Overview

Brief Summary

Introduction

Promachoteuthis sulcus (first known as Promachoteuthis sp. C on this page) is known from a single, small (25 mm ML, sex unknown) but distinctive individual from great depths in the south Atlantic Ocean.

Brief diagnosis:

A promachoteuthid...
  • with nuchal fusion between head and mantle.
  • with arm suckers much larger than club suckers.
  • with tentacle base wider than arm base.
  • with recessed club base and aboral tentacle groove.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Comprehensive Description

Characteristics

  1. Arms
    1. Arm suckers much larger than club suckers.
    2. Suckers in three series on all arms.

      Figure. Oral view of brachial crown of P. sulcus, holotype. The squid seems to have a set of dentures. The "dentures" are the circular, folded lips, of which only the upper and lower portions can be seen. The lips surround the beaks which are not visible in this photograph. Photograph by R. Young.

  2. Tentacles
    1. At base tentacle thick, about 2x diameter of arm III.
    2. Tentacle stalk with deep groove on aboral surface.
    3. Club suckers tiny (0.014 mm diam), in numerous irregular rows.
    4. Sucker-bearing club recessed at tapering, proximal end; surrounding lateral and aboral tissue with thick folds.
    5. Tentacles heavily pigmented at base but not forming a well-defined band.

      Figure. Tentacular club of P. sulcus, holotype, preserved. Top - Oral view of the distal portion of the club, holotype. Bottom - Oral view of the proximal portion of the tentacular club. Photographs by R. Young.

  3. Head
    1. Head fused to mantle in nuchal region.

      Figure. Side view of the head and anterior mantle of P. sulcus showing nuchal fusion. Photograph by R. Young.

  4. Fins
    1. Fins terminal with anterior and posterior lobes. Each fin approximately circular in outline.
    2. Figure. Ventral and dorsal views of the fins of P. sulcus. Photograph.

Comments

More details of the description of P. sulcus can be found here.

Clubs were slightly abraided so the number of suckers in a transverse series could not be determined. The largest number of those present was 12 suckers across. The specimen is an immature female. The mantle was cut open prior to fixation by a previous investigator. The label in the specimen jar states that the ML is 40 mm; the squid currently measures 25 mm ML.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Range Description

This species is known only from a single specimen caught in the South Atlantic, off Tristan Da Cunha (Young and Vecchione 2007).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Type locality: 36°49'S, 12°17'W off Tristan Da Cunha, south Atlantic Ocean. Captured from WALTHER HERWIG at 1750-2000 m depth (open net).

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Type Information

Holotype for Promachoteuthis sulcus Young et al., 2007
Catalog Number: USNM 730702
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Sex/Stage: female; immature
Preparation: Alcohol (Ethanol)
Year Collected: 1971
Locality: Tristan Da Cunha, South Atlantic Ocean
Depth (m): 1750 to 2000
Vessel: Walther Herwig R/V
  • Holotype: Young, R. E., et al. 2007. A new genus and three new species of decapodiform cephalopods (Mollusca: Cephalopoda). Rev. Fish Biol. Fisheries. 17: 353-365.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This oceanic, deep-sea species is known only from a single immature female that was collected from between 1,750 and 2,000 m in depth (Young and Vecchione 2007). Little is known about the biology and ecology of this species.

Systems
  • Marine
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Depth range based on 1 specimen in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1 sample.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1875 - 1875
  Temperature range (°C): 2.700 - 2.700
  Nitrate (umol/L): 28.259 - 28.259
  Salinity (PPS): 34.757 - 34.757
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.735 - 4.735
  Phosphate (umol/l): 1.945 - 1.945
  Silicate (umol/l): 57.898 - 57.898
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
DD
Data Deficient

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2014

Assessor/s
Barratt, I. & Allcock, L.

Reviewer/s
Young, R., Vecchione, M. & Böhm, M.

Contributor/s
Duncan, C.

Justification
Very little is known about Promachoteuthis sulcus, making it impossible to make an accurate assessment of its extinction risk. It is currently only known from a single specimen. We therefore consider it to be Data Deficient. Further research is recommended in order to better understand the precise distribution, population dynamics, life history and ecology, and the potential threat processes affecting this species.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Population

Population
There is no population information available for this species.

Population Trend
Unknown
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

Major Threats
The threats to this species are not known.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for this species. Further research is recommended in order to determine the precise distribution, population dynamics, life history and ecology, and potential threat processes affecting this species.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Promachoteuthis sulcus

Promachoteuthis sulcus is a species of promachoteuthid squid. It is distinguished from related taxa on the basis of several morphological features: nuchal fusion between the head and mantle, much larger size of arm suckers compared to club suckers, greater width of tentacle base than arm base, a recessed club base, and the presence of an aboral tentacle groove.[1]

P. sulcus is known from a single specimen caught by the German research vessel R/V Walther Herwig in an open net off Tristan da Cunha, southern Atlantic Ocean (36°49′S 12°17′W / 36.817°S 12.283°W / -36.817; -12.283 (Promachoteuthis sulcus (only specimen caught))), at a depth of 1,750–2,000 m (5,740–6,560 ft).[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Young, R.E., M. Vecchione & C.F.E. Roper 2007. A new genus and three new species of decapodiform cephalopods (Mollusca: Cephalopoda). Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 17(2–3): 353–365. doi:10.1007/s11160-007-9044-z
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!