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Overview

Brief Summary

The Tasmanian Blue GumSouthern Blue Gum or Blue Gum, (Eucalyptus globulus) is an evergreentree, one of the most widely cultivated trees native to Australia. They typically grow from 30 to 55 m (98 to 180 ft) tall. The tallest currently known specimen in Tasmania is 90.7 m tall (297 ft). There are historical claims of even taller trees, the tallest being 101 m (330 ft). The natural distribution of the species includes Tasmania and southern Victoria (particularly the Otway Ranges and southern Gippsland). There are also isolated occurrences on King Island and Flinders Island in Bass Strait and on the summit of theYou Yangs near Geelong. There are naturalized non-native occurrences in southern Europe (Galicia,Akamas, Cyprus, and Portugal), southern AfricaNew Zealand, western United States (California), Hawaiiand Macaronesia, Caucasus (Western Georgia).

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Myrtaceae -- Myrtle family

    Roger G. Skolmen and F. Thomas Ledig

    Bluegum eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus), also called Tasmanian  bluegum, is one of the world's best known eucalyptus trees. It is  the "type" species for the genus in California, Spain,  Portugal, Chile, and many other locations. One of the first tree  species introduced to other countries from Australia, it is now  the most extensively planted eucalyptus in the world.

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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Roger G. Skolmen

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Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Western Ghats, High Altitude, Cultivated, Native of Australia"
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Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Tree Distribution notes: Exotic
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Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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"Maharashtra: Kolhapur, Sindhudurg Karnataka: Mysore Kerala: Idukki, Palakkad, Thrissur Tamil Nadu: Dindigul, Erode, Kanniyakumari, Nilgiri, Salem, Theni, Tirunelveli"
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"
Global Distribution

Native of Tasmania; widely cultivated in Sri Lanka and India

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: Alappuzha, Idukki, Thrissur, Palakkad, Wayanad

"
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Bluegum eucalyptus is native to Tasmania and southeastern Australia. It
was introduced into California in 1856 and into Hawaii in about 1865.
It has naturalized in both states [3,7]. It is a fairly common
ornamental in Arizona but has not naturalized there [7]. The planted
range in California extends from Humboldt County south to San Diego
County, with best growth in the coastal fog belt near San Francisco.
There are numerous plantings in the Central Valley from Redding south to
Bakersfield and San Bernardino. Hawaii has about 12,000 acres (5,000
ha) of planted and naturalized bluegum eucalyptus, almost all of them on
the islands of Hawaii and Maui [7].
  • 3. Ashton, D. H. 1981. Fire in tall open-forests (wet sclerophyll forests). In: Gill, A. M.; Groves, R. H.; Noble, I. R., eds. Fire and the Australian biota. Canberra City, ACT: The Australian Academy of Science: 339-366. [21566]
  • 7. Skolmen, Roger G.; Ledig, F. Thomas. 1990. Eucalyptus globulus Labill. bluegum eucalyptus. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America: Vol. 2, Hardwoods. Agriculture Handbook 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 299-304. [22391]

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Regional Distribution in the Western United States

More info on this topic.

This species can be found in the following regions of the western United States (according to the Bureau of Land Management classification of Physiographic Regions of the western United States):

3 Southern Pacific Border

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Occurrence in North America

AZ CA HI

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Four subspecies are recognized. The type tree, subspecies  globulus, is largely confined to the southeast coast of Tasmania  but also grows in small pockets on the west coast of Tasmania, on  islands in the Bass Strait north of Tasmania, and on Cape Otway  and Wilson's Promontory in southern Victoria, Australia (9).  Other subspecies are found northward in Victoria and New South  Wales (13).

    The species was introduced into California in 1856 (1) and into  Hawaii about 1865 (18) and has become naturalized in both States.  It is also fairly common as an ornamental in Arizona but is not  naturalized there. In California, it is now primarily used in  line plantings along roads and as windbreaks, but formerly,  extensive plantations were established. Plantings total about 16  000 ha (40,000 acres) (17). The planted range in California  extends from Humboldt County in the north to San Diego County in  the south, with best growth in the coastal fog belt in the  vicinity of San Francisco. Numerous plantings are seen in the  Central Valley from Redding, south through Fresno to Bakersfield,  and San Bernardino. Hawaii has about 5000 ha (12,000  acres)-almost all of them on the islands of Hawaii and Maui. In  California and Hawaii the tree regenerates within and near the  edges of plantations. In some areas of Hawaii it spreads fast  enough to be considered a pest by ranchers.

    Recently, the species has also been planted in its native Tasmania  where it is an important pulpwood source (22).

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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Roger G. Skolmen

Source: Silvics of North America

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

More info for the terms: capsule, sclerophyllous, tree

Bluegum eucalyptus is an introduced, deciduous tree that generally grows
from 98 to 180 feet (30-55 m) tall [3,10]. Some bluegums have attained
heights of 260 feet (80 m) in California [32]. Most height growth of
bluegum eucalyptus occurs within the first 5 to 10 years; 60 to 70
percent of total height growth is achieved by about age 10. Bluegum
eucalyptus typically grows in dense monocultures [42].

The sclerophyllous leaves are 4 to 11 inches (10-30 cm) long [10]. The
flower clusters develop within an envelope formed by two bracteoles
which split and are shed, exposing the flower buds [24]. The fruit is a
woody capsule 0.25 to 1 inch (6-25 mm) in diameter [24]. The bark is
shreddy, peeling in large strips [7].

Bluegum eucalyptus generally does not form a taproot. It produces roots
throughout the soil profile, rooting several feet deep in some soils [7].
  • 3. Ashton, D. H. 1981. Fire in tall open-forests (wet sclerophyll forests). In: Gill, A. M.; Groves, R. H.; Noble, I. R., eds. Fire and the Australian biota. Canberra City, ACT: The Australian Academy of Science: 339-366. [21566]
  • 7. Skolmen, Roger G.; Ledig, F. Thomas. 1990. Eucalyptus globulus Labill. bluegum eucalyptus. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America: Vol. 2, Hardwoods. Agriculture Handbook 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 299-304. [22391]
  • 10. del Moral, Roger; Muller, Cornelius H. 1969. Fog drip: a mechanism of toxin transport from Eucalyptus globulus. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 96(4): 467-475. [21909]
  • 24. Krugman, Stanley L. 1974. Eucalyptus L'Herit eucalyptus. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., ed. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agriculture Handbook No. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 384-392. [7663]
  • 32. Munz, Philip A. 1973. A California flora and supplement. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1905 p. [6155]
  • 42. Skolmen, Roger G. 1983. Growth and yield of some eucalypts of interest to California. In: Standiford, Richard B.; Ledig, F. Thomas, technical coordinators. Proceedings of a workshop on Eucalyptus in California; 1983 June 14-16; Sacramento, CA. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-69. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station: 49-57. [19570]

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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Trees, to 30 m high; bark smooth, peeling off in long stripes. Leaves of the seedlings opposite, sessile, amplexicaul, 6-12 x 2.5-7 cm, bluish-green, glaucous, strongly discolourous, juvenile leaves opposite, sessile, 7-15 x 4-9 cm, elliptic-ovate, glaucous, strongly discolourous, amplexicaule; intermediate leaves alternate, petiolate, glabrous, broadly lanceolate; adult leaves alternate; petiole to 30 mm, stout, glabrous; lamina 10-30 x 3-4 cm, falcate or lanceolate, base acute or obtuse, apex acute or acuminate, margin entire, glabrous, coriaceous; lateral nerves many, pinnate, prominent, intercostae reticulate, pellucid-punctate. Flowers bisexual, to 4 cm across, axillary, solitary; buds sessile, 3 x 2 cm, turbinate, warty, glaucous; hypanthium ribbed, to 1 cm; operculum long, flat, with a central knob; stamens many, free, 0.5-1.5 cm; anthers obovoid, 0.5-1 mm, versatile; ovary inferior, adnate to the hypanthium, 3-5-celled, ovules many; style simple; stigma capitate. Fruit a capsule, sessile, globose or hemispherical, 4-ribbed, warty, disc broad, convex; valves 3-5; seeds many."
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Diagnostic

Habit: Tree
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Ecology

Habitat

General Habitat

Grown as avenue tree as well as raised in plantation
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Key Plant Community Associations

More info for the term: vine

Most dense bluegum eucalyptus stands in California and Hawaii are almost
devoid of understory vegetation, except for a few hardy grasses. In
Hawaii, firetree (Myrica faga) sometimes invades bluegum stands, and the
noxious passion fruit vine (Passiflora mollissima) has been found in
young bluegum eucalyptus coppice stands [7].

