In South Africa, the Springbok was exterminated over much of its natural range during the course of the late 1800s as a result of hunting and the effects of rinderpest. However, it has subsequently been reintroduced widely to private land and protected areas throughout its former range. The largest numbers occur on private game farms, mainly in the highveld of the Free State and Gauteng provinces and the Karoo and Kalahari thornveld of the Western, Eastern and Northern Cape provinces.
Smaller, introduced populations occur widely in extralimital areas, e.g., on private land and provincial reserves in parts of KwaZulu-Natal and the northern bushveld (East 1999).
Springbok range includes south and southwestern Africa, mainly in the countries of Namibia, Botswana, Angola and the Republic of South Africa.
Biogeographic Regions: ethiopian (Native )
The springbok is a strikingly marked, gazellelike antelope. It has a white face with dark stripes from the mouth to the eyes, a reddish-brown coat that turns to a darker shade and then to white on the lower third of its body, and a white backside. It stands approximately 80cm high at the shoulders and is characterized by a fold of skin that runs from the midback to the rump. This fold can be opened in times of excitement to display a crest of white hair. Both sexes also have black, curved, lyre-shaped horns. Larger males can have horns 36-48cm in length.
Range mass: 33 to 46 kg.
Other Physical Features: endothermic ; bilateral symmetry
Habitat and Ecology
Springboks are mostly confined to game reserves and farms in treeless savanna associated with the edges of dry lake beds.
Terrestrial Biomes: savanna or grassland
The springbok is an intermediate browser, using both grass and browse. The shift from one food source to the other takes place seasonally. It is largely due to the need for water in the hot, dry season when the natural water supplies are not constant, during which time flowers are eaten. These flowers have double the mean water content of the grass that is consumed in times of water availability (during the hot, wet season). Utilizing food resources in this way allows springboks to remain independent of a constant water supply, whether it be from man-made watering holes, natural water holes, or other water supplies. This is a great advantage in a climate where droughts are common.
Life History and Behavior
Perception Channels: tactile ; chemical
Status: captivity: 19.0 years.
Status: wild: 20.0 years.
Lifespan, longevity, and ageing
The springbok generally mates during the dry season and lactates during the hot, wet season when resources are most abundant. Birth takes place in Oct-Nov, the start of the wet season. Gestation is approximately 4-6 months and females generally reproduce every 2 years, starting between the ages of 1 and 2. Weaning usually occurs from 6 months to 1 year. The parental contribution is mainly by the mother, as springboks tend to live in herds of females and their offspring along with very few dominant males. Life expectancy of an average springbok is 7-9 years.
Range number of offspring: 1 to 2.
Average number of offspring: 1.01.
Range gestation period: 5.57 to 5.7 months.
Range weaning age: 4 to 4.07 months.
Key Reproductive Features: gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual
Average birth mass: 4160 g.
Average number of offspring: 1.
Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)
Sex: male: 400 days.
Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
Sex: female: 213 days.
Parental Investment: altricial
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Barcode data: Antidorcas marsupialis
Below is the sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.
See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen.
Other sequences that do not yet meet barcode criteria may also be available.
-- end --
Download FASTA File
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Antidorcas marsupialis
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
- 1996Lower Risk/conservation dependent (LR/cd)
Springbok once traveled by the hundreds and even millions. Springbok were hunted by the Dutch farmers whose crops were ruined by "treks" of springbok travelling in search of food and water. Springbok are now being introduced in game reserves and private farms in an effort to preserve the species.
US Federal List: no special status
CITES: no special status
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern
Springbok are amongst the most valued species in the expanding game ranching industry in southern Africa due to the excellent quality of their venison (Skinner in press).
Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems
Previously, when the springbok traveled in large numbers, they caused extensive crop damage to the Dutch farms.
The springbok is the Republic of South Africa's sporting emblem. It is respected and honored in that country, which has lead to a moderate increase in protection. Only with special permission or a special license can hunters pursue the springbok. Springbok are popular attractions for tourists at game reserves and private farms. Previously, when hunting without a license for springbok was legal, the meat of springboks provided an abundant supply of protein to a growing population in southern Africa.
