The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Bourlat S.J., Juliusdottir T., Lowe C.J., Freeman R., Aronowicz J., Kirschner M., Lander E.S., Thorndyke M., Nakano H., Kohn A.B., Heyland A., Moroz L.L., Copley R.R. & Telford M.J., 2006. Deuterostome phylogeny reveals monophyletic chordates and the new phylum Xenoturbellida. Nature 444: 85-88
  • Bourlat, S. J., C. Nielsen, A. E. Lockyer, D. Timothy, J. Littlewood, M. J. Telford (2003). "Xenoturbella is a deuterostome that eats molluscs". Nature 424 (6951): 925–928. doi:10.1038/nature01851. PMID 12931184.
  • Bourlat, S. J., T. Juliusdottir, C. J. Lowe, R. Freeman, J. Aronowicz, M. Kirschner, E. S. Lander, M. Thorndyke, H. Nakano, A. B. Kohn, A. Heyland, L. L. Moroz, R. R. Copley, M. J. Telford (2006). "Deuterostome phylogeny reveals monophyletic chordates and the new phylum Xenoturbellida". Nature 444 (7115): 85–88. Bibcode 2006Natur.444...85B. doi:10.1038/nature05241. PMID 17051155
  • Edgecombe, G. D.; Giribet, G.; Dunn, C. W.; Hejnol, A.; Kristensen, R. M.; Neves, R. C.; Rouse, G. W.; Worsaae, K. et al. (2011). "Higher-level metazoan relationships: Recent progress and remaining questions". Organisms Diversity & Evolution 11 (2): 151. doi:10.1007/s13127-011-0044-4
  • Haszprunar, G., R.M. Rieger, P. Schuchert (1991). "Extant 'Problematica' within or near the Metazoa." In: Simonetta, A.M. & Conway Morris, S. (eds.): The Early Evolution of Metazoa and the Significance of Problematic Taxa. Oxford Univ. Press, Cambridge. pp. 99–105
  • Hejnol, A., Obst, M., Stamatakis, A., Ott, M., Rouse, G. W., Edgecombe, G. D., et al. (2009). Assessing the root of bilaterian animals with scalable phylogenomic methods. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Series B, 276, 4261–4270.
  • Israelsson, Olle and Graham E Budd (2005). "Eggs and embryos in Xenoturbella (phylum uncertain) are not ingested prey". Development Genes and Evolution 215: 358-63.
  • Lundin, K. (1998). The epidermal ciliary rootlets of Xenoturbella bocki (Xenoturbellida) revisited: new support for a possible kinship with the Acoelomorpha (Platyhelminthes). Zoologica Scripta, 27, 263–270.
  • Noren, M. and U. Jondelius (1997). "Xenoturbella's molluscan relatives..". Nature 390 (6655): 31–32. Bibcode 1997Natur.390...31N. doi:10.1038/36242
  • Perseke M, Hankeln T, Weich B, Fritzsch G, Stadler PF, Israelsson O, Bernhard D, Schlegel M. (2007) "The mitochondrial DNA of Xenoturbella bocki: genomic architecture and phylogenetic analysis". Theory Biosci. 126(1):35-42.
  • Philippe, H.; Brinkmann, H.; Copley, R. R.; Moroz, L. L.; Nakano, H.; Poustka, A. J.; Wallberg, A.; Peterson, K. J. et al. (2011). "Acoelomorph flatworms are deuterostomes related to Xenoturbella". Nature 470 (7333): 255-258. Bibcode 2011Natur.470..255P. doi:10.1038/nature09676.
  • Raikova, O. I., Reuter, M., Jondelius, U., & Gustafsson, M. K. S. (2000). An immunocytochemical and ultrastructural study of the nervous and muscular systems of Xenoturbella westbladi (Bilateria inc. sed.). Zoomorphology, 120, 107–118.
  • Telford, M. J. (2008). "Xenoturbellida: the fourth deuterostome phylum and the diet of worms". Genesis 46 (11): 580–586. doi:10.1002/dvg.20414. PMID 18821586.
  • Tyler Seth, and Stephen Schilling / Zhang, Z.-Q., ed. 2011. Phylum Xenacoelomorpha Philippe, et al., 2011. In: Animal biodiversity: An outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness. Zootaxa, issue 3148. 24-25
  • Wellcome Trust Press Release. Enigmatic worm identified as mankind's long lost relative – Accessed January 3, 2008
  • Westblad, E (1949) Xenoturbella bocki n. g., n. sp., a peculiar, primitive Turbellarian type. Arkiv för Zoologi 1:3-29.
  • WoRMS (2014). Xenoturbellida. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • Xenoturbella – Back to the Basics – Accessed January 3, 2008


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