In its native habitat bluegum eucalyptus grows in pure stands and in
mixtures with many other eucalypt species. In California, it has been
planted with forest redgum eucalyptus and river redgum eucalyptus (E.
camaldulensis). In Hawaii, it has been planted with many other
eucalypts [7].
  • 7. Skolmen, Roger G.; Ledig, F. Thomas. 1990. Eucalyptus globulus Labill. bluegum eucalyptus. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America: Vol. 2, Hardwoods. Agriculture Handbook 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 299-304. [22391]

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Habitat: Ecosystem

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

More info for the term: shrub

FRES28 Western hardwoods
FRES34 Chaparral - mountain shrub
FRES42 Annual grasslands

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Habitat characteristics

Bluegum eucalyptus grows best in mediterranean climates, characterized
by cool, wet winters and dry, warm summers [37]. In coastal California,
it does well with only 21 inches (530 mm) of annual rainfall accompanied
by a pronounced dry season, primarily because frequent fogs compensate
for lack of rain [7].

Bluegum eucalyptus grows well on a wide range of soils, but requires
good drainage, low salinity, and a soil depth of 2 feet (0.6 m) or more.
In California, it grows best on deep alluvial soils because of the
greater moisture supply [7]. Hawaiian soils supporting bluegum
eucalyptus are about 3 feet (0.9 m) deep. They are usually acidic,
moderately well-drained, silty clay loams [40,42].

In California, bluegum eucalyptus occurs at elevations below 1,000 feet
(300 m) [32]. It occurs at 1,400 to 6,000 feet (425-1,800 m) in Hawaii
[40,42].
  • 7. Skolmen, Roger G.; Ledig, F. Thomas. 1990. Eucalyptus globulus Labill. bluegum eucalyptus. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America: Vol. 2, Hardwoods. Agriculture Handbook 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 299-304. [22391]
  • 32. Munz, Philip A. 1973. A California flora and supplement. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1905 p. [6155]
  • 37. Rice, Carol L.; Aronson, C. Richard. 1985. The fire management program in the East Bay Regional Park District. In: Long, James N., ed. Fire management: the challenge of protection and use: Proceedings of a symposium; 1985 April 17-19; Logan, UT. [Place of publication unknown]
  • 40. Schubert, Thomas H.; Whitesell, Craig D. 1985. Species trials for biomass plantations in Hawaii: a first appraisal. Res. Pap. PSW-176. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 13 p. [19147]
  • 42. Skolmen, Roger G. 1983. Growth and yield of some eucalypts of interest to California. In: Standiford, Richard B.; Ledig, F. Thomas, technical coordinators. Proceedings of a workshop on Eucalyptus in California; 1983 June 14-16; Sacramento, CA. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-69. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station: 49-57. [19570]

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Habitat: Cover Types

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following cover types (as classified by the Society of American Foresters):

248 Knobcone pine
250 Blue oak - Digger pine
255 California coast live oak

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Habitat: Plant Associations

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):

K030 California oakwoods
K033 Chaparral
K048 California steppe

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Soils and Topography

Bluegum eucalyptus grows well on a wide range of soils. It  requires good drainage, low salinity, and a soil depth of about  0.6 in (2 ft) or more. Other limiting factors are few (8). In  locations with a pronounced dry season, such as California, the  tree grows best on deep alluvial soils because of the greater  moisture supply.

    In Hawaii, the tree grows very well on Typic and Hydric  Dystrandepts, soils of the latosolic brown forest great soil  group. These soils are generally 0.9 in (3 ft) deep, acid in  reaction, and formed on volcanic ash. In California, the tree  grows well on a much wider range of soils than in Hawaii, from  the Ultisols and Alfisols developed on deeply weathered  sedimentary deposits and sandstone to Inceptisols and Aridisols  developed on a wide variety of parent materials.

    In Portugal, almost 15 percent of the land area is planted to this  species. Most stands are on soils developed from sandstone and  limestone, which have been badly degraded by cultivation since  ancient times. Best yields occur on the heavy texture clay-loams  and clays (11).

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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Roger G. Skolmen

Source: Silvics of North America

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Climate

Although bluegum eucalyptus has great climatic adaptability, the  most successful introductions worldwide have been to locations  with mild, temperate climates, or to high, cool elevations in  tropical areas (8). The ideal climate is said to be that of the  eastern coast of Portugal, with no severe dry season, mean annual  rainfall 900 min (35 in), and minimum temperature never below -7°  C (20° F). In coastal California, the tree does well in only  530 mm (21 in) rainfall accompanied by a pronounced dry season,  primarily because frequent fogs compensate for lack of rain. A  similar situation is found in Chile where deep fertile soils as  well as fogs mitigate the effect of low, seasonal precipitation  (8). In Hawaii, bluegum eucalyptus does best in plantations at  about 1200 min (4,000 ft) where the rainfall is 1270 mm (50 in)  annually and is evenly distributed or has a winter maximum.  Seasonality of rainfall is not of critical importance to the  species. Although it generally grows well in countries with a  Mediterranean or cold season maximum rainfall, it grows well also  in summer rainfall climates of Ethiopia and Argentina (8).

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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Roger G. Skolmen

Source: Silvics of North America

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Associations

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / parasite
Golovinomyces orontii parasitises live Eucalyptus globulus

Foodplant / gall
larva of Ophelimus cf. maskelli causes gall of live leaf of Eucalyptus globulus

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Associated Forest Cover

In its native habitat, bluegum eucalyptus grows in pure stands and  in mixture with messmate stringy bark eucalyptus (Eucalyptus  obliqua), mountain-ash eucalyptus (E. regnans), manna  eucalyptus (E. viminalis), black peppermint eucalyptus  (E. amygdalina), and white peppermint eucalyptus (E.  pulchella). Although, for the most part, it has been planted  in pure plantations in countries where it has been introduced, it  has also been planted in mixture. In California, it has most  commonly been mixed with forest redgum eucalyptus (E.  tereticornis) and river redgum eucalyptus (E. camaldulensis)  (19). In Hawaii, it has been planted in mixture with many  other eucalypts.

    Most of the dense bluegum eucalyptus stands in California and  Hawaii are noted for being almost devoid of understory  vegetation, except for a few hardy grasses. Although this  condition is most likely related to the rather dry climate that  provides the best site for the species, it has also been shown  that the leaves of the tree produce water soluble phytotoxins  that can prevent radicle growth of many herbaceous plants (7). In  Hawaii, firetree (Myrica faya) is a species that  sometimes invades bluegum eucalyptus stands. The noxious passion  fruit vine (Passiflora mollissima) has also been found  thriving in a young coppice stand.

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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Roger G. Skolmen

Source: Silvics of North America

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Diseases and Parasites

Damaging Agents

Although bluegum eucalyptus is seldom  browsed by cattle or sheep, seedlings are often severely girdled  by rodents. This condition can be prevented by cultivating around  the young trees to remove the protective cover the rodents  require (19). Although grazing animals do not eat the trees, they  do trample them and should be excluded from young plantations.

    In California, bluegum eucalyptus stands are highly susceptible to  fire during the dry season. The bark, which hangs in strips from  the stems, readily carries fire into the crowns, and the leaves  contain volatile oils that produce a hot fire. Trees are rarely  killed by fire, however, as they sprout vigorously from the stems  and bases (8). In the moister climate of Hawaii, fire has not  been a problem in bluegum eucalyptus stands.

    Seedlings are intolerant of frost and temperatures of -5° to  -10° C (23° to 14° F) usually kill them. Frost  resistance increases with maturity, juvenile foliage being less  resistant than mature foliage (4). In 1972 a severe frost in the  hills of Berkeley, CA, completely defoliated most of the mature  bluegum eucalyptus. The trees were considered dead by several  authorities and a salvage logging program was started to remove  the fire hazard. A few months later, most of the "dead"  trees sprouted from the stems and bases and began to grow again.  This sprouting was judged undesirable and several experiments  were undertaken aimed at preventing it. The most successful  treatment found was to flood axe frills made at the tree bases  with a 0.36 kg/1 (3 lb/gal) solution of glyphosphate in water  (10). This permanently killed the trees.

