The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Denton, E. J. and T. I. P. Shaw. 1961. The buoyancy of gelatinous marine animals. Journal of Physiology, London 161: 14P-15P (Proceedings).
  • Lalli, C. M. and R. W. Gilmer. 1989. Pelagic snails. The biology of holoplanktonic gastropod snails. Stanford: Stanford University Press. 259 pp.
  • Land, M. F. 1982. Scanning eye movements in a heteropod mollusc. Journal of Experimental Biology 96: 427-430.
  • Newman, L. 1990. The taxonomy, distribution and biology of Atlanta gaudichaudi Souleyet, 1852 (Gastropoda, Heteropoda) from the Great Barrier Reef. American Malacolological Union Bulletin 8: 85-94.
  • Newman, L. 1998. Superfamily Carinarioidea, pp. 804-808. In: P. L. Beesley, G. L. B. Ross and A. Wells (eds), Mollusca: the southern synthesis. The Fauna of Australia. Vol. 5, Pt. B. Melbourne: CSIRO Publ.
  • Owre, H. B. 1964. Observations on development of the heteropod molluscs Pterotrachea hippocampus and Firoloida desmaresti. Bulletin of Marine Science 14: 529-538.
  • Richter, G. 1961. Die Radula der Atlantiden (Heteropoda, Prosobranchia) und ihre Bedeutung fur die Systematik und Evolution der Familie. Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Ökologie der Tiere 50: 163-238.
  • Richter, G. 1963. Untersuchungen zur Morphogenese der Gastropodenradula. Veroffentlichungen des Instituts fur Meeresforschung in Mremerhaven, Drittes meeresbiologisches Symposion 3: 142-152.
  • Richter, G. 1968. Heteropoden und Heteropodenlarven im Oberflachenplankton des Golfs von Neapel. Pubblicazioni della Stazione Zoologica di Napoli 36: 346-400.
  • Richter, G. 1974. Die Heteropoden der "Meteor"-Expedition in den Indischen Ozean, 1964/65. "Meteor" Forschungs-Ergebnisse (D), 17: 55-78.
  • Richter, G. and R. R. Seapy. 1999. Heteropoda, pp. 621-647. In: D. Boltovskoy (ed.), South Atlantic Zooplankton. Leiden: Backhuys Publ.
  • Seapy, R. R. 1980. Predation by the epipelagic heteropod mollusk Carinaria cristata forma japonica. Marine Biology 60: 137-146.
  • Seapy, R. R. and R. E. Young. 1986. Concealment in epipelagic pterotracheid heteropods (Gastropoda) and cranchiid squids (Cephalopoda). Journal of the Zoological Society of London (A) 210: 137-147.
  • Seapy, R. R., C. M. Lalli and F. E. Wells. 2003. Heteropoda from western Australian waters, pp. 513-546. In: F. E. Wells, D. I. Walker and D. S. Jones (eds.), The Marine Flora and Fauna of Dampier, Western Australia. Perth: Western Australia Museum.
  • Spoel, S. van der, L. Newman and K. W. Estep. 1997. Pelagic molluscs of the world. World Biodiversity Data Base CD-ROM Series. Amsterdam: Expert Center for Taxonomic Identification (ETI).
  • Spoel, S. van der. 1976. Pseudothecosomata, Gymnosomata and Heteropoda (Gastropoda). Utrecht: Bohn, Scheltema & Holkema. 484 pp.
  • Tesch, J. J. 1949. Heteropoda. Dana Report, No. 34. 53 pp.
  • Thiriot-Quiévreux, C. 1973. Heteropoda. Oceanography and Marine Biology, Annual Review 11: 237-261.


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