The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1. IUCN Red List (January, 2008) http://www.iucnredlist.org External link.
  • 1998. website, Mammal Species of the World
  • 2. World Deer (January, 2008) External link.
  • 2001. website, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Program-05/01
  • 3. CITES (January, 2008) http://www.cites.org External link.
  • 4. Ultimate Ungulate (January, 2008) External link.
  • 5. Tomas, W.M. and Salis, S.M. (2000) Diet of the marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus) in the Pantanal wetland, Brazil. Studies of Neotropical Fauna and Environment, 35: 165 - 172.
  • 6. Harris, M.B., Tomas, W.M., Mourao, G., Da Silve, C.J., Guimaraes, E., Sonoda, F. and Fachim, E. (2005) Safeguarding the Pantanal Wetlands: Threats and Conservation Initiatives. Conservation Biology, 19 (3): 714 - 720.
  • 7. Wemmer, C. (1998) Deer: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Deer Specialist Group, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. Available at External link.
  • CITES, July 16, 1999. "CITES fauna" (On-line). Accessed October 18, 1999 at
  • Damuth, J. 1993. Cope's rule, the island rule and the scaling of mammalian population density. Nature 365:748-750.
  • Duarte, J., M. Giannoni. 1992. Cytogenetic analysis of the marsh deer, Blastocerus dichotomus (Mammalia, Cervidae). Revista Brasileira de Genetica, 18: 245-248.
  • Eisenberg, J. E., and K. H. Redford. 1999. Mammals of the Neotropics, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
  • Emanoil, M. 1994. Encyclopedia of Endangered Species. Gale Research International, Detriot, London.
  • Hayssen, V., A. V. Tienhoven, and A. V. Tienhoven. 1993. Asdell's Patterns of Mammalian Reproduction: A Compendium of Species-Specific Data. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, USA.
  • Magalhães, R., M. Mello, L. Bergqvist. 1992. Pleistocene cervids from the northeastern region of Brazil.. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, 64: 149-168.
  • Mares, M., R. Ojeda, R. Barquez. 1989. Guide to the mammals of the Salta Province, Argentina. Norman, OK, USA: University of Oklahoma Press.
  • Mourão, G., Z. Campos. 1995. Survey of broad-snouted Caiman latirostris, marsh deer Blastocerus dichotomus and capybara Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris in the area to be inundated by Porto Primavera Dam, Brazil. Biological Conservation, 73: 27-31.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2015). ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Mar 2015). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Pinder, L. 1996. Marsh deer Blastocerus dichotomus population estimate in the Parana River, Brazil. Biological Conservation, 75: 87-91.
  • Pinder, L. 1999. Marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus) ranging patterns in the Parana River Valley, Brazil. Papeis Avulsos de Zoologia (Sao Paulo), 41: 39-48.
  • Pinder, L., A. Grosse. 1991. Blastocerus dichotomus. Mammalian Species, 380: 1-4.
  • Pinder, L., and A. P. Grosse. 1991. Blastocerus dichotomus. Mammalian Species 380:1-4.
  • Quintana, R., R. Bo, J. Merler, P. Minotti, A. Malverez. 1992. Use and situation of wildlife in the lower delta of the Parana River. Iherinigia Serie Zoologia, 73: 13-33.
  • Redford, K., J. Eisenberg. 1992. Mammals of the neotropics (Vol. 2): the southern cone. Chicago, USA: The University of Chicago Press.
  • Richard Weigl (2005) Longevity of Mammals in Captivity; from the Living Collections of the World. Kleine Senckenberg-Reihe 48: Stuttgart.
  • Roig, V. 1991. Desertification and distribution of mammals in the Southern Cone of South America. Pp. 239-279 in M Mares, D Schmidly, eds. Latin American mammalogy: history, biodiversity, conservation. Norman, Oklahoma, USA: University of Oklahoma Press.
  • Roxo, E., R. Gaspirini. 1996. Survey on incidence of brucellosis in Pantanal deer, in Brazil.. Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia, 48(1): 79-81.
  • Smith, F. A., S. K. Lyons, S. K. M. Ernest, K. E. Jones, D. M. Kaufman, T. Dayan, P. Marquet, J. H. Brown, and J. P. Haskell. 2003. Body size of late Quaternary mammals. Ecology 84:3403.
  • U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1974. Taking, Possession, Transportation, Sale, Purchase, Barter, Exportation, and Importation of Wildlife. Federal Register, vol. 39, no. 3. 1158-1185
  • Whitehead, G. K. 1993. The Whitehead Encyclopedia of Deer. Swan Hill Press, Shrewsbury.
  • Whitehead, K. 1972. Deer of the world. New York, USA: The Viking Press, Inc..
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1992. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1993. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing. xviii + 1207
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 2005. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vols. 1 & 2. 2142
  • Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole. 2000. Common Names of Mammals of the World
  • Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole. 2000. Common Names of Mammals of the World. xiv + 204


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