    The tree is susceptible to drought, particularly on shallow soils.  On such soils, subsoiling has been used effectively to permit  deeper rooting and to overcome drought susceptibility.

    Several insects attack bluegum eucalyptus, although none has been  a serious problem in California or Hawaii. One that is common in  many parts of the world is the wood borer, Phoracantha  semipunctata, which has caused severe damage in South Africa  and Western Australia. A scale insect, Eriococcus coriaceushas caused high mortality in New Zealand. Several defoliating  insects in the genera Gonipterus, Chrysophtharta, and  Mnesampela, attack the species.

    Fungi have generally not been a severe problem with bluegum  eucalyptus. Damping off in nurseries caused by Botrytis  cinerea has been a problem but is easily controlled. Pythium  and Rhizoctonia spp. have also caused damping-off in  containers and flats, particularly when old seed was used (16).  Fusarium spp. have destroyed quantities of stored seed in  Spain. Attack by Diplodia and Armillaria has been  reported from several countries, but neither disease is  considered serious (8,23).

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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Roger G. Skolmen

Source: Silvics of North America

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General Ecology

Fire Management Considerations

More info for the terms: fuel, litter, prescribed fire

Fuel buildup occurs very rapidly in unmanaged bluegum eucalyptus stands
in California [1,33]. Fuel reduction programs can reduce wildfire
hazard, as can the establishment of fuelbreaks [1,31].

In December, 1972, the San Francisco Bay Area experienced a severe cold
snap, resulting in extensive frost damage to bluegum eucalyptus trees
[6,18]. Frost-killed leaves and twigs increased bluegum eucalyptus
litter ten-fold. By early 1973, following a particularly hot, dry
summer and autumn, the litter combined with standing dead and damaged
bluegums constituted a major fire hazard [1,6,18]. Several fuel
reduction methods were proposed: mechanical removal of trees, thinning
of present stands, and prescribed fire. The first two alternatives are
commonly applied now in freeze-killed or damaged stands. Broadcast
fires have been used with success in undisturbed areas under reasonably
moist (13-19% fuel moisture) weather conditions. Spring fires have
reduced fuel loads up to 87 to 96 percent without damage to overstory
trees. Prescribed burning has been widely applied to eucalyptus forests
in Australia to reduce fuel loads and prevent wildfires [1].
  • 1. Agee, J. K.; Wakimoto, R. H.; Darley, E. F.; Biswell, H. H. 1973. Eucalyptus fuel dunamics, and fire hazard in the Oakland Hills. California Agriculture. 27(9): 13-15. [21913]
  • 6. Bulman, Teresa L. 1988. The eucalyptus in California. Fremontia. 16(1): 9-12. [22087]
  • 18. Hamilton, W. Douglas; McHenry, W. B. 1982. Eucalyptus stump sprout contol. Journal of Arboriculture. 8(12): 327-328. [21911]
  • 31. Mortenson, Bryan G. 1984. Urban fuelbreak management plan, an integrated pest management approach. In: "Weeds on planet Earth": Proceedings, 36th annual California weed conference; 1984 January 16-19; Sacramento, CA. [Place of publication unknown]
  • 33. Osterling, Ralph S. 1983. Managing a coastal bluegum (Eucalyptus globulus) forest. In: Standiford, Richard B.; Ledig, F. Thomas, technical coordinators. Proceedings of a workshop on Eucalyptus in California; 1983 June 14-16; Sacramento, CA. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-69. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station: 93-94. [19576]

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Plant Response to Fire

More info for the term: lignotuber

Bluegum eucalyptus recovers well from fire [3]. Epicormic sprouting is
common in trees only scorched by fire. It is also common in trees where
crown fire occurred but bark was thick enough to protect dormant branch
buds. Heat-damaged bark is shed, and sprouting proceeds rapidly [50].
Top-killed trees sprout from the lignotuber. Vigorous sprouting is
supported by food reserves stored in the root system and lignotuber [3].

Bluegum eucalyptus also establishes from seed after fire. Some seed is
already stored in the seedbank. Release of crown-stored seed is
triggered by shoot death, and crown-stored seeds are rapidly
disseminated after fire [50].

In 1929, a catastrophic fire burned a bluegum eucalyptus stand in
California. The forest regenerated to a fully stocked condition. In
November 1946, a second fire burned much of the same area. Again, the
forest regenerated. By 1983, it was a very dense uneven-aged stand [33].
  • 3. Ashton, D. H. 1981. Fire in tall open-forests (wet sclerophyll forests). In: Gill, A. M.; Groves, R. H.; Noble, I. R., eds. Fire and the Australian biota. Canberra City, ACT: The Australian Academy of Science: 339-366. [21566]
  • 33. Osterling, Ralph S. 1983. Managing a coastal bluegum (Eucalyptus globulus) forest. In: Standiford, Richard B.; Ledig, F. Thomas, technical coordinators. Proceedings of a workshop on Eucalyptus in California; 1983 June 14-16; Sacramento, CA. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-69. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station: 93-94. [19576]
  • 50. Gill, A. Malcolm. 1977. Plant traits adaptive to fires in Mediterranean land ecosystems. In: Mooney, Harold A.; Conrad, C. Eugene, technical coordinators. Proceedings of the symp. on the environmental consequences of fire and fuel management in Mediterranean ecosystems; 1977 August 1-5; Palo Alto, CA. Gen. Tech. Rep. WO-3. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 17-26. [4798]

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Immediate Effect of Fire

More info for the terms: fire frequency, frequency, top-kill, tree

Crown fire's effect upon bluegum eucalyptus varies. Because the stringy
outer bark is highly flammable and bark thickness is readily reduced by
fire, past fire frequency largely determines the relative protection
bark offers. Repeated fire damage to bark before bark thickness has
been restored may result in top-kill, or at times, tree mortality. If
bark is sufficiently thick, bluegum eucalyptus branches survive crown
fire and send out epicormic sprouts [50]. No studies quantifying bark
thickness with tree survival were found.
  • 50. Gill, A. Malcolm. 1977. Plant traits adaptive to fires in Mediterranean land ecosystems. In: Mooney, Harold A.; Conrad, C. Eugene, technical coordinators. Proceedings of the symp. on the environmental consequences of fire and fuel management in Mediterranean ecosystems; 1977 August 1-5; Palo Alto, CA. Gen. Tech. Rep. WO-3. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 17-26. [4798]

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Post-fire Regeneration

More info for the terms: crown residual colonizer, ground residual colonizer, root sucker, secondary colonizer

Tree with adventitious-bud root crown/soboliferous species root sucker
Ground residual colonizer (on-site, initial community)
Crown residual colonizer (on-site, initial community)
Initial-offsite colonizer (off-site, initial community)
Secondary colonizer - off-site seed

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Fire Ecology

More info for the terms: lichen, presence, resistance

Most eucalyptus communities in Australia have evolved in the presence of
periodic fire [3]. Bluegum eucalyptus is highly flammable, but is
seldom killed by fire. The bark catches fire readily, and deciduous
bark streamers and lichen epiphytes tend to carry fire into the canopy
and to disseminate fire ahead of the main front [3,7,8,50]. Other
features of bluegum eucalyptus that promote fire spread include heavy
litter fall, flammable oils in the foliage, and open crowns bearing
pendulous branches, which encourages maximum updraft [3,9]. Despite the
presence of volatile oils that produce a hot fire, leaves of bluegum
eucalyptus are classed as intermediate in their resistance to
combustion, and juvenile leaves are highly resistant to flaming [11].

