Overview

Comprehensive Description

Parborlasia corrugatus is a conspicuous heteronemertean marine worm that occurs across the South American, sub-Antarctic, and Antarctic regions at depths ranging from the intertidal to 3950 meters. It is a large worm, reaching a length of up to 2 meters, with a wet mass exceeding 140 grams. It can be quite abundant, with reported densities ranging from 0.3 to 26.2 individuals/square meter, and is an important scavenger in antarctic benthic systems. (Heine et al. 1991; Thornhill et al. 2008 and references therein).

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Description

Lineus corrugatus, n. sp.

 

 

Body (in spirit) flattened, rather abruptly pointed anteriorly, and more gradually posteriorly. The œsophageal region is marked externally by a series of prominent and somewhat regular rugæ, which sweep from the mouth dorsally and ventrally ; so that the dorsal view recalls that observed in Arion ater.

 

Colour dark olive throughout, with the exception of a white band, which crosses the anterior border of the snout, and passes backward to the posterior third of the lateral fissure, where it bends dorsally and terminates.

 

The special characters are the very large mouth, with the prominent rugæ which show that the animal probably possesses unusual powers of œsophageal protrusion—a supposition borne out by the great development of the external circular muscular fibres and the succeeding longitudinal coat of the organ. The internal glandular lining is also very firm. The outer layers of the proboscis correspond with the type in the Lineidæ ; but the internal longitudinal layer is largely developed.

 

Hab. Swain's Bay, Kerguelen's Island (Eaton).”

 

 

(McIntosh, 1876; 318–323)

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Physical Description

Look Alikes

Lookalikes

Thornhill et al. (2008) reported the detection (based on DNA analysis) of two potential cryptic species that were previously considered to be P. corrugatus: one putative species in Antarctica and the sub-Antarctic islands and a second putative species in southern South America. Additionally, South American P. corrugatus were further partitioned into two haplotype networks, one along the western region of the Argentinean continental shelf and a second along Burdwood Bank. Unfortunately, these Parborlasia populations were difficult to differentiate morphologically, a problem common to many nemertean taxa. The presence of potentially cryptic species raises taxonomic issues concerning which lineage should retain the original name. In the case of P. corrugatus, the type specimen originated from the Kerguelen Archipelago in the sub-Antarctic (McIntosh 1876, cited in Thornhill et al. 2008), which is outside of the area sampled by Thornhill et al. Thus, further sampling will be necessary before this issue can be resolved. (Thornhill et al. 2008)

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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 208 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 114 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 867
  Temperature range (°C): -1.979 - 9.579
  Nitrate (umol/L): 9.856 - 37.922
  Salinity (PPS): 32.799 - 34.911
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.204 - 8.053
  Phosphate (umol/l): 1.107 - 2.368
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.322 - 121.950

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 867

Temperature range (°C): -1.979 - 9.579

Nitrate (umol/L): 9.856 - 37.922

Salinity (PPS): 32.799 - 34.911

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.204 - 8.053

Phosphate (umol/l): 1.107 - 2.368

Silicate (umol/l): 2.322 - 121.950
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Associations

Parborlasia corrugatus is reported to have a diverse diet including detritus, diatoms, sponges, anemones, polychaetes, gastropods, amphipods, isopods, and/or vertebrate carrion (Thornhill et al. 2008 and references therein). Like many nemerteans, P. corrugatus appears to be chemically defended and distasteful to other organisms. There are no reports of predation upon these worms. Their toxic and feeding-deterrent characteristics are probably the result of the epithelial production of copious acidic mucus (pH = 3.5), although other toxic or noxious metabolites may be present. Although P. corrugatus are rich in nutrients and energy and might be expected to be high-quality prey, potential predators may in fact avoid ingestion of this species. (Heine et al. 1991)

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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Parborlasia corrugatus is dioecious (i.e., it has separate sexes). It is a broadcast spawner (releasing gametes--eggs and sperm--into the water), presumably reproducing throughout the year. (Thornhill et al. 2008 and references therein)

