The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Ark. Zool., (11) 1, 11.
  • Bourlat, S.J., C. Nielsen, A.E. Lockyer, et al. 2003. Xenoturbella is a deuterostome that eats molluscs. Nature 424: 925-928.
  • Edgecombe, G.D., G. Giribet, C.W. Dunn, et al. 2011. Higher-level metazoan relationships: recent progress and remaining questions. Organisms, Diversity, and Evolution 11: 151-172.
  • Gofas, S. (2015). Xenoturbella Westblad, 1949. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • Hejnol, A., M. Obst, A. Stamatakis, et al. 2009. Assessing the root of bilaterian animals with scalable phylogenomic methods. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Series B 276: 4261-4270.
  • Lowe, C.J. and A.M. Pani. 2011. Animal Evolution: A Soap Opera of Unremarkable Worms. Current Biology 21(4): R151-R153.
  • Nakano, H., K. Lundin, S.J. Bourlat, et al. 2013. Xenoturbella bocki exhibits direct development with similarities to Acoelomorpha. Nature Communications 4:1537. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms2556.
  • Nielsen, C. 2010. After all: Xenoturbella is an acoelomorph! Evolution and Development 12(3): 241-243.
  • Perseke, M., A. Golombek, M. Schlegel, and T.H. Struck. 2013. The impact of mitochondrial genome analyses on the understanding of deuterostome phylogeny. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 66: 898-905.
  • Philippe, H., H. Brinkmann, R.R. Copley, et al. 2011. Acoelomorph flatworms are deuterostomes related to Xenoturbella. Nature 470: 255-260.
  • Westblad E. (1949). Xenoturbella bocki n.g., n.sp., a peculiar, primitive Turbellarian type. Arkiv för Zoologi 1: 3-29
  • Westblad, E. 1949. Xenoturbella bocki n.g., n.sp. a peculiar, primitive turbellarian type. Ark. Zool. 1: 11–29.


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