Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Hooge MD & Tyler S, 2005 (citation): Bursa with sclerotized bursal nozzle. Separate male and female gonopores, positioned ventrally; male gonopore positioned posterior to female. Male copulatory organ consisting of a tubular, muscular penis that is often glandular and may have inner ciliation. Penis invaginated into a muscular seminal vesicle. Gonopores and mouth opening with or without prostatoid (stimulatory) organs.  Insunk brain. Frontal organ usually present. Lateral edges usually enrolled. Usually with algal symbionts.  Often with pigmented ocelli.
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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 54 specimens in 3 taxa.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.75 - 3.5

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.75 - 3.5
 
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Oersted 1843 (citation)-  Schmidt EO 1852 (citation)- "Body rounded anteriorly or blunt behind pointed the sides tube shaped   coming together on the underside.." Convoluta paradoxa Oersted type.    Gosse PH 1855 (citation)- definition p 81.  Schmidt O 1861 (citation)- History of and discussion p 20-21.  Schmidt O 1862 (citation)-  Carus JV 1863 (citation)- definition in Family Schizostoma.  Uljanin W 1870 (citation)- in Leuckart 1871 (citation), p 461 definition.  Jensen OS 1878 (citation)- defines genus p 27, translated from Latin-   "mouth ventral, transverse, cleft-like, located before middle of body.   Otolith anterior to mouth. Testes branched throughout body (apuk omnia?).   Seminal vesicle paired. Penis soft, muscular. Ovaries paired, 2 genital aperatures,   Male behind female." discussion in Norwegian.    Graff L v 1882 (citation)- gives list of references- notes part of genus Monotus Diesing, 1862 belongs   here- definition and discussion. Gives key to species on p 226. Illustrates and discusses the   following species:   C. flavibacillum Jensen, 1878   C. sordida by Metschnikoff   C. cinereus Graff, 1874 (no illustration)   C. paradoxa Oersted, 1843 (long list of synonyms and refs)   C. groenlandica Levinsen, 1879 (no illustration)   C. festiva Uljanin, 1870 (no illustration)   C. schultzei Schmidt, 1852 (no illustration, discussion)   C. langerhansi Graff, 1882- new species with illustration and brief description   C. bimaculata Graff, 1882- new species with illustration and brief description   C. semperi Graff, 1882- new species with illustration and brief description     No names for ones from Caspian Sea by Grimm 1876 (citation)   C. anotica Schmarda, 1859    Pereyaslawzewa D 1892 (citation)- quotes definition by Orsted "lateral sides reverted in form of   a cornet on the ventral surface, eye spots" [Bush's translation of her French]. discussion   of other characters but concludes enrolled sides on character remaining ? Long description   of genus. Includes: outer body layer, mucous glands, rhabdites, otolith, frontal organ,   eyes, venom glands, sex organs.    Bergendal D 1892 (citation)- mentions p 23.    Bohmig L 1895 (citation)- compares Haplodiscus with on pages 3, 13, 14, 35, 41, 89.    Graff L v 1904 (citation)- definition of of genus p 26.   C. convoluta (Abildgaard, 1806)- brief note p 34.   C. uljanini Graff, 1904- new species with illustration and description   C. schultzei Schmidt, 1852- Pereyaslawzewa's species C. veridis Pereyaslawzewa 1892   is equal to this species.   C. confusa Graff, 1904- new species with illustration and description   C. flavibacillum Jensen, 1878- brief note   C. sordida Graff, 1891- illustration and description   C. hipparchia Pereyaslawzewa, 1892- illustration and long description- note C. festiva   is just dark pigmented one of these.    Graff L v 1905 (citation)-p 13.   "Convolutidae with one chitinous nozzle and an ovary. Body usually flattened, often with the   sides rolling up to form a tube. The frontal glands open either scattered or in a sharply   marked out area, with or without a frontal organ. The mouth lies ventrally in the posterior   end of the first or in the second third of the body and only C. roscoffensis distinguished   for its ribbon-like form carries it at the posterior end of the first eighth of the body.   The pharynbx is usually very short and only in C. convoluta is developed as long tube. The   two genital openings lie always on the ventral side of the posterior half of the body, the bursal   nozzle appears as a thickwalled, keg or usually very flattened with broadened sides which in   life are more or less enrolled onto the ventral side so that the extreme of such a form   presents a tube or cylinder form. In these the lateral edges usually carry nerve endings (sensory   edges) and only in such do we find the numerous, ventral, many celled, flask shaped organs   (C. sordida? C. groenlandica, ?C. flavibacillum); also these have paired oral and genital   poison organs provided with chitinous spones (C. convoluta, C. hipparchia, C. borealis,   C. bimaculata). Neither ovaries nor testes possess a tunica propria. In this genera belong   the largest Acoela, the length of some species reaching from 0.62-9 mm. Mostly littoral,   sometimes pelagic." Teirreich - Graff 1905 13 sp.    