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Evolution and Systematics

Evolution

Phylogeography

The Antarctic Polar Front (APF) is an area hypothesized to form an open-ocean dispersal barrier characterized by marked temperature change (3 to 4 °C), deep water, and the intense Antarctic Circumpolar current. The APF formed following the break up of the South American and Antarctic continents that led to the creation of a seaway, the Drake Passage, and the establishment of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Biologically, the hypothetical result of this separation was the isolation of Antarctic fauna for between 20 million and 41 million years. In their phylogeographic investigation of Parborlasia corrugatus, Thornhill et al. (2008) found that patterns of mitochondrial gene diversity indicate that there is a single, broadly distributed population of Parborlasia corrugatus found around large areas of Antarctica and the sub-Antarctic islands. However, they found no evidence of genetic connectivity (and therefore recent gene flow) between this population and individuals sampled in southern South America. Thus, the APF represents a significant barrier to open-ocean dispersal over evolutionary time, although dispersal events have occurred since the establishment of the APF more than than 20 million years ago. (Thornhill et al. 2008)

An allozyme survey, using starch-gel electrophoresis, was carried out by Rogers et al. (1998) on eight populations of Parborlasia corrugatus collected from locations around the South Orkney Islands, Antarctica. The observed levels of genetic differentiation between populations of P. corrugatus and the significant heterozygote deficiencies were unexpectedly high, given that this species has been reported to have a long-lived planktotrophic larva, facilitating genetic mixing over long distances. Rogers et al. hypothesised that recruitment of P. corrugatus in the South Orkney Islands originates from genetically distinct populations located in the Weddell Sea and to the west of the Antarctic Peninsula. Shifts in the relative position of the Weddell Sea Front, Weddell-Scotia Confluence, and Scotia Front relative to the South Orkney Islands could provide a mechanism for variation in the origin of recruits over time. (Rogers et al. 1998)

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Systematics and Taxonomy

To assess patterns of diversity, Mahon et al. (2010) examined a fragment of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene from larval and adult nemerteans (n = 192) from 53 sites along the western Antarctic Peninsula. They identified 20 distinct lineages having an uncorrected genetic distance (p) greater than 5% to the nearest sister taxon or group, 19 of which have not been genetically characterized in previous studies. Additionally, the putatively dominant adult species in the region, Parborlasia corrugatus, was found to comprise only 4.3% of larvae sampled (n = 3 out of 69 samples from 12 locations). Of 47 nemertean species recorded from Antarctic waters, 20 are heteronemerteans and therefore could have a pelagic pilidium larval phase. These results suggest that Antarctic biodiversity is underestimated, and that unknown species of nemerteans await description from Southern Ocean waters. (Mahon et al. 2010)

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Parborlasia corrugatus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 26 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

TTTGGTATTTGGTCCGGCTTGGTAGGTACTGGGTTA---AGTATACTAATTCGAGCTGAATTAGGCCAACCTGGTGCTCTTTTGGGCGAT---GATCATCTTTATAATGTTATTGTCACTGCACACGCTTTTGTTATAATTTTCTTTTTGGTTATGCCAGTTATAATTGGGGGATTTGGAAACTGGCTTGTTCCTTTAATG---TTAGGGGCTCCGGATATGGCTTTTCCTCGTATAAATAATATAAGATTTTGGTTATTGCCGCCGGCTTTGACCCTTCTGTTGGGATCTGCGGCTGTTGAGGGAGGTGTGGGTACTGGTTGGACTGTTTATCCACCTCTTTCCGCTAATATTGCTCATTCGGGTGGTTCCGTTGATTTG---GCTATTTTTTCTCTTCATCTTGCTGGAGTCTCTTCGATTCTTGGAGCAATTAATTTTATCACTACGATTGTTAACATGCGTTGGCGAGGGCTCCAGTTCGAGCGTCTTCCGTTGTTTGTTTGGTCGGTTAAAATTACTGCTATTTTACTCTTGCTTTCTCTTCCTGTTTTGGCAGGG---GCTATTACTATGTTATTAACAGATCGTAATTTTAATACTTCTTTTTTT
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Parborlasia corrugatus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 26
Specimens with Barcodes: 30
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Wikipedia

Parborlasia corrugatus

Parborlasia corrugatus is a proboscis worm in the family Cerebratulidae.[1] This species of proboscis or ribbon worm can grow to 2 metres (6 ft 7 in) in length, and lives primarily in marine environments down to 4,000 metres (13,000 ft). It is a widely distributed scavenger and predator.