Adaptations to fire include seedbanking, sprouting, and heat-resistant
seed capsules [3,7]. Seed capsules protect the seed for a critical
short period as the fire reaches the crowns; this protection delays
penetration of heat to the seeds. Seeds were protected for about 4
minutes from a lethal rise in temperature when capsules were subjected
to a heat of 826 degrees Fahrenheit (440 deg C) [3]. Following all
types of fire, an accelerated seed shed occurs, even where crowns are
only subjected to heat scorch.
  • 3. Ashton, D. H. 1981. Fire in tall open-forests (wet sclerophyll forests). In: Gill, A. M.; Groves, R. H.; Noble, I. R., eds. Fire and the Australian biota. Canberra City, ACT: The Australian Academy of Science: 339-366. [21566]
  • 7. Skolmen, Roger G.; Ledig, F. Thomas. 1990. Eucalyptus globulus Labill. bluegum eucalyptus. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America: Vol. 2, Hardwoods. Agriculture Handbook 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 299-304. [22391]
  • 8. Colwell, Robert N. 1973. ERTS-1 imagery and high flight photographs as aids to fire hazard appraisal at the NASA San Pablo Reservoir Test Site. In: Symposium on significant results obtained from the Earth Resources Technology Satellite 1: Proceedings; [Location unknown]
  • 9. Crosby, Bill. 1992. Our wildfire. Sunset. June: 62-72. [21662]
  • 11. Dickinson, K. J. M.; Kirkpatrick, J. B. 1985. The flammability and energy content of some important plant species and fuel components in the forests of southeastern Tasmania. Journal of Biogeography. 12: 121-134. [20835]
  • 50. Gill, A. Malcolm. 1977. Plant traits adaptive to fires in Mediterranean land ecosystems. In: Mooney, Harold A.; Conrad, C. Eugene, technical coordinators. Proceedings of the symp. on the environmental consequences of fire and fuel management in Mediterranean ecosystems; 1977 August 1-5; Palo Alto, CA. Gen. Tech. Rep. WO-3. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 17-26. [4798]

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Regeneration Processes

More info for the terms: epigeal, lignotuber, tree

Seed production and dissemination: Flowers are pollinated by insects
and hummingbirds [7]. Seed set begins at approximately 4 to 5 years of
age. Good seed crops are produced in most locations at 3- to 5-year
intervals [7]. The seeds of are relatively small and abundant [24].
Capsules open immediately on ripening, and the seed is dispersed by wind
within 1 to 2 months [7,24]. Dispersal distance from one 131-foot (40
m) tree, with winds of 6 mph (10 km/h), was 66 feet (20 m) [7]. Newly
released seeds germinate within a few weeks under suitable conditions.
Germination is epigeal. Seed collections from individual trees in
California had highly variable germination rates, ranging from 2 to 80
percent within a 30-day germination period [24]. Soil-stored seed under
older stands often germinates prolifically following logging or other
disturbance [7].

Vegetative reproduction: Bluegum eucalyptus sprouts readily from the
bole, from stumps of all sizes and ages, from the lignotuber, and from
the roots [7,17]. The lignotuber can live for many years in the soil
after stems die back [42]. Bluegum eucalyptus also reproduces by
layering [7].
  • 7. Skolmen, Roger G.; Ledig, F. Thomas. 1990. Eucalyptus globulus Labill. bluegum eucalyptus. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America: Vol. 2, Hardwoods. Agriculture Handbook 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 299-304. [22391]
  • 17. Groenendaal, Gayle M. 1983. Part 1. History of eucalypts in California: Eucalyptus helped solve a timber problem: 1853-1880. In: Standiford, Richard B.; Ledig, F. Thomas, technical coordinators. Proceedings of a workshop on Eucalyptus in California; 1983 June 14-16; Sacramento, CA. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-69. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station: 1-8. [19565]
  • 24. Krugman, Stanley L. 1974. Eucalyptus L'Herit eucalyptus. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., ed. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agriculture Handbook No. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 384-392. [7663]
  • 42. Skolmen, Roger G. 1983. Growth and yield of some eucalypts of interest to California. In: Standiford, Richard B.; Ledig, F. Thomas, technical coordinators. Proceedings of a workshop on Eucalyptus in California; 1983 June 14-16; Sacramento, CA. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-69. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station: 49-57. [19570]

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Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)

More info on this topic.

More info for the term: phanerophyte

Phanerophyte

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Life Form

More info for the term: tree

Tree

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Successional Status

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Obligate Initial Community Species

In Hawaii and California, bluegum eucalyptus regenerates within and near
the edges of plantations. It does not spread far and rarely invades
wildlands [2,7]. It has, however, invaded an oak woodland on Angel
Island in the San Francisco Bay [6].

Bluegum eucalyptus is shade intolerant; failure to regenerate within
forests in the absence of fire is related to low light intensities [3].
Bluegum eucalyptus is drought tolerant and somewhat frost hardy. Frost
resistance increases with maturity [7].
  • 2. Aschmann, Homer. 1976. Man's impact on the southern California flora. In: Latting, June, ed. Symposium proceedings: plant communities of southern California; 1974 May 4; Fullerton, CA. Special Publication No. 2. Berkeley, CA: California Native Plant Society: 40-48. [4220]
  • 3. Ashton, D. H. 1981. Fire in tall open-forests (wet sclerophyll forests). In: Gill, A. M.; Groves, R. H.; Noble, I. R., eds. Fire and the Australian biota. Canberra City, ACT: The Australian Academy of Science: 339-366. [21566]
  • 6. Bulman, Teresa L. 1988. The eucalyptus in California. Fremontia. 16(1): 9-12. [22087]
  • 7. Skolmen, Roger G.; Ledig, F. Thomas. 1990. Eucalyptus globulus Labill. bluegum eucalyptus. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America: Vol. 2, Hardwoods. Agriculture Handbook 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 299-304. [22391]

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Reaction to Competition

Bluegum eucalyptus is generally  classed as intolerant of shade and planted stands quickly develop  crown differentiation as soon as the crowns close. On sites for  which it is best suited, other species cannot compete with it. In  Australia, it frequently grows in mixed stands because of  microsite variation that favors the competing species that have  evolved in the area (23).

    Although leaves of the species produce water-soluble toxins that  may help prevent competition by larger trees (7), one or two  maintenance cleanings are usually required shortly after planting  to free seedlings from being overtopped by grasses. In Hawaii,  sprouts from buried lignotubers often grow as much as 30 cm (12  in) horizontally through litter and grass before emerging to  light.

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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Roger G. Skolmen

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Rooting Habit

Bluegum eucalyptus generally does not form  a taproot. It produces roots throughout the soil profile, rooting  several feet deep on soils that permit it, or shallowly  otherwise. On shallow soils, subsoiling to permit greater depth  of rooting has markedly improved growth (8). On most trees all  the roots are below the lignotuber, but occasionally,  adventitious roots result from layering of the stem above the  lignotuber. The tree is windfirm by the time it reaches sapling  size, but because the root system develops slowly, it can be  windthrown when a seedling.

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: September-December
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Phenology

More info on this topic.

In California, flowering occurs from November to April. Fruit ripens
from October to March, about 11 months after flowering. In Hawaii, some
trees flower throughout the year, but flowering is heaviest in February
and March. Fruit ripens throughout the year [7].
  • 7. Skolmen, Roger G.; Ledig, F. Thomas. 1990. Eucalyptus globulus Labill. bluegum eucalyptus. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America: Vol. 2, Hardwoods. Agriculture Handbook 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 299-304. [22391]

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Reproduction

Vegetative Reproduction

Bluegum eucalyptus coppices  readily from stumps of all sizes and ages. Stumps should be cut  10 to 20 cm (4 to 8 in) high in stands managed for coppice (23).  Low-cut stumps do not coppice well from the lignotuber, and  coppice stems from stumps cut higher tend to break off easily in  the wind. Because the buds that sprout are on the bark side of  the cambium and initially weakly connected to the wood of the  stump, it is essential that the bark be firmly attached to the  stump if coppice stems are to survive. In four coppice stands in  Hawaii, ranging in age from 2 to 6 years after logging, annual  growth of stump~ coppice averaged 15 mm (0.6 in) in diameter at  stump height and 1.8 in (5.9 ft) in height (21). This growth was  considerably better than that of seedlings in the same stands  referred to earlier.

    Elsewhere than Hawaii, where foresters have had no experience  beyond one rotation, bluegum eucalyptus is normally carried for  three coppice rotation after the first, or seedling rotation.  Rotations rang from 5 to 10 years in different countries and  sites Undesirable shoots are usually removed during the first 2  years of a coppice crop, but thinning is normally not done. In  Portugal, coppice stands are some times managed by the system of  "coppice with standards" so that a sawtimber crop of  the straightest an best trees is retained between coppice  harvests to b cut as sawtimber when of suitable size (8).

    In Portugal, coppice rotations are 10 to 15 year with annual  yields normally 15 to 20 m/ha (214 t 286 W/acre) (11).

