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Overview

Distribution

Range Description

This species is endemic to a small region of Guizhou Province southern China (in Jiangkou, Songtao, and Yingjiang counties). It is confined to a small, continuous block of habitat centering on Fanjing Mountain, south of the Yangtze in the Wuling Mountains (Bleisch et al. 1993; Bleisch and Xie 1994; Groves 2001). There were unconfirmed anecdotal reports of a population in Jinfoshan Nature Reserve, but the status is unknown.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species is found in forests of mixed–deciduous and evergreen broadleaf and deciduous broadleaf trees at elevations between 1,400 and 2,300 m (Bleisch et al. 1993; Bleisch 1995; Bleisch and Xie 1998). However, at times of heavy snow cover, they may be recorded at lower elevations (as low as 570 m), as individuals move down to the rivers (W. Bleisch pers. comm. 2006). It occurs in secondary forest but is absent from coniferous forest (W. Bleisch pers. comm. 2006). The subpopulations are thought to utilize much of the available habitat throughout the nature reserve. It is folivorous, but also consumes leaf buds, flower buds, fruits, seeds, bark, and insect larvae (Bleisch et al. 1993; Bleisch and Xie 1998). It is diurnal and semi-terrestrial, yet more arboreal as it only comes to the ground when there is an absence of appropriate trees (Bleisch et al. 1993). The birth season for this species is from April to May (Bleisch et al. 1993). The social structure is based on one-male groups which travel and rest together in large cohesive bands composed of up to 400 individuals or more (Bleisch et al. 1993; Bleisch and Xie 1998).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Rhinopithecus brelichi

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Rhinopithecus brelichi

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
EN
Endangered

Red List Criteria
B1ab(iii,v); C2a(ii)

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Bleisch, W., Yongcheng, L. & Richardson, M.

Reviewer/s
Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Endangered, in view of its extent of occurrence of less than 5,000 km² and area of occupancy of less than 500 km², with all individuals in fewer than five locations, and a continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat and in the number of mature individuals; and because there are fewer than 1,000 mature individuals, all in a single population that is experiencing a continuing decline.

History
  • 2000
    Endangered
  • 1996
    Endangered
  • 1994
    Endangered
    (Groombridge 1994)
  • 1990
    Endangered
    (IUCN 1990)
  • 1988
    Endangered
    (IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 1988)
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Population

Population
In 1992, a census with multiple observation teams led to an estimate of 600-1,200 individuals (Bleisch et al. 1993; Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve 1996). A new census in 2005 led to an estimate of about 750 individuals, believed to consist of less than 400 mature individuals, in one troop which may divide in the winter into smaller groups (Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve unpubl. data). There is evidence that 20 individuals have moved outside of the Nature Reserve into an adjacent community forest (Lijiadashan) (Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve unpubl. data; W. Bleisch pers. comm. 2006). No other individuals have been confirmed outside of the nature reserve.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
This species is threatened by non-targeted hunting (Bleisch 1991) and habitat loss due to forest clearing (Bleisch 1995). It is also sometimes caught in snares set for other animals (Bleisch 1995). Previously, collection of magnolia flower buds and bark (by cutting down tress) by local villagers removed a food source of this species, but this practice has reportedly ceased (Dunyan pers. comm. 2006). There is currently construction and development for tourism, including a tourist road, cable car and hotels within the nature reserve, which are a potential threat because of habitat destruction and disturbance. At lower elevations, there is continued pressure from agricultural expansion and collection of firewood. The species occurs at only a single locality, making it vulnerable to epidemic disease or catastrophes.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species is listed on CITES Appendix I, and as Category I under the Chinese Wildlife Protection Act, 1989.
The most urgent conservation need is to remove the threats in and around the Fanjingshan Nature Reserve. In the longer term, there is a need to survey other possible remnant forests in the vicinity, especially Jinfoshan Nature Reserve (along the border between Guizhou and Sichuan provinces), for the small possibility of other populations and also to investigate the possibility of translocation. There are also other possible sites within the Wuling Mountain range that might offer suitable habitat.

The Fanjingshan Nature Reserve maintains a captive breeding colony, and a few pairs have been sent to other centers in China. However, breeding has been slow and the future of the captive population is not considered secure (Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve 1996).
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Wikipedia

Gray snub-nosed monkey

The gray snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus brelichi),[1] also known as Brelich's snub-nosed monkey, Guizhou snub-nosed monkey, and Ghizhou golden monkey,[4] is a species of primate in the Cercopithecidae family.[1][2] It is endemic to China,[1] where it is known as the Guizhou golden hair monkey (黔金丝猴) or gray golden hair monkey (灰金丝猴).[4] It is threatened by habitat loss.[2] Of the three species of snub-nosed monkeys in China, the gray snub-nosed monkey is the most threatened, with a total population of less than 750 in around 20 groups surviving in the wild.[citation needed]

Description[edit]

Adults are covered with long, fine hair, generally grading from brown on its upper body to gray on its lower body, with a white patch between its shoulder blades.[5] Its head, neck, and ends of its limbs are black, except for a golden brow.[5] It has a golden chest, and chestnut fur on its inner knees and inner sides of its upper arms.[6] Its face is bare bluish-white skin, pink around the eyes and mouth, and has a shelf-like brow and reduced nasal bones, giving it a snub-nosed appearance.[5][6] Juvelines are shades of gray with patterns changing with age. Adult males are brighter colored than adult females, and have white skin on prominent nipples.[5] Size data is limited, but two adult male specimens weighed 14.5 kg on average, and an adult female specimen weighed 8 kg, with adult length excluding tail ranging from 64–73 cm, and tail length ranging from 70–97 cm.[5][6]

