Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

This species is a compound, colonial ascidian, with small, bean-shaped zooids embedded in a common matrix or tunic. The colony grows to form encrusting patches that typically reach 3-4 mm in thickness and 2-30 cm in diameter. Individual zooids are positioned vertically relative to the substrate, and are organized into elongated, meandering systems, each measuring 0.5-1 cm in width. Each zooid grows approximately 3 mm in length. Zooids are characterized by 16 branchial tentacles located on the inside of the oral siphon, and a pharynx with 10-11 rows of stigmata. Each colony is a solid color, either cream, yellow, orange, rose, purple, or brown.

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Description

 Botrylloides violaceus is a colonial sea squirt forming lobed sheets usually 2-3 mm in thickness. Individual colonies are always one colour. The colonies can be different colours, e.g. dark brown, brick red, orange, purple and yellow. The zooids are arranged in a variety of ways, roughly oval groups or meandering, occasionally branching, double rows or chains.A non-native species from Japan recorded in the UK for the first time in  2004. The one-toned colouration of Botrylloides violaceus distinguishes it from Botrylloides leachi and Botryllus schlosseri. Furthermore, Botryllus schlosseri has star-like zooid arrangements.  

Depending on the season (July to September) it is possible to see the larvae within the colony due to their large size and spherical shape. The larvae are brooded separately from the zooids and are usually a dark pink or purple regardless of the colony colour so stand out and are large enough to see without a hand lens. (Larval information; G. Lambert pers. comm.). The released tadpole larvae have a ring of 25-30 vascular ampullae around the trunk (see image).

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Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Botrylloides violaceus has been introduced to the Northeast Pacific, with confirmed records from Alaska to Baja California, Mexico. In addition, this species has been reported from several other locations around the world, including parts of northeast United States and Canada, Great Britain, Europe, the Mediterranean, and Australia. It is native to the Northwest Pacific, with a distribution from Siberia and Japan to southern China.

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Physical Description

Look Alikes

In the Northeast Pacific, Botrylloides violaceus is most similar to B. diegensis Ritter and Forsyth, 1917 and two other non-native botryllid species found in the region, B. perspicuus (Herdman, 1886) and Botryllus schlosseri (Pallas, 1766).

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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 542 specimens in 2 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 3 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1 - 6
  Temperature range (°C): 28.897 - 28.954
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.068 - 0.099
  Salinity (PPS): 34.131 - 34.171
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.525 - 4.549
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.108 - 0.113
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.579 - 1.596

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 1 - 6

Temperature range (°C): 28.897 - 28.954

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.068 - 0.099

Salinity (PPS): 34.131 - 34.171

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.525 - 4.549

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.108 - 0.113

Silicate (umol/l): 1.579 - 1.596
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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 Found on artificial surfaces in shallow water, especially in harbours and marinas. Also found attached to macroalgae and other unitary sea squirts, for example Styela clava.
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Migration

Alien species

De gewone slingerzakpijp Botrylloides violaceus is een kolonievormende zakpijp die voordien enkel terug te vinden was in het noordwesten van de Stille Oceaan. Getransporteerd via scheepsrompen of vastgehecht op levende mariene organismen kwam de soort naar Europa vóór 1998, waar hij zich verder verspreidde door vasthechting op plezierjachten. Gevestigde kolonies van deze zakpijp werden langs onze kust voor de eerste keer waargenomen in 2004, in de haven van Zeebrugge. De soort valt op omwille van de verschillende kleuren (waaronder geel, oranje en paars) van verschillende kolonies. Ook binnen 1 kolonie kunnen er uitzonderlijk verschillend gekleurde exemplaren voorkomen.
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Alien species

The colony-forming sea squirt Botrylloides violaceus was originally only found in the northwest of the Pacific Ocean. Transported via attachment to ship hulls or to living marine organisms, the species reached Europe before 1998, where it spread further through attachment on yachts. Established colonies of this sea squirt were observed for the first time along the Belgian coast in 2004 in the port of Zeebrugge. Different colonies of this species are known to display different colourations (including pink, yellow and orange). Occasionally different specimens within a single colony can display a different colouration.
  • VLIZ Alien Species Consortium
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Botrylloides violaceum

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There is 1 barcode sequence available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is the sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen.

Other sequences that do not yet meet barcode criteria may also be available.

AAAGATATTGGTACTTTGTATTTTATTTTTAGAATTTGGTCAAGATTTATTGGTACTGGAATA---AGTGTCTTCATTCGTTTAGAATTGTCTCAAGTAGGTCAAGTGGTTAGAGAT---AGGCAATTGTATAATGTAATTGTAACTGCTCATGCTTTTGTGATGATTTTCTTTTTTGTTATACCTATGATAATTAGGAGGTTTGGTAATTGGTTATTACCTTTGATA---GTGGGGAGTCCAGATATGGCTTTTCCTCGATTAAATAATATAAGTTTTTGATTGTTGCCCCCTGCTTTGTTTTTTCTTTTTAGAAGTTCTATAATTGAAAGTGGAGTTAGGACTGGGTGAACTGTTTATCCTCCTCTTTCTAGAAATCTAGCTCATTCTAGAGCTGCTTTGGAT---TGTGCCATTTTTTCTTTACATTTGGCTAGAGTGTCTAGTATTTTAAGATCTCTTAACTTTATGACTACTTTGTTTAATATAAAGGTAAAAGGTTGGAGACTCTTTTCTATATCCTTGTTTTGTTGAACTGTATTGGTCACTACTATTTTGTTATTACTATCTTTACCTGTTTTGGCAGCT---GCTATTACTATGTTATTGTTTGATCGAAATTTTAATACTTCTTTTTTTGACCCGTCTAGAGGGGGGGATCCTGTTTTATATCAACATTTGTTTTGATTTTTTGG
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Botrylloides violaceum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Genomic DNA is available from 3 specimens with morphological vouchers housed at British Antarctic Survey
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Wikipedia

Botrylloides violaceus

Botrylloides violaceus is a colonial tunicate of the genus Botrylloides. Its native range is the in Northwest Pacific from Southern China to Japan and Siberia.[1] Colonies attach and grow on solid surfaces and substrates, and consist of individuals arranged in twisting rows. Outside its native range, it is considered an invasive species and are becoming more common in coastal waters of North America and other waters around the world, likely being spread by shipping industries.[2]

In the San Francisco Bay area, B. violaceus can be readily found on boat docks in the Richmond Marina. The ecological impact of B. viollaceus in this region remains unknown.

Physical description

Zooids are embedded in a transparent tunic and are all connected to one another by a network of blood vessels that terminate in ampullae (small sac-like structures) at the periphery of the colony. Their color varies from bright orange to reddish or dull purple. These tunicates usually have 8 branchial tentacles and 11 rows of stigmata.[3]

References

  1. ^ Cohen, Andrew N. (2005). "Botrylloides violaceus". Guide to the Exotic Species of San Francisco Bay. San Francisco Estuary Institute. http://www.exoticsguide.org/species_pages/b_violaceus.html. Retrieved 2009-03-03.
  2. ^ Fuller, Pam (2006-04-24). "NAS - Species FactSheet (Botrylloides violaceus)". USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL.. http://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.asp?speciesID=2418. Retrieved 2008-03-14.
  3. ^ Prince William Sound Regional Citizens' Advisory Council (2004). "Fact sheet 15". NON-INDIGENOUS AQUATIC SPECIES OF CONCERN FOR ALASKA. Prince William Sound Regional Citizens' Advisory Council. http://www.pwsrcac.org/docs/d0016000.pdf. Retrieved 2009-03-04.


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