Positive Impacts: food
The springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis) is a medium-sized brown and white antelope-gazelle of southwestern Africa. It is extremely fast and can reach speeds of 100 km/h (62 mph) and can leap 4 m (13 feet) through the air. The common name "springbok" comes from the Afrikaans and Dutch words spring = jump and bok = male antelope or goat.
The specific epithet marsupialis (Latin: marsupium, "pocket") derives from a pocket-like skin flap which extends along the middle of the back from the tail onwards. When the male springbok is showing off his strength to attract a mate, or to ward off predators, he starts off in a stiff-legged trot, jumping up into the air with an arched back every few paces and lifting the flap along his back. Lifting the flap causes the long white hairs under the tail to stand up in a conspicuous fan shape, which in turn emits a strong scent of sweat. This ritual is known as stotting or pronking from the Afrikaans meaning to boast or show off.
Springboks are slender, long-necked antelopes, with a total length of 150 to 195 cm (59 to 77 in), and horns present in both sexes. Adults are between 70 and 90 cm (28 and 35 in) tall at the shoulder, depending on weight and gender; they weigh between 30 and 44 kg (66 and 97 lb) for the females and 33 and 48 kg (73 and 106 lb) for the males. The tail is 15 to 30 centimetres (5.9 to 11.8 in) long.
Their colouring consists of a pattern of white, reddish/tan and dark brown. Their backs are tan-coloured and they are white beneath, with a dark brown stripe extending along each side from the shoulder to inside the thigh. The face is white in adults, with a dark patch on the forehead, and a stripe running from just above the eyes to the corner of the mouth. The hooves and horns are black, and the tail is white with a black tuft at the tip.
Rams are slightly larger than ewes, and have thick horns; the ewes tend to have skinnier legs and longer, more frail horns. The horns are, however, of similar shape in both sexes, with a hook-like tip that curves inwards, and a series of rings along their length. The average horn length for both genders is 35 cm (14 in), with the record being a female with horns measuring 49.21 centimetres (19.37 in). Springbok footprints are narrow and sharp, and are 5.5 cm (2.2 in) long. springbok are distinguished from gazelles in that they only have two premolar teeth in each side of each jaw, instead of three, and therefore a total of twenty eight teeth, rather than thirty.
There are three variations in the color of springbok pelage. In addition to the normal-coloured springboks there are also black and white morphs. Although born jet black, adult "black" springboks primarily have two shades of chocolate-brown and a white marking on the face. White springboks are predominantly white with a very light brown coloured side stripe.
Distribution and habitat
Springbok inhabit the dry inland areas of south and southwestern Africa. Their range extends from the northwestern part of South Africa through the Kalahari desert into Namibia and Botswana. Springbok occur in numbers of up to 2,500,000 in South Africa; it is the most plentiful antelope. They used to be very common, forming some of the largest herds of mammals ever documented, but their numbers have diminished significantly since the 19th century due to hunting and fences from farms blocking their migratory routes.
In South Africa, springbok inhabit the vast grasslands of the Free State and the open shrublands of the greater and smaller Karoo. They inhabit most of Namibia – the grasslands of the south, the Kalahari desert to the east, and the dry riverbeds of the northern bushveld of the Windhoek region, as well as the harsh Namib Desert on the west coast. In Botswana, they mostly live in the Kalahari Desert in the southwestern and central parts of the country.
Three subspecies are recognised:
- Antidorcas marsupialis marsupialis - South Africa
- Antidorcas marsupialis angolensis - northern Namibia, southern coastal region of Angola
- Antidorcas marsupialis hofmeyri - southern and central Namibia, Botswana
Springbok are mixed feeders, switching between grazing and browsing seasonally. When grasses are fresh, they mostly graze. At other times, they browse on shrubs and succulents. Springbok can meet their water needs from the food they eat, and survive without drinking water through dry season, or even over years. Reportedly, in extreme cases, they do not drink any water over the course of their lives. Springbok may accomplish this by selecting flowers, seeds, and leaves of shrubs before dawn, when these foods are most succulent. Springbok gather together in the wet seasons and spread out during the dry season, an unusual trait among African animals. In places such as Etosha, springbok can and do seek out water bodies when they are available. Examples of food items eaten by springbok are grasses, such as Themeda triandra, and succulent plants, such as Lampranthus.