Description[edit]

Parborlasia corrugatus is smooth and flat. Adults measure 1–2 metres (3 ft 3 in–6 ft 7 in), with a diameter of approximately 2 cm (0.79 in). Specimens can weigh up to 140 grams (4.9 oz). Their colouration is variable, ranging from cream through various tones of black.[2][3] This worm has a wedge-shaped head containing a cavity filled with fluid. It uses this to fire an adhesive, barbed proboscis as a means of defense, and to capture prey.[2] This organ has adhesive secretion to aid in securing its meal.

Body wall structure (after McIntosh, 1876)

Although this creature does not have a dedicated respiratory system, Parborlasia corrugatus is able to obtain oxygen by absorbing it through its skin. An animal of its size would typically find it difficult to receive enough oxygen this way, but this worm has a low metabolic rate, and also enjoys the advantage of its environment which is the cold Antarctic waters which are rich in oxygen. When Parborlasia corrugatus experiences lower levels of oxygen in the water, it flattens and elongates its body to aid in the uptake of oxygen by increasing its skin area. This manoevre also reduces the distance that the oxygen must travel to diffuse into its body.[2]

Potential predators avoid this species as it has a chemical defense: acidic mucus with a pH 3.5.[2]

Distribution[edit]

Anatomy of Parborlasia corrugatus (fig. 17 and 18 only)

This species is found from the intertidal zone to depths of up to 3,950 metres. It is found throughout the following areas:[2]

Densities range greatly from 0.3 m−2 recorded in McMurdo Sound, to the substantially higher densitiy of 26.2 m−2 around Signy Island.[3]

Reproduction[edit]

This dioecious species broadcasts spawn. The resulting pilidium larvae survive in the water column for up to 150 days.[3]

Diet[edit]

Parborlasia corrugatus is both a scavenger and a predator, and feeds upon detritus diatoms, gastropods, amphipods, isopods, various vertebrate carrion sponges (including Homaxinella balfourensis), jellyfish, seastars, molluscs, anemones, and polychaete worms.[2][3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Giant Antarctic Marine Worm – Parbolasia Corrugatus : Zooillogix
  2. ^ a b c d e f Peter Brueggeman. Nemertina, proboscis worms – Underwater Field Guide to Ross Island & McMurdo Sound, Antarctica
  3. ^ a b c d Daniel J. Thornhill, Andrew R. Mahon, Jon L. Norenburg, Kenneth M. Halanych (2008). "Open-ocean barriers to dispersal: a test case with the Antarctic Polar Front and the ribbon worm Parborlasia corrugatus (Nemertea: Lineidae)". Molecular Ecology 17: 5104–5117. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2008.03970.x. 
  4. ^ Antarctic Invertebrates: Parborlasia fueguina

Further reading[edit]

  • Clarke, A.; Johnston, N.M. (2003). Antarctic marine benthic diversity. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Ann. Rev. 41: 47–114
  • Biology of the Antarctic Seas XIV, Antarctic Research Series 39(4):289–316, 1983
  • Science 245:1484–1486, 1989
  • Ecological Monographs 44(1):105–128, 1974
  • Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 153(1):15–25, 1991
  • Antarctic Science 10(4):369–375, 1998
  • Polar Biology 25(3):238–240, 2002
  • Polar Biology 29(2):106–113, 2006
  • Clarke A, Prothero-Thomas E (1997) The influence of feeding on oxygen consumption and nitrogen excretion in the Antarctic nemertean Parborlasia corrugatus. Physiological Zoology, 70, 639–649.
  • Gibson R (1983) Antarctic nemerteans: the anatomy, distribution, and biology of Parborlasia corrugatus (McIntosh, 1876) (Heter-onemertea, Lineidae). Biology of the Antarctic seas. XIV. Antarctic Research Series, 39, 289–316.
  • Heine JN, McClintock JB, Slattery M, Weston J (1991) Energetic composition, biomass, and chemical defense in the common Antarctic nemertean Parborlasia corrugatus McIntosh. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 153, 15–25.
  • Peck LS (1993) Larval development in the Antarctic nemertean Parbolasia corrugatus (Heteronemertea, Lineidae). Marine Biology, 116, 301–310.
  • Rogers AD, Clarke A, Peck LS (1998) Population genetics of the Antarctic heteronemertean Parbolasia corrugatus from the South Orkney Islands. Marine Biology, 131, 1–13.
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