Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

A medium sized Hyperolius (males 23-27 mm, females 25-32 mm) from the eastern forests. Voice a scream. Phase F with a light dorsolateral line and white spots on heels and sometimes a spot around the anus. The males have a gular flap similar to that of H. puncticulatus. Both males and females have fine dorsal asperities. Pupil horizontal.

Phase J has a brownish dorsum with diffuse darker spots, Ventral surfaces yellow to orange. Phase F: Dorsum darker or lighter brown with diffuse darker spots. A broad, black-edged silverish canthal and dorsolateral line is always present from tip of snout almost to groin. A spot of the same colour is present on the heel. Ventrum yellow to orange.

The relationship with the similar, sympatric H. puncticulatus is mentioned under that species.

This species shows developmental changes in patterning, with two phases, J (juveniles and many mature males) and F (mature females and some mature males). All newly metamorphosed individuals are phase J, which is normally brownish to green with paired light dorsolateral lines, or an hourglass pattern. All females, and some males, develop into phase F before the first breeding season. Phase F is often colorful and variable, showing the diagnostic color characteristics for the species or subspecies. Either well-defined morphs may be present, or graded variation.

This account was taken from "Treefrogs of Africa" by Arne Schiøtz with kind permission from Edition Chimaira publishers, Frankfurt am Main.

  • Schiøtz, A. (1999). Treefrogs of Africa. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main.
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Distribution

Range Description

This species ranges widely from northeastern Tanzania, through Malawi to central Mozambique. It is present on the island of Zanzibar. A record from Ngurdoto Crater in Arusha National Park, north-central Tanzania, was a misidentified Hyperolius viridiflavus ommatostictus. It is a low-altitude species, though it occurs to at least 1,000 m asl.
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Distribution and Habitat

Forest and bushland localities in the eastern lowlands from north-eastern Tanzania to Mozambique.

  • Schiøtz, A. (1999). Treefrogs of Africa. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main.
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Physical Description

Size

Males are 23–27 mm in snout-vent length, while females are 25–32 mm (Harper et al., 2010).

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Diagnostic Description

The dorsum is orange to brown, often with small dark spots especially in young individuals. Light canthal and dorsolateral stripes are always present and are usually outlined in black, and in some cases yellow as well. The dorsolateral stripes extend midway down the dorsum and in some individuals reach the groin. A light spot is present on each heel. The ventral surface of males may be yellow or orange, but in females is typically orange. Males have a yellow gular flap (Text from Harper et al., 2010).

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Look Alikes

Comparisons

H. mitchelli can be distinguished from H. puncticulatus by the light spots on the heels.

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
It lives in dry forest, heavily degraded former forest (farm bush) and low-intensity farmland. It breeds in permanent and temporary ponds in rather open forest and farm bush.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
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Habitat and Ecology

This species is found in dry and moist forest at elevations up to 1200 m, and it is also found in degraded habitats, including gardens (Harper et al., 2010).

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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Advertisement Call

Males call from vegetation over streams or ponds (Harper et al., 2010). Schiøtz (1999) describes the call as “an irregular series of screams.”

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Clutches of 50–100 eggs are laid on vegetation over water. Tadpoles hatch after five or six days (Text from Harper et al., 2010).

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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group

Reviewer/s
Stuart, S.N.

Contributor/s
Schiøtz, A. & Poynton, J.

Justification
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a degree of habitat modification and its presumed large population.

History
  • 2004
    Least Concern
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Population

Population
It is a common species.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

The call is an irregular series of screams. The single figure has a duration of more than 0.5 sec and an indistinct frequency-intensity maximum at about 3500 cps.

Eggs are laid on leaves overhanging the water in clutches of 50-100. The tadpole has papillae on the rostrum and a complex of lingual papillae that form a dense filter at the front of the mouth (Channing et. al. 1987).

  • Schiøtz, A. (1999). Treefrogs of Africa. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main.
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Threats

Major Threats
Although it can withstand considerable habitat alteration, there is almost certainly a limit to the amount of opening of its habitat that it can tolerate.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
It presumably occurs in several protected areas.
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Wikipedia

Hyperolius mitchelli

Hyperolius mitchelli is a species of frog in the Hyperoliidae family. It is found in Malawi, Mozambique, and Tanzania. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry forests, subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, freshwater marshes, intermittent freshwater marshes, rural gardens, and heavily degraded former forest. It is threatened by habitat loss.

References[edit]

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