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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Seedling Development

Newly germinated seedlings have  inverse heart-shaped cotyledons, borne epigeously. The stems of  seedlings, especially those grown in the shade, are usually  square in cross section, often for as much as 3 to 5 m (10 to 16  ft) of stem length. These square stems usually have prominent  ridges or "wings" at the corners. Juvenile leaves,  which are opposite and broadly lanceolate, 9 by 9 cm (3.5 by 3.5  in), may persist for more than a year (9). Trees in coppice  stands 6 rn (20 ft) or mor in height are often entirely in the  juvenile leaf form These juvenile leaves bear a bluish gray, waxy  bloom and are the reason for the common name of the tree bluegum.

    Nursery-grown seedlings in containers reach plantable size, about  30 to 40 cm (12 to 16 in) high in 3 to 4 months. Seedlings can be  established in planted with bare roots, but success is highly de  pendent on favorable wet weather after planting Seedlings are,  therefore, usually grown in container and planted with a root  ball. Seedlings are not frost resistant (23).

    With favorable weather conditions on good sites in Hawaii,  seedlings that germinate after logging am are not suppressed can  be expected to be 1 in (3 ft tall at 6 months, 2 m (6 ft) at 1  year, and 4 m (13 ft at 2 years. Seedlings in four coppice stands  in Hawaii grew poorly because they were generally suppressed by  coppice shoots from stumps (21). Despite this, an average annual  growth of 1.1 cm (0.4 in) in diameter at stump height and 1.4 m  (4.6 ft) in height was recorded for all seedlings in stands 3, 4,  5, and 6 years old. Stocking of seedlings and coppice shoots in  these stands was high, averaging more than 6,000 stems per  hectare (2,400/acre). Measurements in six representative planted  stands in California that were 5 years or less in age gave an  average annual height growth of 2 m (6.7 ft) (19). In Victoria,  Australia, unfertilized planted seedlings grew I m (3 ft)  annually during a 4-year period, while fertilization of seedlings  at three different levels nearly doubled the growth rate (6).  Bluegum eucalyptus seedlings show a strong response to nitrogen  and phosphorus fertilization on many soils (23).

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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Seed Production and Dissemination

Bluegum eucalyptus  seeds are relatively large for a eucalyptus. There are 18 to 320  seeds per gram (500 to 9,100/oz) of seeds and chaff, or about 460  clean seeds per gram (13,000/oz) (2,5,15). Capsules release seed  immediately on ripening and the seed is dispersed by wind.  Calculated dispersal distance from a 40-m (131-ft) height, with  winds of 10 km/hr (6 mi/hr), was only 20 m (66 ft). Newly  released seeds germinate within a few weeks if conditions are  suitable. Trees usually begin to produce seeds at 4 to 5 years  and yield heavy seed crops in most locations at 3- to 5-year  intervals (23). Seeds can be stored for long periods in air-tight  containers at 0° to 3° C (32° to 38° F).

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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Flowering and Fruiting

Bluegum eucalyptus in California  flowers from November to April, the wet season (15). In Hawaii,  some trees flower throughout the year, but flowering is heaviest  in February to March. The flower buds have a warty cap or  operculum about 2.5 cm (1 in) in diameter, which falls off,  allowing the very numerous stamen filaments to extend in  shaving-brush fashion above the cup-shaped base (hypanthium). The  yellowish white flowers are pollinated by insects, hummingbirds,  and other pollen and nectar feeders. As in almost all eucalyptus,  pollen is usually viable before the stigma becomes receptive (8).  The fruit, a distinctive top-shaped woody capsule 15 mm (0.6 in)  long and 2 cm (1 in) in diameter, ripens in October to March in  California, about 11 months after flowering (15). In Hawaii the  fruit ripens throughout the year.

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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Growth

Growth and Yield

Bluegum eucalyptus is considered a  fast-growing tree in most countries where it is used, but a wide  range of growth and yield figures are reported in the literature.  We know of no data for natural stands in Australia, but some  plantations in Tasmania, Victoria, and the Australian Capital  Territory (A.C.T.) have done well (3). In Tasmania, a yield of  subspecies globulus at 17 years of 35 m³/ha (500 ft³/acre)  per year was reported, with the tallest trees averaging 30 m (99  ft). A plantation of ssp. globulus in Victoria averaged  about 20 ern (8 in) in d.b.h. and 18 m (59 ft) in height at 14  years, while another (ssp. bicostata) at Canberra,  A.C.T., at age 13 and somewhat lower stocking, averaged 21 cm  (8.3 in) in d.b.h. and 15.5 m (51 ft) in height (3).

    These data are well within the range of those reported for other  countries (8). Annual growth in northwestern Spain averages 20 m³  /ha (286 ft³/acre), but in southwestern Spain only 5 to 6 m³/ha  (71 to 86 ft³ /acre). In Uruguay, 25 m³/ha (375 ft³  /acre) of annual growth is considered good. In Ethiopia and  Portugal, at age 10 on the highest quality site, very good growth  is 20 m³/ha (286 Wft³/acre) per year.

    In California, 67 different stands were measured in 1924 (19). The  mean annual growth of all these stands ranging from 2 to 42 years  in age, was 19 m³/ha (271 ft³/acre). Ten of these  stands, ranging from 13 to 16 years in age and similar to the  plantation in Australia, averaged 19.6 cm (7.7 in) in d.b.h., and  20.4 m (67 ft) in height, and had a mean annual growth of 21 m³/ha  (300 ft³ /acre). The tallest stand averaged 38.7 m (127 ft)  at 23 years. The tallest stand in California is one planted in  1877 on the University of California campus at Berkeley; it  contains trees that have been more than 61 rn (200 ft) tall since  1956 (1).

    In Hawaii, 20 stands ranging in age from 2.5 to 35 years were  evaluated in 1911 (18). Four of the stands were in the age range  11 to 20, somewhat similar to the plantations in Australia. In  these four, the average d.b.h. was 29.2 cm (11.5 in), and average  height was 23 m (76 ft). The tallest stand averaged 30.5 m (100  ft) at 14 years. Seven stands ranging in age from 5 to 20 years  had an average annual yield of 20 m³/ha (286 ft³/acre).  The tallest bluegurn eucalyptus trees in Hawaii were at Kukaiau  Ranch, on the Island of Hawaii, and were about 61 m (200 ft) tall  until logged at age 70.

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Genetics

Population Differences    Several previously described species, southern bluegum (E.  bicostata Maiden et al.), Maiden's gum (E.  maidenii F. Muell.), and E. pseudoglobulus Naudin ex  Maiden, have been reduced to subspecies of bluegum eucalyptus  (E. globulus ssp. globulus) (12). Steep clines are found  in many fruit and vegetative characteristics across the  subspecies boundaries, and more gradual changes appear within the  ranges of the four subspecies in Australia. The ssp. pseudoglobulus  is central, grading on different borders into each of the  other three subspecies. The most frost-hardy seedlings originate  from populations above 450 m (1,475 ft) elevation in the ranges  of ssp. bicostata and ssp. maidenii, but these  tend to be the oldest growing (13). Tasmanian bluegum eucalyptus,  ssp. globulus, originating near sea level in the southern  part of the species range, is the most rapidly growing. Within  taxa, drought tolerance of seedlings is associated with  populations native to the driest sites. Variation in glaucous  bloom of the leaves is correlated with elevation and the "bluer"  forms are more frost hardy and more drought tolerant than the "greener"  forms. Variations are known, such as California bluegurn  eucalyptus var. compacta (Hort.), a cultivar propagated in the  nursery trade for its compact habit and widely used along  California highways (2,20).

    Hybrids    Natural or controlled hybrids of bluegum eucalyptus with E.  blakelyi, E. botryoides, E. cinerea, E. cypellocarpa, E. ovata,  E. rudis, E. tereticornis, E. urnigera, and E. viminalis  are known (8,14,18).

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Eucalyptus globulus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Eucalyptus globulus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 5
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Management

Management considerations

More info for the terms: fuel, natural

Bluegum eucalyptus is highly flammable and should not be planted near
homes and other structures [27]. For information regarding the
eradication of bluegum eucalyptus, see Fiedler [14], Groenendaal [17],
and Rice [38].

The leaves of bluegum eucalyptus release a number of terpenes and
phenolic acids. These chemicals may be responsible for the paucity of
accompanying vegetation in plantations [4]. Natural fog drip from
bluegum eucalyptus inhibits the growth of annual grass seedlings in
bioassays, suggesting that such inhibition occurs naturally [10,34]. At
least one leaf extract has been shown to strongly inhibit root growth of
seedlings of other species [4]. The frass from the chrysomelid beetle,
which feeds upon bluegum eucalyptus, is allelopathic to grasses at very
low levels [34].