Luther A 1912 (citation)- p 53 - diagnosis.   "Convolutidae with female genital opening lying before the male antrum and with the bursa   seminalis opening by means of a laminated nozzle into the female genital opening. Body mostly   flattened, often with tube shaped rolled up side parts." Bush's translation.     Also compares this genus and others and his new genus Palmenia.    Wilhelmi J 1913 (citation) check card file for reference]- p 113 mentions, diagram of pharynx p 54.   lists p 12.    Peebles F 1915 (citation)- points out close relationship to Monochoerus, distinction resting on   opening of chitinous mouth piece which in Convoluta is to the exterior- in Monochoerus into   the parenchyma [?? etc. discusses Graffs and Luthers arrangements of Acoels].    Bresslau E 1933 (citation)- p 117, figure 111 - for diagram of reproductive organs.  Meixner J 1938 (citation)- p 34, figure 34- for generalized longitudinal section. p 48, figure 49-   for generalized reproductive structure.    Marcus E 1948 (citation)- discusses a number of species in genus. mentions p 112 fef, also pages   114, 116, 187, 188.    Marcus E 1949 (citation)- lists and ref pages 8, 10, 11, 14, 20, 95.  Marcus E 1950 (citation)- ref pages 11, 12, 13, 15, 16-17, 21, 103.  Marcus E 1952 (citation)- lists only p 15.    Westblad E 1948 (citation)- definition of genus- "bursa seminalis with a nozzle (Mundstuck)   produced by a layer of matrix cells projecting into the postovariole parenchyma".   Discussion of genus and 9 species from Europe. Key to species on p. 44, including these:   C. convoluta C. flavibacillum C. saliens C. norwegica   C. rhammifera C. pusilla C. stylifera C. viridipunctata   C. karlingi     p 38- on copulatory organs. p 46- on female reproductive organ - on differentiation for   Monocherus. p 50- on female reproductive organ. p 52- on family. p 57- key.    Hyman LH 1951 (citation) -vol 2, p 86- illustrates crossection of Convoluta to show nerve cords.   p 122- diagram of reproductive organs. p 193 symbiotic chlorelae in. p 215 on geotactic   responses in tidal rhythm of coming to the surface at low tide:   many experiments C. roscoffensis negative geotactic when undisturbed   positive geotactic when disturbed   p 216- also is cathodic in an electric current. p 217- on resistance to chemicals, etc,    Antonius A 1968 (citation)- complete study divides and adds new genera. revision of entire   genus- bases ideas and work on Dorjes 1968. p 367- problem of many species in genus- characters   need to be based on microscopic anatomy - many species descrbied in older times insufficient   in detail. Discusses problems with terminology, and discusses phylogeny.   p. 308 definition:   "Bursa with a cuticular nozzle. Separate genital openings, the female always, male   mostly, ventral. Copulatory organ consisting of a muscular tube shaped penis with or   without inner ciliation surrounded by a muscular seminal vesicle. Both usually very   glandular. Vagina always un-ciliated. Genital openings and mouth opening with or   without poison or stimulating organs. Brain sunken inward. Anterior glands usually joined   into a frontal organ. Lateral edges usually very enrolled ("einschlagbar"=?). Inclusions of   symbiotic algae, rhabdites, pigment, pigmented eyes and concretions very conspicuous."     Lists following species:     convoluta type variabilis helgolandicus   schultzei henseni aegyptica   sordida borealis enelitta   subtilis confusa pygopora   lacazii pelagica albomaculata   albomaculata bohmigi   elegans marginalis   hipparchia sagittifera     See Genus Conaperta, Brachypea, Adenopea.    Dorjes 1968 (citation)- in his study of Acoels- p 84, defines and lists 31 species.  Dorjes 1970 (citation)- mentions p 260.  Bedini C, Papi F 1970 (citation)-epidermis "?" - ultrastructure.  Henley C 1974 (citation)- p 289- sperm are type 1, p 299 on ultrastructure of sperm   (Hendelberg J 1969 (citation), p 321 on (Dorey AE 1965 (citation)) work on cultures and periods of darkness,   p 324- note on (Hanson ED 1961 (citation)) observation of copulation.    Faubel A, Kolasa J 1978 (citation)- Compare their new genus Limnoposthia with this genus p 397.  Rieger RM 1981 (citation)- on EM structure p 216, statocyst p 220.  Yamasu T 1982 (citation)- notes 3 species from sand C. roscoffensis, C. macnei, C. psammophilum, and he   adds a new species C. naikaiensis from Japan to this. 

 Smith JPS 1981 (citation)-  Smith JPS 1982 (citation)- Fine-structural anatomy of the parenchyma in the acoela and nematodermatida  (Turbellaria). Taxa include Convoluta, Diopisthoporus longitubis, Kuma, Nemertoderma, and Paratomella rubra.
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Source: Turbellarian Taxonomic Database

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