Overview

Distribution

Range Description

This large freshwater gastropod is found mainly in Europe to 62°N (Kerney 1999). It has a Palaearctic range, occurring principally in the lowlands of northern, central and eastern Europe plus southern Scandinavia. It is generally rare in southern Europe. In northern and central Europe it has been recorded from the UK and Ireland in the west; Norway, Sweden, Latvia, Estonia and Denmark in North; Portugal in the south; and Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Slovenia to Greece and Bulgaria in the east. Fauna Europea (Bank et al. 2006) list the range as Norway, Sweden, Denmark (mainland), Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Kalingrad region (Russia), Poland, Republic of Ireland (Eire), Great Britain (UK), Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, France (mainland), Germany, Czech Republic, Bulgaria, Romania, Portugal (mainland), Albania, Macedonia, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Montenegro, and Ukraine. According to Fauna Europea (Bank et al. 2006) it was originally reported from the former country of Yugoslavia but the full country list is uncertain. V. viviparus penthicus (Servain 1884) is listed as a subspecies by Gloër (2002) that is restricted to the River Elbe, around Hamburg.

Kantor et al. (2009) report the species from Transcaucasia, except for in the extreme north and south of western Transcaucasia.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species is found in a relatively large range of freshwater habitats, particularly large slow-flowing water bodies and it avoids places with seasonal dessication (Kerney 1999). It lives in a relatively narrow range of deep, clean, calcareous habitats. In some parts of Europe, it is virtually restricted to canals and large, slow-flowing rivers. It is a bottom-dwelling, suspension feeder that is usually found on a muddy substrate.

Systems
  • Freshwater
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
Van Damme, D., Seddon, M. & Kebapçı, U.

Reviewer/s
Bohm, M., Collen, B. & Feher, Z.

Contributor/s
Vavrova, L., BERAN, L., Killeen, I., Offord, S., Duncan, C., Dyer, E., Soulsby, A.-M., Whitton, F., Kasthala, G., McGuinness, S., Milligan, HT, De Silva, R., Herdson, R., Thorley, J., Collins, A., McMillan, K., von Proschwitz, T. & Richman, N.

Justification
This species is still widespread within its known range, although it is moderately pollution sensitive and there is evidence of decline in some parts of its range. The species is in decline in parts of Europe and hence requires efforts to reduce the impact of pollution, in order for the status of the species to improve. However, at present the rate of decline does not meet the thresholds for listing as a threatened species, although it may locally be threatened with extinction. As a result, it is listed as Least Concern (LC).

This species has also been assessed at the regional level as:
EU27 regional assessment: Least Concern (LC) at the level of the 27 member states of the European Union
European regional assessment: Least Concern (LC).
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Population

Population
This species can live to 10 years (occasionally more). Currently this species is declining in parts of its range.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
The species has been in decline in western Europe due to changes in river channel management practices as well as pollution from domestic and industrial sources and increased levels of phosphates and nitrates due to fertilizer usage (Kerney 1999). The principal threats to the species in the future remain pollution of its habitats through eutrophication or other chemical sources, alteration of water courses, changes to flow regimes, and over-frequent dredging. Mouthon (1996) showed that this species was moderately sensitive to biodegradable pollution. This species is also distributed in Europe via the aquarium trade (1.75 EUR/ind) (van Damme pers. comm. 2012).
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Within its range this species can be found in some protected areas. In most countries in western Europe this species is considered to be Least Concern, however it is declining throughout the range. In Germany, it is placed as category 2 (Endangered), and in Poland category 3 (Rare). In Great Britain, it was listed as Least Concern, since although the species is currently declining , it is still widespread (Seddon and Killeen pers. comm. 2010). In the Netherlands, it is considered as Least Concern (Bruyne et al. 2003). In the Republic of Ireland, it is considered ‘Not Applicable’ (Byrne et al. 2009). In Slovakia, it is listed as Vulnerable (Beran et al. 2005). In Switzerland, it is considered to be category 2 (Turner et al. 1994). Recommended activities include further research to establish population and habitat trends and monitoring future changes in habitats, as a proxy for changing populations.
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Wikipedia

Viviparus viviparus

Viviparus viviparus is a species of large freshwater snail with a gill and an operculum, an aquatic gastropod mollusk in the family Viviparidae, the river snails.

Description[edit]

The height of the shell is 25–35 mm. The width of the shell is 20–26 mm. Males are 2 mm smaller than females of the same age. The shell colour is dark greenish brown or greyish yellow with three reddish brown spiral bands. It is striated but not with a hammer pattern. The shell apex is blunt (more pointed in other Viviparus species). The shell has 5.5-6 weakly convex whorls. The last whorl is relatively large compared to that of other Viviparus species. The umbilicus is narrow.[4]

Distribution[edit]

This is a European species, which is found in Croatia, Czech Republic (in Bohemia only),[5] Germany, Netherlands, Poland, Great Britain, Ireland and other countries.[6]

Drawing of the animal and shell of Viviparus viviparus; a) head b) tentacles c) eyes d) foot e) operculum

References[edit]

  1. ^ Van Damme D., Seddon M. & Kebapçı U. (2012). "Viviparus viviparus". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 04 August 2014.
  2. ^ Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edition. - Vermes. Testacea: 700-781. Holmiae. (Salvius).
  3. ^ "Synonyms of Helix vivipara". AnimalBase, accessed 4 August 2014.
  4. ^ Species summary for Viviparus viviparus. AnimalBase, last modified 26 October 2013, accessed 4 June 2014.
  5. ^ (Czech) Horsák M., Juřičková L., Beran L., Čejka T. & Dvořák L. (2010). "Komentovaný seznam měkkýšů zjištěných ve volné přírodě České a Slovenské republiky. [Annotated list of mollusc species recorded outdoors in the Czech and Slovak Republics]". Malacologica Bohemoslovaca, Suppl. 1: 1-37. PDF.
  6. ^ Fauna Europaea Viviparus viviparus
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