Bluegum eucalyptus is used short-rotation fuel biomass plantations
[26,30,35]. The coppice method of regeneration is most common because
it allows, at least for a limited number of years, repeated harvesting
at short intervals and exploitation of exceptionally high early growth
rates [35].

In Hawaii, four 64-year-old coppice stands were studied 2 to 5 years
after logging. Seventy to eighty percent of the stumps had sprouted.
All stands also had seedlings. The seedlings made up more than 20
percent of the total number of stems, but contributed very little to
volume as they were usually suppressed by the sprouting stems [42].
  • 38. Rice, Carol. 1990. Restoration plays an integral role in fire hazard reduction plan for the Berkeley Hills Area. Restoration & Management Notes. 8(2): 125-126. [13792]
  • 4. Baker, Herbert G. 1966. Volatile growth inhibitors produced by Ecualyptus globulus. Madrono. 18: 207-210. [18652]
  • 10. del Moral, Roger; Muller, Cornelius H. 1969. Fog drip: a mechanism of toxin transport from Eucalyptus globulus. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 96(4): 467-475. [21909]
  • 14. Fiedler, Peggy Lee; Leidy, Robert A. 1987. Plant communities of Ring Mountain Preserve, Marin County, California. Madrono. 34(3): 173-192. [4068]
  • 17. Groenendaal, Gayle M. 1983. Part 1. History of eucalypts in California: Eucalyptus helped solve a timber problem: 1853-1880. In: Standiford, Richard B.; Ledig, F. Thomas, technical coordinators. Proceedings of a workshop on Eucalyptus in California; 1983 June 14-16; Sacramento, CA. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-69. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station: 1-8. [19565]
  • 26. Ledig, F. Thomas. 1983. Eucalypt improvement for California: progress and plans. In: Standiford, Richard B.; Ledig, F. Thomas, technical coordinators. Proceedings of a workshop on Eucalyptus in California; 1983 June 14-16; Sacramento, CA. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-69. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station: 115-120. [19581]
  • 27. Libby, William J.; Rodrigues, Kimberly A. 1992. Revegetating the 1991 Oakland-Berkeley Hills burn. Fremontia. 20(1): 12-18. [19086]
  • 30. Moore, Paul W. 1983. Southern California trial plantings of Eucalyptus. In: Standiford, Richard B.; Ledig, F. Thomas, technical coordinators. Proceedings of a workshop on Eucalyptus in California; 1983 June 14-16; Sacramento, CA. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-69. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station: 14-17. [19567]
  • 34. Payne, Lori. 1992. Forest allelopathy: a review of the literature. Women in Natural Resources. 13(3): 12-23. [20362]
  • 35. Pereira, J. S.; Almeida, I.; Esquivel, M. G.; [and others]
  • 42. Skolmen, Roger G. 1983. Growth and yield of some eucalypts of interest to California. In: Standiford, Richard B.; Ledig, F. Thomas, technical coordinators. Proceedings of a workshop on Eucalyptus in California; 1983 June 14-16; Sacramento, CA. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-69. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station: 49-57. [19570]

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Part unspecified: Yields eucalyptus oil used for nasal and pulmonary conditions in French Guiana.

  • Devez, G. 1932. Les Plantes Utiles et les Bois Industriels de la Guyane. 90 pp. Paris: Societe d'Editions Geographiques, Maritimes et Coloniales.

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Uses

Medicinal
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© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

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Other uses and values

Bluegum eucalyptus is widely planted as an ornamental throughout
California [17]. It is also a source of nectar for honey production
[7,43].

Bluegum eucalyptus oil has numerous medical applications. In
pharmaceutical preparations it has diaphoretic, expectorant,
insecticidal, and oestrogenic properties. The oil has antifungal and
antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus,
and Escherichia coli. Eucalyptus oil is generally nonirritating,
nonsensitizing, and nonphototoxic to the skin. When taken internally,
it may be toxic to the kidneys and can be a nervous system depressant
[45].

The oil is used as a flavoring agent in cold and cough medicines. It is
used in disinfectants, antiseptic liniments, ointments, toothpastes, and
mouthwashes. It is used by veterinarians for treating influenza in
horses, distemper in dogs, and septicaemia in all animals.

Bluegum eucalyptus oil is used as a flavor ingredient in boiled sweets
and food products such as beverages, dairy desserts, candy, baked goods,
gelatins, puddings, and meat products [45]. The cosmetic industry uses
it as a fragrance component in soaps, detergents, air fresheners, bath
oils, and perfumes [45].
  • 7. Skolmen, Roger G.; Ledig, F. Thomas. 1990. Eucalyptus globulus Labill. bluegum eucalyptus. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America: Vol. 2, Hardwoods. Agriculture Handbook 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 299-304. [22391]
  • 17. Groenendaal, Gayle M. 1983. Part 1. History of eucalypts in California: Eucalyptus helped solve a timber problem: 1853-1880. In: Standiford, Richard B.; Ledig, F. Thomas, technical coordinators. Proceedings of a workshop on Eucalyptus in California; 1983 June 14-16; Sacramento, CA. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-69. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station: 1-8. [19565]
  • 43. Standiford, Richard B.; Ledig, F. Thomas, technical coordinators. 1983. Proceedings of a workshop on Eucalyptus in California; 1983 June 14-16; Sacramento, CA. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-69. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 128 p. [19583]
  • 45. Tewari, Rakesh; Akhila, Anand. 1985. Essential oil from Eucalyptus globulus Labill.: a review. CROMAP. 7(2): 94-102. [22090]

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Wood Products Value

Bluegum eucalyptus is an important source of fuelwood in many countries.
It burns freely, leaves little ash, and produces good charcoal [7,33].
Plantations can be harvested for firewood every 7 years [17]. It is
also widely used as pulpwood [42]. The wood is unsuitable for lumber
because of excessive cracking, shrinkage, and collapse on drying [43],
but is used for fenceposts, poles, and crates [33].
  • 7. Skolmen, Roger G.; Ledig, F. Thomas. 1990. Eucalyptus globulus Labill. bluegum eucalyptus. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America: Vol. 2, Hardwoods. Agriculture Handbook 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 299-304. [22391]
  • 17. Groenendaal, Gayle M. 1983. Part 1. History of eucalypts in California: Eucalyptus helped solve a timber problem: 1853-1880. In: Standiford, Richard B.; Ledig, F. Thomas, technical coordinators. Proceedings of a workshop on Eucalyptus in California; 1983 June 14-16; Sacramento, CA. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-69. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station: 1-8. [19565]
  • 33. Osterling, Ralph S. 1983. Managing a coastal bluegum (Eucalyptus globulus) forest. In: Standiford, Richard B.; Ledig, F. Thomas, technical coordinators. Proceedings of a workshop on Eucalyptus in California; 1983 June 14-16; Sacramento, CA. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-69. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station: 93-94. [19576]
  • 42. Skolmen, Roger G. 1983. Growth and yield of some eucalypts of interest to California. In: Standiford, Richard B.; Ledig, F. Thomas, technical coordinators. Proceedings of a workshop on Eucalyptus in California; 1983 June 14-16; Sacramento, CA. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-69. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station: 49-57. [19570]
  • 43. Standiford, Richard B.; Ledig, F. Thomas, technical coordinators. 1983. Proceedings of a workshop on Eucalyptus in California; 1983 June 14-16; Sacramento, CA. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-69. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 128 p. [19583]

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Value for rehabilitation of disturbed sites

Bluegum eucalyptus is used for windbreaks, shelterbelts, and sight and
sound barriers along highways [7,24,30]. After it becomes established,
however, it may suppress or eliminate other species [7].
  • 7. Skolmen, Roger G.; Ledig, F. Thomas. 1990. Eucalyptus globulus Labill. bluegum eucalyptus. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America: Vol. 2, Hardwoods. Agriculture Handbook 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 299-304. [22391]
  • 24. Krugman, Stanley L. 1974. Eucalyptus L'Herit eucalyptus. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., ed. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agriculture Handbook No. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 384-392. [7663]
  • 30. Moore, Paul W. 1983. Southern California trial plantings of Eucalyptus. In: Standiford, Richard B.; Ledig, F. Thomas, technical coordinators. Proceedings of a workshop on Eucalyptus in California; 1983 June 14-16; Sacramento, CA. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-69. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station: 14-17. [19567]

