marine Biological Association of Hong Kong; Brian Morton (1986). Asian Marine Biology. Hong Kong University Press. p. 111. ISBN 962-209-187-3. Retrieved 2008-04-26. 
  8. ^ Nicholson, Shaun (January 1999). "Cytological and Physiological Biomarker Responses from Green Mussels, Perna viridis (L.) Transplanted to Contaminated Sites in Hong Kong Coastal Waters". Marine Pollution Bulletin 39 (1–12): 261–268. doi:10.1016/S0025-326X(98)90189-8. Retrieved 2008-04-26. 
  9. ^ MASILAMONI, J. GUNASINGH; MASILAMONI, J. AZARIAH, K. NANDAKUMAR, K. SAMEUL JESUDOSS, K. K. SATPATHY, K.V.K. NAIR (2001). "Excretory Products of Green Mussel Perna viridis L. and their Implications on Power Plant Operation". Turk J Zool 25: 117–125. Retrieved 2007-09-25. 
  10. ^ Rajagopal, S; Venugopalan, V P, Azariah, J, Nair, K V K (1995). "Response of the green mussel Perna viridis (L.) to heat treatment in relation to power plant biofouling control". Biofouling 8 (4): 313–330. doi:10.1080/08927019509378284. Retrieved 2008-04-26. 
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