Overview

Brief Summary

Introduction

Promachoteuthis sloani is known from two specimens: the smaller holotype, an immature female 58 mm ML and a paratype, an immature female, 102 mm ML. The paratype was captured by the R/V WALTER HERWIG in 1973 while the holotype was captured by the R/V G.O. SARS in 2004 and was in near-perfect condition. Both were taken from the North Atlantic in nets that fished to depths greater than 2,000 m. Virtually nothing is known of their biology.

Diagnosis

A Promachoteuthis ...

  • without nuchal fusion between head and mantle.
  • with mostly 3-4 series of suckers on arms.
  • with papillae on tentacles.

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Comprehensive Description

Characteristics

  1. Arms
    1. Arms with three or four rather irregular suckers series in mid-region sometimes appearing as up to six series.
    2. Figure. Oral view of the midregion of a lateral arm of P. sloani, holotype, preserved.

  2. Tentacles
    1. Tentacles thick at base (slightly thicker than adjacent arms); club not flattened; club) about 60% of tentacle length.
    2. Each tentacle with two series of long papillae near oral midline at tentacle base but diverging to be lateral to club; papillae often with stubby branches in holotype but become flattened, highly branching or merge into a complex membrane in the paratype.
    3. Darkly pigmented ridges present along the lateral margins of the aboral surface of each tentacle; distally the ridge breaks into small papillae. Pigmented ridges in paratype less prominent and restricted to middle third of tentacle.
    4. Figure. Lateral views of the tentacles of P. sloani, holotype, preserved. Note the long papillae that extend from the proximal regions of the tentacles. Arrows point to pigmented ridges. Photograph by R. Young

  3. Head
    1. Head extremely small with very small eyes buldging laterally from reduced head.
    2. Eyelid forming a small, circular opening.
    3. Eyelid over lens opaque but with, apparently, a somewhat clearer central region.
    4. Beaks: Descriptions can be found here in 2D.
    5. Beaks: Descriptions can be found here in 3D: Lower beak; upper beak.
    6. Figure. Side views of the head of P. sloani, holotype. Left - Preserved squid. Left arrow points to edge of iris; right arrow points to slit which is the collapsed opening of the eyelid. Right - Unpreserved squid. Eyelid opening a small, dark oval pore; iris visible but difficult to discern; whitish, oval ring that passes by the eyeopening appears to define a slightly less opaque (i.e. clearer) region of the eyelid but it is difficult to distinguish in the photograph on the left. Photographs by R. Young.

  4. Mantle
    1. Anterior mantle-margin free from the head. A nuchal cartilage is present.
    2. Figure. Anterior dorsolateral view of the mantle opening of P. sloani, holotype, preserved. Arrow points to nuchal cartilage. Photograph by R. Young.

  5. Fins

    1. Fins large; large anterior lobes present; posterior lobes absent in holotype but small, distinct posterior lobes present in paratype.

Comments

More information on the description can be found here.

Promachoteuthis sloani is very distinctive and easily separated from other members of the genus by the peculiar tentacles among many other features.

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Distribution

Range Description

This species is known only from two specimens caught in the central North Atlantic (Young and Vecchione 2006).
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Source: IUCN

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Type locality - Central North Atlantic at 53°05’N, 36°46’W (R/V G.O.SARS MARECO cruise super station 14, local station 341)in an trawl that fished to a maximum depth of 2792 m in 2004. Paratype came from the Eastern North Atlantic at 46°00'N, 15°49'W (R/V WALTER HERWIG station 714) in a trawl that fished to 2650 m.

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Physical Description

Type Information

Paratype for Promachoteuthis sloani Young et al., 2006
Catalog Number: USNM 1086443
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Sex/Stage: Female; immature
Preparation: Isopropyl Alcohol
Year Collected: 1973
Locality: North Atlantic Ocean
Depth (m): 2650 to 2650
Vessel: Walther Herwig R/V
  • Paratype: Young, R. E., et al. 2006. Promachoteuthis sloani, a new species of the squid family Promachoteuthidae (Mollusca: Cephalopoda). Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 119 (2): 287-292.
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© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This oceanic, deep-sea species is known only from two immature female specimens (58 and 102 mm in mantle length), collected from deep water in the central North Atlantic (Young and Vecchione 2006). Therefore, little is known about the biology and ecology of this species.

Systems
  • Marine
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Source: IUCN

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Depth range based on 1 specimen in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1 sample.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 2650 - 2650
  Temperature range (°C): 3.238 - 3.238
  Nitrate (umol/L): 19.038 - 19.038
  Salinity (PPS): 34.966 - 34.966
  Oxygen (ml/l): 5.891 - 5.891
  Phosphate (umol/l): 1.245 - 1.245
  Silicate (umol/l): 22.450 - 22.450
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
DD
Data Deficient

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2014

Assessor/s
Barratt, I. & Allcock, L.

Reviewer/s
Young, R., Vecchione, M. & Böhm, M.

Contributor/s
Duncan, C.

Justification
Very little is known about Promachoteuthis sloani, making it impossible to make an accurate assessment of its extinction risk. It is at present only known from two specimens. We therefore consider it to be Data Deficient. Further research is recommended in order to better understand the precise distribution, population dynamics, life history and ecology, and the potential threat processes affecting this species.
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Population

Population
There is no population information available for this species.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
The threats to this species are not known.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for this species. Further research is recommended in order to determine the precise distribution, population dynamics, life history and ecology, and potential threat processes affecting this species.
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Wikipedia

Promachoteuthis sloani

Promachoteuthis sloani is a species of squid from the northern Atlantic Ocean. It is known from only three specimens and very little is understood of its biology.[1] P. sloani is characterised by several morphological features: nuchal fusion is absent between the head and mantle, the arms generally bear 3-4 series of suckers, and papillae are present on the tentacles.[2]

The holotype is an immature female of 58 mm mantle length (ML) in near-perfect condition. It was caught by R/V G.O. SARS in 2004 at 53°05′N 36°46′W / 53.083°N 36.767°W / 53.083; -36.767. The paratype, also an immature female, is larger at 102 mm ML. It was caught by R/V Walther Herwig in 1973 at 46°00′N 15°49′W / 46°N 15.817°W / 46; -15.817. Both were trawled in nets that fished to depths greater than 2,650 m.[2]

References

  1. ^ a b Dawicki, S. 2009. NOAA Researchers, Ships Participate in Census of Marine Life’s Decade of Discovery. Northeast Fisheries Science Center.
  2. ^ a b Young, R.E., M. Vecchione & U. Piatkowski 2006. Promachoteuthis sloani, a new species of the squid family Promachoteuthidae (Mollusca: Cephalopoda). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 119(2): 287–292.
  • Toll, R.B. 1982. The comparative morphology of the gladius in the Order Teuthoidea (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) in relation to systematics and phylogeny. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Miami, 390 pp.
  • Voss, N.A. 1992. Family Promachoteuthidae. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 513: 183–185.
  • Toll, R.B. 1998. The gladius in teuthoid systematics. Smithson. Contr. Zool. 586: 55–68.
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