Distribution[edit]

The confirmed distribution range of the gray snub-nosed monkey is limited to the Mount Fanjing National Nature Reserve in the Wuling Mountains in Guizhou province, China.[4] There is unpublished evidence that 20 individuals moved from the Nature Reserve to an adjacent community forest (Lijiadashan), and there are unconfirmed anecdotal reports of a population in Jinfoshan Nature Reserve.[2]

Habitat[edit]

Its habitat consists of mixed deciduous and evergreen broad leaf forest, including secondary forest, but not coniferous forest.[7][8] The forests include mono-groves of Asian oak (Cyclobalanopsis spp.) and beech (Fagus longipetiolata), as well as mixed species forests that include cherry (Prunus spp.), maple (Acer spp.), Rhododendron spp, and birch (Betula spp.) trees.[5] It lives at elevations of 1,400–2,300 m in summers down to 570 m at times of heavy snow cover.[7] They're thought to utilize most of the available range of the nature reserve. The yearly rainfall in the area above 1,600 m elevation is above 2000 mm. Snow is common in the winter, with sub-freezing temperatures about five months of the year, though monthly mean temperatures are never below 0°C.[5]

Behavior[edit]

The diurnal species is considered semi-terrestrial, primarily inhabits trees where available.[7] Locomotion includes a mix of "quadrupedal walking, climbing, leaping, semi-brachiation (tree-swinging) and occasional full brachiation."[5]

It feeds on a variety of young leaves, leaf and flower buds, bark, fruits, certain petioles (e.g. Fagus longipetiolata), seeds (e.g. Prunus spp. and Sorbus spp.), and insect larvae.[5] Seasonality of the forest means the monkey's diet changes seasonally as well; it may be 7% leaves in the first three months of the year, and 93% in the next three. Fruits and seeds can constitute 35% of the diet in July to September.[9]

Its social structure is based on small groups that band together into larger troops of up to 400 or more individuals, traveling, feeding and sleeping.[2] The groups typically have 5-10 members, comprised of one dominant male and several females and their young.[5] There are also all-male bachelor groups of two to five adult or sub-adult males, which typically mill about the periphery of a troop.[5] The groups split into large or smaller bands seasonally.[2]

Conservation Status[edit]

Though legally protected, the gray snub-nosed monkey is threatened seriously due to habitat loss from forest clearing, illegal mining, non-targeted hunting, and occasional inadvertent snare trapping.[2][8] A 2008 census located around 750 individuals, consistent with a 2005 census.[2][8] The Fanjing reserve that covers the distribution range wasn't established until 1978,[10] and centuries of mining mining activities depleted the forest on the northern slope of the mountains; ongoing reforestation efforts haven't been able to restore the forest to the level of sustaining the ideal survival environment for the monkeys.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Groves, C. P. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M, eds. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 174. OCLC 62265494. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Bleisch, W; Yongcheng, L; Richardson, M (2008). "Rhinopithecus brelichi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 16 December 2013. 
  3. ^ "Synonyms of Brelich's Snub-nosed Monkey (Pygathrix brelichi)". Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved 16 December 2013. 
  4. ^ a b c "Common Names for Brelich's Snub-nosed Monkey (Pygathrix brelichi)". Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved 16 December 2013. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Renmei, Ren; Kirkpatrick, R. Craig; Jablonski, Nina G.; Bleisch, William V.; Canh, Le Xuan (1998). "Chapter 17: Conservation Status and Prospects of the Snub-nosed Langurs (Colobinae: Rhinopithecus)". In Jablonski, Nina G. The Natural History of the Doucs and Snub-nosed Monkeys. Recent Advances in Human Biology 4. World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd. pp. 301–314. ISBN 978-981-02-3131-6. Retrieved 16 December 2013. 
  6. ^ a b c "Grey snub-nosed monkey photo – Rhinopithecus brelichi – G42086". ARKive. Wildscreen. Retrieved 16 December 2013. 
  7. ^ a b c "Facts about Brelich's Snub-nosed Monkey (Pygathrix brelichi)". Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved 16 December 2013. 
  8. ^ a b c Xiang, Z; Nie, S; Lei, X; Chang, Z; Wei, F; Li, M (2009). "Current status and conservation of the gray snub-nosed monkey Rhinopithecus brelichi (Colobinae) in Guizhou, China". Biological Conservation 142 (3): 469–476. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2008.11.019. ISSN 0006-3207. 
  9. ^ Bleisch, William V.; Jiahua, Xie (1998). "Chapter 11: Ecology and Behavior of the Ghizhou Snub-nosed Langur (Rhinopithecus [Rhinopithecus] brelichi), with a Discussion of Socioecology in the Genus". In Jablonski, Nina G. The Natural History of the Doucs and Snub-nosed Monkeys. Recent Advances in Human Biology 4. World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd. pp. 217–240. ISBN 978-981-02-3131-6. Retrieved 16 December 2013. 
  10. ^ "Biosphere Reserve Information: Fanjingshan". UNESCO – MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory. United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization. Retrieved 16 December 2013. 
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