Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

with intestine and pharynx simplex; sometimes with statocyst, having 1 or 2 statoliths; chief tubules of excretory system mediodorsal; male genital opening dorsal, in anterior; female ducts and accessory organs lacking
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
                                        
Specimen Records:29Public Records:4
Specimens with Sequences:4Public Species:4
Specimens with Barcodes:0Public BINs:0
Species:8         
Species With Barcodes:0         
          
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Barcode data

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Locations of barcode samples

Collection Sites: world map showing specimen collection locations for Catenulida

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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Catenulida   Bresslau E 1933 (citation)- Karling TG 1940 (citation)- definition p 2 and 9, "Archoophora with gut and pharynx simplex. Sometimes with  statocyst with 1 or 2 lithospheres. Medial dorsally opening of the main stem of excretory system.  Male pore dorsal in anterior body. Female ducts and accessory organs locking. Fresh water."  see also p 223-225, and 228. (= Catenulida Meixner 1924, Notandropora Reisinger 1924).  Marcus E 1945 (citation)- "pharynx of the simplex type" and quotes Graff 1913/15 as defining above "a tubular  invagination of the integument-" Marcus adds "muscles for dilation in the form of radiating fibers  from the pharyngeal wall, glands and nerves can be attached to it from the elongated epidermal part  going inwards." pharynx in asexual reproduction is formed from "stem cells" not by invagination of   epithelium in Stenostomum and Microstomum and others dissected by Marcus- also shown by reversal of  muscle layer in epithelium and pharynx- problems of definition here- concludes pharynx simplex is  characterized by "lack of a pharyngeal pocket or a long oral tube." [Bush translation]   also long citation on asexual reproduction in this group p 54-65, on length of chains, order of  formation, description of process, etc.  Marcus E 1945 (citation)- definition of order.  "Simplex pharynx with sac-shaped gut or intestine without diverticula, parenchyma not well developed,  a single median protonephridium doubled on itself, statocyst present or absent, and reproduction more by  the vegetative process of fission than by sexual means, perhaps with the exception of Rhynchoscolex."   Stenostomidae Chordariidae Catenulidae  -------------------------------- ----------------------------- -----------------------  brain 2 anterior and 2 posterior lobes brain oviod, compact without ovoid brain, without or   clearly separated and near divisions and near front with a constriction and  mouth far from mouth without a distinct  subdivision into anterior  and posterior lobes   preoral groups of sensor cells with ciliated groove may occur brain at base or half-way  ciliated pits and in long, up preoral zone which is   precerebral series   excretophores on interior wall excretophores present excretophores absent   diagnosis: "Small turbellaria 0.3-1.2 mm long by 0.03-0.3 mm in diameter, with unpaired excretory tubes.  Excretory canal commences in the posterior region of the body, curves with an ascending tube   forward to anterior where it recurves on itself and descends to open in the caudal zone. The   protonephridia is located on the median line dorsal to the intestine (except   Stenostomum ventronephrium Nuttycombe), and ventral to the cerebrum. Nervous system composed of the   cerebrum and of various pairs of longitudinal nerves from anterior to posterior. In all the  genera with the exception of Stenostomum (always with a statocyst) there occurs species with  and species without statocysts. Pharynx simple; intestine pouch or sac shaped without diverticula.   Parenchyme generally little developed. Reproducing, with the exception of Rhynchoscolex more  vegetatively by paratomis division than by germ cells- gonads not known in all the genera- Testis  situated dorsally and opening thru a penis in the anterior dorsal region. Ovaries endolecithal.   In Rhynchoscolex, it appears most probably reproduction is parthenogenetic. Fresh water, moist  earth and rarely in salt water."   Marcus divides into 3 families and 5 genera- Key p 8:   1. Cerebrum with distinct lobes, 2 anterior and 2 posterior--------------------------5  1. Cerebrum without distinct subdivisions into anterior and posterior lobes----------2   2. Cerebrum situated almost at the mouth, at the base of the preoral zone   or at nearly the level of that region--------------------------------------------3  2. Cerebrum situated at the anterior part of the preoral zone -----------------Chordarium   3. In the pre-bursal zone is found a ventral or ventro-lateral, large  prominent ring, ciliated and provided with a longitudinal channel----------Suomina  3. A prominent ring does not occur preorally-----------------------------------------4   4. The lumen of the intestine reaches approximately to the middle of   posterior buccal part of the body------------------------------------------Catenula  4. The intestine extends as far as the interior of the worm; the last  1/5th or at most 1/4th of the intestine may lack a lumen-------------------Dasyhormus   5. Adult worms present, as a general way of life, signs of division------------Stenostomum  5. After 1-2 divisions in larval stage or the pre-adult, no divisions occur----Rhynchoscolex  Marcus E 1948 (citation)- p 120 mentions in history of Rhabdocoela. Westblad E 1948 (citation)- p 66 definition. " Archoophora with true, undivided gut and pharynx simplex. Basal  membrane present (thin). With or without a statocyst. Protonephridia present (unpaired main duct).   Male reproductive glands follicular, female unpaired. Female genital opening dorsal in the anterior  part of body, feamle ducts and genital opening. Fresh water. Several genera." [Bush translation].   Comments on Karling's placing of Catenulida near base(?) of Turbellaria, doesn't agree-  Marcus E 1949 (citation)- reference p 14. Hyman LH 1951 (citation)- p 104 notes ciliated gastrodermis in; p 137 discussion of this as suborder of  Rhabdocoels, few fresh-water genera with:  - simple pharynx  - single median protonephridium  - 4 pairs of longitudinal nerve chords  - ciliated gastrodermis  list of genera and notes on some; reproduce asexually; form chains; and are seldom seen as male and  female, but has been studied in Stenostomum; p 190 notes a fresh water group that some have returned  to brackish water; p 194 notes Euglenoids in.  Hyman LH 1959 (citation)- comment on position of. Luther A 1960 (citation)- refers to Marcus E 1945 (citation) and Marcus E 1945 (citation). Says Catenulida  (= Notandropora Reisinger). Gives key, p 22:   1. Brain undivided, at the base or in the middle part of the head lobe,  with a ciliated groove ventral or ventro-lateral between the base of the   head lobe and the rest of the body, with or without a statocyst-------------Catenulidae (2)  1. Brain with paired anterior and posterior lobes and anterior to this   with a group of sense cells often arranged pseudometamerically,  with or without a statocyst-------------------------------------------------Stenostomidae (3)   2. A broad, long ciliated bulge ventral and ventro-lateral anterior to the   mouth- with cross furrows(in the longitudinal direction of the whole body),  gut filling a large part of the post oral body------------------------------Suomina   2. No cross running bulge anterior to the mouth, gut cavity mostly only  extending to about the middle of the post oral body-------------------------Catenula   3. Growing animal usually forming colonies (chains) thru cross   dividing, ciliated pits present---------------------------------------------(4)   3. Developing animal not forming chains; only 1-2 divisions in larval  and young stages. Anterior end of body (prostomium) very long.  Ciliated pits lacking-------------------------------------------------------Rhynchoscolex   4. Without gut muscles---------------------------------------------------------Stenostomum  4. With gut muscles------------------------------------------------------------Myostenostomum   Applewhite PB, Morowitz, HJ 1966 (citation)- use Catenulida for studies on maze learning- habituation shown. Young JO 1970 (citation)- Karling TG 1974 (citation)- in key p 12, in list p 9 and 14. On phylogeny, p 8. Sterrer W, Rieger RM 1974 (citation)- new family is the Retronectidae. Discussion of order in general, p 74-79. Rieger RM 1981 (citation)- electron microscopy structures, muscles, nerves p 220-221, basement membranes p 229,  also 216- on evolutionary relationships p 225.  Boaden PJS 1981 (citation)- Oxygen requirements, p 1206, 110. Doe DA 1981 (citation)- On pharynx simplex here, not coronatus. Phylogeny of. Faubel A 1983 (citation)- p 26-27 notes ciliated male tract in. 

