Overview

Brief Summary

Introduction

This subfamily has traditionally been viewed as belonging to the "Limenitidinae" s. l., which has been shown to be polyphyletic (Brower 2000, Wahlberg et al. 2003, Freitas & Brown 2004). Most of the species of Biblidinae are neotropical, but there are some Old World representatives in Biblidini and Epicaliini.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records: 1663
Specimens with Sequences: 1623
Specimens with Barcodes: 1407
Species: 204
Species With Barcodes: 181
Public Records: 702
Public Species: 87
Public BINs: 81
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Barcode data

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Wikipedia

Biblidinae

Panacea procilla specimen underside (Ageroniini)
Diaethria clymena, one of the eighty-eights formerly in "Catagramma" (now Callicorini)

Biblidinae is a subfamily of nymphalid butterflies that includes the tropical brushfoots. This subfamily was sometimes merged within the Limenitidinae, but they are now recognized as quite distinct lineages. In older literature, this subfamily is sometimes called Eurytelinae.

As of 2008, there are some 340 valid species in this subfamily, placed in 38[verification needed] genera. Most species of Biblidinae are neotropical, but some Old World species and genera in Biblidini and Epicaliini.

Systematics

The Biblidinae are a taxonomically stable monophyletic group, at least since the "wastebin genus" "Catagramma" was dismantled around 1950. Six tribes are recognized, and the monophyly of them all is likewise well supported; radical changes in taxonomy and systematics are not expected in this subfamily[citation needed]. The sister group to the Biblidinae is probably the Apaturinae and/or Nymphalinae.

The tribes, in the presumed phylogenetic sequence and with notable genera and some species also listed here, are:

Biblidini Boisduval, 1833

Epicaliini Guenée, 1865

Ageroniini Doubleday, 1847

Epiphilini Jenkins, 1987

Eubagini Burmeister, 1878

Callicorini Orfila, 1952 – eighty-eights and relatives

References

  • Hill, R. I., Penz, C. M., & DeVries, P. J. (2002). Phylogenetic analysis and review of Panacea and Batesia butterflies (Nymphalidae). Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society, 56, 199-215.
  • Jenkins, D. W. (1983). Neotropical Nymphalidae. I. Revision of Hamadryas. Bulletin of the Allyn Museum, 81, 1-146.
  • Jenkins, D. W. (1984). Neotropical Nymphalidae. II. Revision of Myscelia. Bull. Allyn Mus. (Gainesville), 87, 1-64.
  • Jenkins, D. W. (1985). Neotropical Nymphalidae. III. Revision of Catonephele. Bulletin of the Allyn Museum of Entomology, 92, 1-65.
  • Jenkins, D. W. (1985). Neotropical Nymphalidae. IV. Revision of Ectima. Bull. Allyn Mus. (Gainesville), 95, 1-30.
  • Jenkins, D. W. (1986). Neotropical Nymphalidae. V. Revision of Epiphile. Bull. Allyn Mus. (Gainesville), 101, 1-70.
  • Jenkins, D. W. (1987). Neotropical Nymphalidae. VI. Revision of Asterope (=Callithea Auct.). Bulletin of the Allyn Museum of Entomology, 114, 1-66.
  • Jenkins, D. W. (1989). Neotropical Nymphalidae. VII. Revision of Nessaea. Bull. Allyn Mus. (Gainesville), 125, 1-38.
  • Jenkins, D. W. (1990). Neotropical Nymphalidae. VIII. Revision of Eunica. Bulletin of the Allyn Museum, 131, 1-177.
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