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Palatability

Bluegum eucalyptus foliage is unpalatable to cattle, sheep, and goats
[7,37].
  • 7. Skolmen, Roger G.; Ledig, F. Thomas. 1990. Eucalyptus globulus Labill. bluegum eucalyptus. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America: Vol. 2, Hardwoods. Agriculture Handbook 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 299-304. [22391]
  • 37. Rice, Carol L.; Aronson, C. Richard. 1985. The fire management program in the East Bay Regional Park District. In: Long, James N., ed. Fire management: the challenge of protection and use: Proceedings of a symposium; 1985 April 17-19; Logan, UT. [Place of publication unknown]

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Special Uses

Bluegum eucalyptus is one of the world's most valuable windbreak  trees because of its windfirmness and the unpalatable nature of  its seedlings to grazing animals (8,18,19). Because of its  ability to sprout along the stem, it can be hedged, thereby  making effective sight and sound barriers along highways. The  horticultural variety compacta is a dwarf form widely  used along California freeways. Bluegum eucalyptus windbreaks are  most effective with an understory or adjacent planting of smaller  trees and shrubs (20).

    The species is a major source of fuelwood in many countries of the  world primarily because of its ability to coppice after cutting.  The wood burns freely, leaves little ash, and produces good  charcoal (8). The tree shows promise for use as industrial  fuelwood in place of oil. Closely spaced and fertilized plantings  in Victoria, Australia, produced mean annual increments of 9 to  14 metric tons per hectare (4 to 6 tons/acre) dry weight of stem  wood during a 4-year period (3). In Hawaii, untended 3- to  6-year-old coppice stands average stem wood dry weights of 5 to 7  t/ha (2 to 3 tons/acre) per year. One stand, during its fifth  year of growth, produced 14 t/ha (6 tons/acre). Another, during  its second year, produced 8 t/ha (3.6 ton/acre) (20).

    Bluegurn eucalyptus is much used for pulpwood, particularly so  because its bark, acceptable in most pulping processes, adds  greatly to the yield. It is used mostly for bleached products  made by sulfate, sulfite, or bisulfite processes (8).

    Other uses include the extraction of essential oils from the  leaves, honey production from the flowers (that are also good  pollen sources), plantings for erosion control, and roadside  plantings to provide a noise and headlight buffer (8).

    Because the wood is heavy and shrinks greatly in drying, it is  unsuitable for lumber. Sawing of logs is difficult and the  quality of lumber is poor because of growth stress problems. Main  uses of bluegurn eucalyptus are for mining timber, fence posts,  and poles (23). In South America, the straight, uniform poles are  used extensively in construction (17). Lumber and veneer are  produced on a fairly large scale in Portugal and Spain where the  wood is used for cooperage, furniture, and flooring (8). A small  amount of lumber used to be produced in Hawaii.

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.
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Roger G. Skolmen

Source: Silvics of North America

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Wikipedia

Eucalyptus globulus

The Tasmanian blue gum, southern blue gum or blue gum, (Eucalyptus globulus) is an evergreen tree, one of the most widely cultivated trees native to Australia. They typically grow from 30–55 m (98–180 ft) tall. The tallest currently known specimen in Tasmania is 90.7 m (298 ft) tall.[1] There are historical claims of even taller trees, the tallest being 101 m (331 ft).[2] The natural distribution of the species includes Tasmania and southern Victoria (particularly the Otway Ranges and southern Gippsland). There are also isolated occurrences on King Island and Flinders Island in Bass Strait and on the summit of the You Yangs near Geelong. There are naturalised non-native occurrences in Spain and Portugal, Akamas, and other parts of southern Europe, southern Africa, New Zealand, western United States (California), Hawaii and Macaronesia, Caucasus (Western Georgia).[3][4]

The d'Entrecasteaux expedition made immediate use of the species when they discovered it, the timber was used to improve their oared boats.[5] The Tasmanian Blue Gum was proclaimed as the floral emblem of Tasmania on 27 November 1962. The species name is from the Latin globulus, a little button, referring to the shape of the operculum.

Description[edit]

The bark sheds often, peeling in large strips. The broad juvenile leaves are borne in opposite pairs on square stems. They are about 6 to 15 cm long and covered with a blue-grey, waxy bloom, which is the origin of the common name "blue gum". The mature leaves are narrow, sickle-shaped and dark shining green. They are arranged alternately on rounded stems and range from 15–35 cm (5.9–13.8 in) in length. The buds are top-shaped, ribbed and warty and have a flattened operculum (cap on the flower bud) bearing a central knob. The cream-coloured flowers are borne singly in the leaf axils and produce copious nectar that yields a strongly flavoured honey. The fruits are woody and range from 1.5–2.5 cm (0.59–0.98 in) in diameter. Numerous small seeds are shed through valves (numbering between 3 and 6 per fruit) which open on the top of the fruit. It produces roots throughout the soil profile, rooting several feet deep in some soils.

The plant was first described by the French botanist Jacques Labillardière in his publications Relation du Voyage à la Recherche de la Pérouse (1800) and Novae Hollandiae Plantarum Specimen (1804).[6][7] The author collected specimens at Recherche Bay during the d'Entrecasteaux expedition in 1792.[5]

Plantations[edit]

Large blue gum eucalyptus in Pleasanton, California, 46.5 m (153 ft) in height and 10.5 m (34 ft) in circumference.

Blue gum is one of the most extensively planted eucalypts. Its rapid growth and adaptability to a range of conditions is responsible for its popularity. It is especially well-suited to countries with a Mediterranean-type climate, but also grows well in high altitudes in the tropics.[8]

It comprises 65% of all plantation hardwood in Australia with approximately 4,500 km2 (1,100,000 acres) planted.[9] The tree is widely cultivated elsewhere in the world. It is primarily planted as a pulpwood, and also as an important fuelwood in many countries.[citation needed]

Blue gums have historically been used as street trees but are now regarded as unsuitable by many municipalities due to their rapid growth and mature size.[citation needed]

In California, thousands of E. globulus were planted from the late 1800s onward, notably by the ranch owners as windrows to protect citrus groves from the harsh Santa Ana winds, particularly in Orange County. With the decline and eventual disappearance of the citrus business and rapid suburbanisation of the area, the surviving E. globulus became increasingly seen as an important part of the suburban landscape and are currently protected by various city ordinances.[citation needed]

Uses[edit]

Timber[edit]

Blue gum timber is yellow-brown, fairly heavy, with an interlocked grain, and is difficult to season.[10] It has poor lumber qualities due to growth stress problems, but can be used in construction, fence posts and poles.[11]

Pulpwood[edit]

Essential oil[edit]

Eucalyptus globulus essential oil in clear glass vial

The leaves are steam distilled to extract eucalyptus oil. E. globulus is the primary source of global eucalyptus oil production, with China being the largest commercial producer.[12][13] The oil has therapeutic, perfumery, flavoring, antimicrobial and biopesticide properties.[14][15][16] Oil yield ranges from 1.0-2.4% (fresh weight), with cineole being the major isolate. E. globulus oil has established itself internationally because it is virtually phellandrene free, a necessary characteristic for internal pharmaceutical use.[17] In 1870, Cloez, identified and ascribed the name "eucalyptol" — now more often called cineole — to the dominant portion of E. globulus oil.[18]

Herb tea[edit]

Tasmanian blue gum leaves are used as an herbal tea.[19]

Honey[edit]

Blue gum flowers are considered a good source of nectar and pollen for bees.