 Kolasa J 2001 (citation)- List of North American species of Turbellaria and Nemertea, including Catenulida. Key to Orders and Suborders of freshwater turbellaria, collection, culturing, and preservation. Antatomy, physiology, ecology, research problems, and taxonomic keys.      

 Kolasa J 1991 (citation)- List of North American species of Turbellaria and Nemertea, including Catenulida. Key  to Orders and Suborders of freshwater turbellaria, collection, culturing, and preservation. Antatomy,  physiology, ecology, research problems, and taxonomic keys. 

 Hooge MD 2001 (citation)- "Evolution of body-wall musculature in the Platyhelminthes (Acoelomorpha, Catenulida, Rhabditophora)." 

 Rogozin AG 1994 (citation)- "Key to freshwater invertebrates of Russia and adjacent lands." Taxa included are:   Bothromesostoma Braun 1885   Castrada Schmidt 1862   Castrella Fuhrmann 1900   Catenulida Meixner 1924   Dalyellia Flemming 1822   Dalyelliidae   Gieysztoria Ruebush & Hayes 1939   Macrostomida Karling 1940   Macrostomum Schmidt 1848   Mesostoma Ehrenberg 1837   Microdalyellia Gieysztor 1938   Microstomum Schmidt 1848   Olisthanella Voigt 1892   Opistomum Schmidt 1848   Phaenocora Ehrenberg 1835   Prorhynchidae Hallez 1894   Stenostomidae Vejdovsky 1880   Stenostomum Schmidt 1848   Strongylostoma Orsted 1843   Tricladida   Typhloplanidae    

 Cavalier-Smith T 1998 (citation)- Revised six kingdoms. Infraphylum for Catenulida and Acoela 

 Carranza S, Baguna J, Riutort M 1997 (citation)- "Are the Platyhelminthes a monophyletic primitive group? An  assessment using 18S rDNA sequences." Looks at Rhabditophora, Acoela, Catenulida. Species of Turbellaria  used include the following: Crenobia alpina, Dendrocoelum lacteum, Monocelis lineata, Archiloa rivularis,  Geocentrophora sp., Mesocastrada sp., Nemertinoides elongatus, Urastoma sp., Macrostomum tuba, Microstomum  lineare, Discocelis tigrina, Planocera multitentaculata, Stenostomum leucops, Convoluta pulchra, Convoluta  naikaiensis. New sequences reported for many of these species. 

 Reuter M, Lehtonen M, Wikgren M 1988 (citation)- "Immunocytochemical evidence of neuroactive substances in flatworms of different taxa--a comparison." Species studied: Acoela sp., Archiloa unipunctata, Polycelis nigra, Microdalyellia fusca, Promesostoma marmoratum, Typhloplana viridata, Gyratrix hermaphroditus. 

 Ehlers U 1994 (citation)- "On the ultrastructure of the protonephridium of Rhynchoscolex simplex and the basic  systematization of the Catenulida (Plathelminthes)." 

 Moraczewski J 1981 (citation)- "The fine structure of some Catenulida (Turbellaria Archoophora)." Species  included in the study were Catenula leptocephala and Catenula lemnae. 

 Rieger RM 1978 (citation)- "Multiple ciliary structure in developing spermatozoa of marine Catenulida (Turbellaria)."
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