The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Benton M. J. 1983. Dinosaur success in the Triassic: a noncompetitive ecological model. Quarterly Review of Biology 58: 29-55.
  • Berman D. S., R. R. Reisz, J. R. Bolt, and D. Scott. 1995. The cranial anatomy and relationships of the synapsid Varanosaurus (Eupelycosauria: Ophiacodontidae) from the Early Permian of Texas and Oklahoma. Annals of Carnegie Museum 64: 99-133.
  • Brinkman, D. and D. A. Eberth. 1983. The interrelationships of pelycosaurs. Breviora 473: 1-35.
  • Charig A. 1984. Competition between therapsids and archosaurs during the Triassic period: a review and synthesis of current theories. In: M. W. J. Ferguson (ed.) The structure, development and evolution of reptiles: 597-628. London: Academic Press.
  • Gauthier J., D. C. Cannatella, K. De Queiroz, A. G. Kluge, and T. Rowe. 1989. Tetrapod phylogeny. In: B. Fernholm, K. Bremer, and H. Jornvall (ed.) The Hierarchy of Life: 337-353. New York: Elsevier Science Publishers B. V. (Biomedical Division).
  • Gauthier, J., A. G. Kluge, and T. Rowe. 1988. Amniote phylogeny and the importance of fossils. Cladistics 4: 105-209.
  • Haack, S. C. 1986. A thermal model of the sailback pelycosaur. Paleobiology 12: 450-458.
  • Hopson J. A. 1987. The Mammal-like Reptiles. A study of transitional fossils. The American biology teacher 49: 16-26.
  • Hopson J. A. 1991. Systematics of the nonmammalian Synapsida and implications for patterns of evolution in synapsids. In: H.-P. Schultze and L. Trueb (ed.) Origins of the higher groups of tetrapods—Controversy and Consensus: 635-693. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
  • Ji Q., Z.-X. Luo, C.-X. Yuan, & A. R. Tabrum. 2006. A swimming mammaliaform from the Middle Jurassic and ecomorphological diversification of early mammals. Science 311: 1123-1127.
  • Kemp T. S. 1985. Synapsid reptiles and the origin of higher taxa. Special Papers in Palaeontology 33: 175-184.
  • Kemp, T. S. 1982. Mammal-like Reptiles and the Origin of Mammals. Academic press, New York, 363 pp.
  • Laurin M. and R. R. Reisz. 1996. The osteology and relationships of Tetraceratops insignis, the oldest known therapsid. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 16: 95-102.
  • Laurin, M. 1993. Anatomy and relationships of Haptodus garnettensis, a Pennsylvanian synapsid from Kansas. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 13: 200-229.
  • Laurin, M. and R. R. Reisz. 1990. Tetraceratops is the oldest known therapsid. Nature 345: 249-250.
  • Meng J. and A. R. Wyss. 1997. Multituberculate and other mammal hair recovered from Palaeogene excreta. Nature 385: 712-714.
  • Reisz R. R. 1980. The Pelycosauria: A review of phylogenetic relationships. In: A. L. Panchen (ed.) The Terrestrial Environment and the Origin of Land Vertebrates: 553-592. London: Academic Press.
  • Reisz, R. R. 1986. Pelycosauria. Encyclopedia of Paleoherpetology 17A: 1-102.
  • Reisz, R. R., D. S. Berman, and D. Scott. 1992. The cranial anatomy and relationships of Secodontosaurus, an unusual mammal-like reptile (Pelycosauria: Sphenacodontidae) from the early Permian of Texas. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 104: 127-184.
  • Rowe T. 1988. Definition, diagnosis, and origin of Mammalia. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 8: 241-264.
  • Zimmer C. Meet the relatives. Discover, 1991, 56-57.


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