Springbok are mainly active around dawn and dusk, although they may feed through the day in colder weather, or through the night at particularly hot times of the year. During the summer, they sleep in the shade of trees or bushes, although they often bed down in the open when the weather is cooler.
The social structure of the springbok is similar to the Thomson's gazelle. Bachelor males and females form separate herds, although mixed sex herds are also common, with a roughly 3:1 female:male ratio. These groups are normally kept separate by territorial males, which round up female herds that enter their territories and keep out the bachelors. Females may leave the herds solitarily or in groups to give birth. Mothers and fawns may gather in nursery herds separate from harem and bachelor herds. After weaning, female offspring stay with their mothers until a new young is born, while males join bachelor groups.
Outside of the rut, mixed sex herds can range from as few as three to as many as 180 individuals, while all-male bachelor herds are of typically no more than fifty individuals. Harem and nursery herds are much smaller, typically including no more than ten individuals. The Dutch/Afrikaans term trekbokken refers to the large-scale migration of herds of springbok seen roaming the country during the early pioneer days of South Africa before farm fences were erected. Millions of migrating springbok formed herds hundreds of kilometres long that could take several days to pass a town. These are the largest herds of mammals ever witnessed.
Springbok often go into bouts of repeated high leaps of up to 2 m (6 ft 7 in) into the air in a practice known as "pronking" (Afrikaans and Dutch: pronk, to show off) or "stotting". While pronking, the Springbok repeatedly leaps into the air in a particular stiff-legged posture, with its back bowed and the white fan lifted. While the exact cause of this behaviour is unknown, springbok exhibit this activity when they are nervous or otherwise excited. One theory is pronking is meant to indicate to predators that they have been spotted. Another is the springbok show off their individual strength and fitness so the predator will go for another (presumably weaker) member of the group. Another opinion is springbok and other similar antelopes do this to spray scent secreted from a gland near the heel.
Springbok make occasional low-pitched bellows as a greeting and high-pitched snorts when alarmed, but are otherwise relatively quiet animals.
Springbok mate year-round, although females may be more likely to enter oestrus during the rainy season, when food is more plentiful. During the rut, males establish territories, ranging from 10 to 70 hectares (25 to 173 acres), which they mark by urinating and depositing large piles of dung. Males in neighbouring territories frequently fight for access to females, which they do by twisting and levering at each other with their horns, interspersed with occasional stabbing attacks. Females wander between the territories of different males, rather than remaining in a single one for long periods of time. When one approaches a territorial male, the male holds his head and tail out horizontally, lowers his horns and makes a loud grunting noise to attract her. The male then urinates and sniffs the female's perineum. If the female is receptive, she also urinates, and the male makes a flehmen gesture, and taps her leg until the female either leaves or permits him to mate.
Gestation lasts 168 days, and results in the birth of a single calf, or, rarely, twins. The young weigh from 3.8 to 5 kg (8.4 to 11.0 lb) at birth, and are initially left under shelter, such as a bush, while the female feeds elsewhere. Mother and calf rejoin the herd about three to four weeks after birth, and the young are weaned at five to six months. Springbok typically leave their mother when she next gives birth, by which time they are normally about six to twelve months old. Females are sexually mature at seven months, but rarely mate during their first year, while males are mature at two years of age. Springbok live for up to ten years.
Relationship with other species
Leopards, cheetahs, hyenas, and lions are the springbok's primary predators. A study in the Etosha National Park found that springboks are the most common prey species for lions, accounting for nearly seventy percent of the hunts. Pythons occasionally take springboks; black-backed jackals, caracals, and eagles often take springbok lambs.
It shares its range with many other herbivores, such as the gemsbok, African bush elephant, blue wildebeest, plains zebra, and blesbok. It is sympatric with the impala only in certain corners of its range, such as Etosha National Park and the Pilanesberg area.
Fossil springbok are known from the Pliocene, and appear to have first evolved about three million years ago, from a gazelle-like ancestor. Three fossil species have been identified, in addition to the extant form, and appear to have been widespread across Africa. Two of these, Antidorcas bondi and A. australis, became extinct during the early Holocene, about 7,000 years ago. The third species, A. recki, probably gave rise to the living form during the Pleistocene, about 0.1 million years ago.