Phenolics[edit]

E. globulus bark contains quinic, dihydroxyphenylacetic and caffeic acids, bis(hexahydroxydiphenoyl (HHDP))-glucose, galloyl-bis(HHDP)-glucose, galloyl-HHDP-glucose, isorhamentin-hexoside, quercetin-hexoside, methylellagic acid (EA)-pentose conjugate, myricetin-rhamnoside, isorhamnetin-rhamnoside, mearnsetin, phloridzin, mearnsetin-hexoside, luteolin and a proanthocyanidin B-type dimer, digalloylglucose and catechin.[20] The hydrolyzable tannins tellimagrandin I, eucalbanin C, 2-O-digalloyl-1,3,4-tri-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose, 6-O-digalloyl-1,2,3-tri-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose, as well as gallic acid and (+)-catechin can also be isolated.[21] Tricetin is a rare flavone aglycone found in the pollen of members of the Myrtaceae, subfamily Leptospermoideae, such as E. globulus.[22]

Environmental weed[edit]

It was introduced to California in the mid-19th century, partly in response to the Southern Pacific Railroad's need for timber to make railroad ties, and is prominent in many parks in San Francisco and throughout the state. Naturalists, ecologists, and the United States National Park Service consider it an invasive species due to its ability to quickly spread and displace native plant communities, while local authorities, especially many fire departments across California consider them to be a major fire hazard,[23][24][25] although the United States Department of Agriculture does not list it among its Invasive and Noxious plants list in California.[26] Due to such reasons, programs across the state of California have been taken to remove all eucalyptus growth and restore native biomes in some park areas, such as on Angel Island in San Francisco Bay, and in the Hills of Oakland, California.

Related species[edit]

Many botanists treat the Tasmanian Blue Gum as a subspecies of a broader species concept. This broader E. globulus includes the following subspecies:

  • E. globulus subsp. bicostata = E. bicostata - Southern Blue Gum, Eurabbie, Victorian Blue Gum
  • E. globulus subsp. globulus = E. globulus - Tasmanian Blue Gum
  • E. globulus subsp. maidenii= E. maidenii - Maiden's Gum
  • E. globulus subsp. pseudoglobulus = E. pseudoglobulus - Gippsland Blue Gum, Victorian Eurabbie

The broader E. globulus concept is supported by Royal Botanic Gardens, Melbourne[27] and the Tasmanian Herbarium,[28] but not by Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney[29] where the four taxa are considered distinct species.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Giant Trees Consultative Committee
  2. ^ Lewin, D. W. 1906: The Eucalypti Hardwood Timbers of Tasmania
  3. ^ "GRIN Taxonomy for Plants - Eucalyptus globulus". United States Department of Agriculture. 
  4. ^ ka:ევკალიპტი ევკალიპტი
  5. ^ a b Mulvaney, John (c. 2006). "4. Botanising". ‘The axe had never sounded’: place, people and heritage of Recherche Bay, Tasmania (Online ed.). Australian National University. ISBN 978-1-921313-21-9. Retrieved 2009-02-16. 
  6. ^ "Eucalyptus globulus Labill.". Australian Plant Name Index (APNI), IBIS database. Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian Government. 
  7. ^ IPNI citation: Eucalyptus globulus Labill. Voy. i. 153. t. 13; Nov. Holl. Pl. ii. 121.
  8. ^ Hillis, W.E., Brown, A.G., Eucalypts for Wood Production, Academic Press, 1984, p20, ISBN 0-12-348762-5
  9. ^ Australia's Plantations 2006. Bureau of Rural Sciences. Retrieved 2007-01-24. 
  10. ^ Cribb, A.B. & J.W., Useful Wild Plants in Australia, Collins 1982, p25 ISBN 0-00-636397-0
  11. ^ Index of Species Information, Eucalyptus globulus
  12. ^ Edited by Boland,D.J., Brophy, J.J., and A.P.N. House, Eucalyptus Leaf Oils - Use, Chemistry, Distillation and Marketing, Inkata Press, 1991, p4.
  13. ^ Eucalyptus Oil, FAO Corporate Document Repository
  14. ^ Eucalyptus globulus Monograph, Australian Naturopathic Network
  15. ^ Eucalyptus globulus, Association of Societies for Growing Australian Plants (ASGAP)[1]
  16. ^ Young-Cheol Yang, Han-Young Choi, Won-Sil Choi, J. M. Clark, and Young-Joon Ahn, Ovicidal and Adulticidal Activity of Eucalyptus globulus Leaf Oil Terpenoids against Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae), J. Agric. Food Chem., 52 (9), 2507 -2511, 2004.[2]
  17. ^ Edited by Boland,D.J., Brophy, J.J., and A.P.N. House, Eucalyptus Leaf Oils - Use, Chemistry, Distillation and Marketing, Inkata Press, 1991, p3., & pp78-82.
  18. ^ Boland, D.J., Brophy, J.J., and A.P.N. House, Eucalyptus Leaf Oils, 1991, p6 ISBN 0-909605-69-6
  19. ^ Eucalyptus Globulus Labill Leaf Pieces Tea
  20. ^ Santos, SA; Freire, CS; Domingues, MR; Silvestre, AJ; Pascoal Neto, C (2011). "Characterization of phenolic components in polar extracts of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. Bark by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry". Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 59 (17): 9386–93. doi:10.1021/jf201801q. PMID 21761864. 
  21. ^ Hou, Ai-Jun; Liu, Yan-Ze; Yang, Hui; Lin, Zhong-Wen; Sun, Han-Dong (2000). "Hydrolyzable Tannins and Related Polyphenols fromEucalyptus globulus". Journal of Asian Natural Products Research 2 (3): 205–12. doi:10.1080/10286020008039912. PMID 11256694. 
  22. ^ The Unique Occurrence of the Flavone Aglycone Tricetin in Myrtaceae Pollen. Maria G. Campos, Rosemary F. Webby and Kenneth R. Markham, Z. Naturforsch, 2002, 57c, pages 944-946 (article)
  23. ^ "Conflagration Overview". Sfmuseum.org. 1991-10-20. Retrieved 2013-08-18. 
  24. ^ Jim Staats (2008-09-13). "Eucalyptus tree removal riles Tamalpais Valley - Marin Independent Journal". Marinij.com. Retrieved 2013-08-18. 
  25. ^ California Invasive Plant Council (Cal-IPC) Invasive Plant Inventory 2006 http://www.cal-ipc.org/ip/inventory/pdf/Inventory2006.pdf
  26. ^ "California State Noxious Weeds List | USDA PLANTS". Plants.usda.gov. 2003-10-20. Retrieved 2013-08-18. 
  27. ^ "A Census of the Vascular Plants of Victoria". Royal Botanic Gardens, Melbourne. 
  28. ^ "The Tasmanian Herbarium". 
  29. ^ "Flora of New South Wales". Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney. 
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Notes

Common Names

French Guiana: eucalyptus.

  • Devez, G. 1932. Les Plantes Utiles et les Bois Industriels de la Guyane. 90 pp. Paris: Societe d'Editions Geographiques, Maritimes et Coloniales.

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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

The currently accepted scientific name of bluegum eucalyptus is
Eucalyptus globulus Labill. [32]. There are four recognized subspecies
and one variety that occur in California [7,22,47,49]:

E. globulus ssp. bicostata Maiden
E. globulus ssp. globulus
E. globulus ssp. maidenii F. Muell
E. globulus ssp. pseudoglobulus Naudin ex Maiden
E. globulus var. compacta Labill. (dwarf bluegum)

Natural or controlled hybrids of bluegum eucalyptus are known with E.
blakelyi, E. botryoides, E. cinera, E. cypellocarpa, E. ovata, E. rudis,
E. tereticornis (forest redgum eucalyptus), E. urnigera, and E.
viminalis (manna eucalyptus) [7].
  • 7. Skolmen, Roger G.; Ledig, F. Thomas. 1990. Eucalyptus globulus Labill. bluegum eucalyptus. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America: Vol. 2, Hardwoods. Agriculture Handbook 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 299-304. [22391]
  • 32. Munz, Philip A. 1973. A California flora and supplement. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1905 p. [6155]
  • 22. Kirkpatrick, J. 1975. Geographical variation in Eucalyptus globulus. Bulletin No. 47. Canberra, Australia: Australian Forestry and Timber Bureau. 64 p. [21912]
  • 47. Wang, D.; Bachelard, E. P.; Banks, J. C. G. 1988. Growth and water relations of seedling s of two subspecies of Eucalyptus globulus. Tree Physiology. 4(2): 129-138. [21903]
  • 49. Young, Gary L. 1983. Soil Conservation Service tests of Eucalyptus species for windbreaks. In: Standiford, Richard B.; Ledig, F. Thomas, technical coordinators. Proceedings of a workshop on Eucalyptus in California; 1983 June 14-16; Sacramento, CA. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-69. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station: 18-21. [19568]

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Common Names

bluegum eucalyptus
bluegum
Tasmanian bluegum

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