The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Allard, M. W., M. M. Miyamoto, L. Jarecki, F. Kraus, and M. R. Tennant 1992. DNA systematics and evolution of the artiodactyl family Bovidae. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 89:3972-3976.
  • Bubenik, G. A. and A. B. Bubenik, eds. 1990. Horns, Pronghorns, and Antlers. Springer-Verlag, New York.
  • Chikuni, K., Y. Mori, T. Tabata. M. Saito, M. Monma, and M. Kosugiyama. 1995. Molecular phylogeny based on the kappa-casein and cytochrome b sequences in the mammalian suborder ruminantia. Journal of Molecular Evolution 41:859-866.
  • Cronin, M. A., R. Stuart, B. J. Pierson, and J. C. Patton. 1996. K-casein gene phylogeny of higher ruminants (Pecora, Artiodactyla). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 6:295-311.
  • DeMiguel, D., M. Fortelius, B. Azanza and J. Morales. 2008. Ancestral feeding state of ruminants reconsidered: earliest grazing adaptation claims a mixed condition for Cervidae. BMC Evolutionary Biology 8:13. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-8-13
  • Fernández, M. H. and E. S. Vrba. 2005. A complete estimate of the phylogenetic relationships in Ruminantia: a dated species-level supertree of the extant ruminants. Biological Reviews 80(2):269-302.
  • Gentry, A. W. 1994. The Miocene differentiation of Old World pecora (Mammalia). Historical Biology 7:115-158.
  • Gentry, A. W. 2000. The ruminant radiation. Pages 11-25 in Antelopes, Deer, and Relatives. E. S. Vrba and G. B. Schaller, eds. Yale University Press, New Haven.
  • Gentry, A. W. and E. P. J. Heizmann. 1996. Miocene ruminants of the central and eastern Tethys and Paratethys. Pages 378-391 in The Evolution of Western Eurasian Neogene Mammal Faunas. R. L. Bernor, V. Fahlbusch and H.-W. Mittmann, eds. Columbia University Press, New York.
  • Gentry, A. W., G. Rössner, and E. P. J. Heizmann. 1999. Suborder Ruminantia. Pages 225-258 in The Miocene Land Mammals of Europe. G. Rössner and K. Heissig, eds. Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, München.
  • Guhaa, S., S.P. Goyalb and V.K. Kashyap. 2007. Molecular phylogeny of musk deer: A genomic view with mitochondrial 16S rRNA and cytochrome b gene. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 42(3):585-597.
  • Hassanin, A. and E. J. P. Douzery. 2003. Molecular and morphological phylogenies of Ruminantia and the alternative position of the Moschidae. Systematic Biology 52 (2):206-228.
  • Janis, C. M. 1982. Evolution of horns in ungulates: ecology and paleoecology. Biological Reviews 57:261-318.
  • Janis, C. M. 1987. Grades and clades in hornless ruminant evolution: the reality of the Gelocidae and the systematic position of Lophiomeryx and Bachitherium. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 7:200-216.
  • Janis, C. M. 2000. The endemic ruminants of the Neogene of North America. Pages 26-37 in Antelopes, Deer, and Relatives. E. S. Vrba and G. B. Schaller, eds. Yale University Press, New Haven.
  • Janis, C. M. and E. Manning. 1998. Dromomerycidae. Pages 477-490 in Evolution of Tertiary Mammals of North America C. M. Janis, K. M. Scott and L. L. Jacobs, eds. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Janis, C. M. and K. M. Scott. 1987. The origin of the higher ruminant families with special reference to the origin of Cervoidea and relationships within the Cervoidea. American Museum Novitates 2893:1-85.
  • Kraus,F. and M. M. Miyamoto. 1991. Rapid cladogenesis among the pecoran ruminants: evidence from mitochondrial DNA sequences. Systematic Zoology 40:117-130.
  • Leinders, J. J. M. 1983. Hoplitomerycidae fam. nov. (Ruminantia, Mammalia) from Neogene fissure fillings in Gargano (Italy). Part 1: the cranial osteology of Hoplitomeryx gen. nov. and a discussion on the classification of pecoran families. Scripta Geologica 70:1-51.
  • Leinders, J. J. M. and E. Heintz. 1980. The configuration of the lacrimal orifices in pecorans and tragulids (Artiodactyla, Mammalia) and its significance for the distinction between Bovidae and Cervidae. Beaufortia 30:155-162.
  • M. Spaulding and M. A. O'Leary. 2009. Relationships of Cetacea (Artiodactyla) among mammals: Increased taxon sampling alters interpretations of key fossils and character evolution. PloS One 4(9):e7062
  • Mahon, A. 2004. A molecular supertree of the Artiodactyla. Pages 411-437 in Phylogenetic Supertrees: Combining Information to Reveal the Tree of Life. O. R. P. Bininda-Emonds), ed. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.
  • McKenna, M. C. and S. K. Bell. 1997. Classification of Mammals Above the Species Level. Columbia University Press, New York.
  • Métais, G. 2006. New basal selenodont artiodactyls from the Pondaung Formation (late middle Eocene, Myanmar) and the phylogenetic relationships of early ruminants. Annals of the Carnegie Museum 75(1):51-67.
  • Métais, G., P.-O. Antoine, L. Marivaux, J.-L. Welcomme, and S. Ducrocq. 2003. New artiodactyl ruminant mammal from the late Oligocene of Pakistan. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 48 (3):375-382.
  • Métais, G., Y. Chaimanee, J.-J. Jaeger, and S. Ducrocq. 2001. New remains of primitive ruminants from Thailand: evidence of the early evolution of the Ruminantia in Asia. Zoologica Scripta 30:231-248.
  • Price, S. A., O. R. P. Bininda-Emonds, and J. L. Gittleman. 2005. A complete phylogeny of the whales, dolphins and even-toed hoofed mammals (Cetartiodactyla). Biological Reviews 80(3):445 - 473.
  • Pérez-Barbería, F. J. and I. J. Gordon. 1999. The relative roles of phylogeny, body size an feeding style on the activity time of temperate ruminants : a reanalysis. Oecologia 120:193-197.
  • Pérez-Barbería, F. J., I. J. Gordon, and A. W. Illius. 2001. Phylogenetic analysis of stomach adaptation in digestive strategies in African ruminants. Oecologia 129:498-508.
  • Roberts, S. C. 1996. The evolution of hornedness in female ruminants. Behaviour 133:399-442.
  • Scott, K. M. and C. M. Janis. 1993. Relationships of the Ruminantia (Artiodactyla) and an analysis of the characters used in ruminant taxonomy. Pages 282-302 in Mammal Phylogeny. Volume 2. Placentals. F. S. Szalay, M. J. Novacek, and M. C. McKenna, eds. Springer Verlag, New York.
  • Su, B., Y.-X. Wang, H. Lan, W. Wang, and Y. Zhang. 1999. Phylogenetic study of complete cytochrome b genes in musk deer (genus Moschus) using museum samples. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 12:241-249.
  • Vrba,E.S . and G. B. Schaller, eds. 2000 . Antelopes, Deer, and Relatives. Yale University Press, New Haven.
  • Webb, S. D. and B. E. Taylor. 1980. The phylogeny of hornless ruminants and a description of the cranium of Archaeomeryx. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 167:117-158.


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