Relationship with humans
Since prehistory, the springbok was hunted by primitive man using stone tools. Up to the present, springbok are hunted as game throughout Namibia, Botswana and South Africa because of their beautiful coats, and because they are very common and easy to support on farms with very low rainfall, which means they are cheap to hunt, as well. The export of springbok skins, mainly from Namibia and South Africa, is also a booming industry. The meat is a prized fare.
Springbok are one of the few antelope species considered to have an expanding population.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (June 2012)|
The springbok was a national symbol of South Africa under white minority rule (including a significant period prior to the establishment of apartheid). It was adopted as a nickname or mascot by a number of South African sports teams, most famously by the national rugby union team. It appeared on the emblems of the South African Air Force, the logo of South African Airways (for which it remains their radio callsign), the reverse of the Krugerrand, and the coat of arms of South Africa. It also featured as the logo of 'South Africa's Own Car', the Ranger, in the early 1970s.
The former South African prime minister and architect of apartheid, Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd, had a dream to change the then-current flag of South Africa, remove the three small flags in its center (he objected especially to the British Union Flag being there) and replace them with a leaping springbok antelope over a wreath of six proteas. This proposal aroused too much controversy to be implemented.
The springbok is currently the national animal of South Africa. After the demise of apartheid, the African National Congress government decreed that South African sporting teams were to be known as the Proteas after the national flower of South Africa. The national rugby team still maintains the name Springboks, and are affectionately known by their supporters as the Boks. The emblem issue occasionally resurfaces and leads to some political controversy.
During the Second Boer War, a Boer force attempting to sneak up on the Royal Canadian Dragoons was defeated after their movements startled the nearby springbok, thus alerting the Canadian sentries, which is why the Dragoons have the springbok as their cap badge and as their mascot.
- IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group (2008). "Antidorcas marsupialis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- Grubb, P. (2005). "Order Artiodactyla". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 678. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
- Pittsburgh Zoo Springbok
- Cain, J.W. III et al. (2004). "Antidorcas marsupialis". Mammalian Species: Number 753: pp. 1–7. doi:10.1644/753.
- Zoo Hannover – Springbok
- The Springbok. J. D. Skinner & G. N. Louw (1996)
- Redlist – Springbok
- "Largest Herds (Mammals)". 4to40.com.
- Estes, R. (1991). The Behavior Guide to African Mammals, Including Hoofed Mammals, Carnivores, Primates. Los Angeles: The University of California Press. pp. 80–84. ISBN 0520058313.
- Nagy, Kenneth A.; Knight, Michael H. (1994). "Energy, Water, and Food Use by Springbok Antelope (Antidorcas marsupialis) in the Kalahari Desert". Journal of Mammalogy 75 (4): 860–872. JSTOR 1382468.
- Skinner, J.D. & Louw, G.N. (1996). "The Springbok Antidorcas marsupialis (Zimmerman 1780)". Transvaal Museum Monographs 10: 1–50.
- Bigalke, R.C. (1970). "Observations of springbok populations". Zoologica Africana 5 (1): 59–70.
- Geoffrey Haresnape (1974). The Great Hunters. Purnell. ISBN 0-360-00232-3.
- "Largest Herds (Mammals)". 4to40.com.
- Bigalke, R.C. (1972). "Observations on the behaviour and feeding habits of the springbok Antidorcas marsupialis". Zoologica Africana 7 (1): 333–359.
- David, J.H.M. (1978). "Observations on territorial behaviour of springbok, Antidorcas marsupialis, in the Bontebok National Park, Swellendam". Zoologica Africana 13 (1): 123–141.
- Stander, P. E., and S. D. Albon. "Hunting success of lions in a semi-arid environment." In Symposia of the Zoological Society of London, vol. 65, pp. 127–143. 1993.
- Vrba, E.S. (1973). "Two species of Antidorcas Sundevall at Swartkrans (Mammalia: Bovidae)". Annals of the Transvaal Museum 28 (15): 287–351.
- C. Michael Hogan (2008) Makgadikgadi, The Megalithic Portal, ed. A. Burnham 
- Alister Doyle, Environment Correspondent (3 March 2009). "Quarter of antelopes under threat: report". Reuters. Retrieved 2010-04-25.