Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Annuals or perennials. Inflorescence a many-flowered panicle, open or contracted, sometimes spike-like. Spikelets 1-flowered, bisexual, laterally flattened, disarticulating above the glumes at maturityGlumes subequal, persistent, 1-nerved; apex acute to acuminate, awnless. Lemma 3-5-nerved, membranous or hyaline; apex truncate or emarginate, awnless or dorsally awned or awned between 2 lobes.
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Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

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Ecology

Associations

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Albotricha acutipila is saprobic on dead stem of Agrostis
Remarks: season: 4-8

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed pseudothecium of Botryosphaeria festucae is saprobic on dead leaf of Agrostis
Remarks: season: 6-8

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / pathogen
Cladochytrium caespitis infects and damages rotten root of Agrostis

Foodplant / parasite
Sphacelia anamorph of Claviceps purpurea parasitises inflorescence of Agrostis
Remarks: season: 7

Foodplant / gall
stroma of Epichlo causes gall of stem of Agrostis
Remarks: season: fertile in 8

Foodplant / pathogen
colony of Fusarium anamorph of Fusarium poae infects and damages ear of Agrostis

Foodplant / parasite
colony of Fusoma anamorph of Fusoma biseptatum parasitises Agrostis

Foodplant / pathogen
Gaeumannomyces graminis infects and damages patchily bronze or bleached plant of Agrostis
Remarks: season: late summer-
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / spot causer
acervulus of Colletotrichum coelomycetous anamorph of Glomerella graminicola causes spots on dead stem of Agrostis
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Helminthosporium dematiacous anamorph of Helminthosporium stenacrum is saprobic on dead leaf (basal) of Agrostis
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / parasite
numerous sorus of Jamesdicksonia dactylidis parasitises live leaf of Agrostis
Remarks: season: 8-9

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed pseudothecium of Keissleriella culmifida is saprobic on dead stem of Agrostis
Remarks: season: 5-10

Foodplant / pathogen
strand of Laetisaria fuciformis infects and damages dying plant of Agrostis
Remarks: season: 9-10

Foodplant / saprobe
scattered, initially immersed pseudothecium of Leptosphaeria culmifraga is saprobic on dead stem of Agrostis
Remarks: season: spring, summer

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Cercosporidium dematiaceous anamorph of Mycosphaerella recutita is saprobic on dead sheath of Agrostis

Foodplant / saprobe
pycnidium of Hendersonia coelomycetous anamorph of Phaeosphaeria vagans is saprobic on dead stem of Agrostis

Foodplant / saprobe
perithecium of Phomatospora dinemasporium is saprobic on dead sheath of Agrostis
Remarks: season: 6-7

Foodplant / spot causer
embedded stroma of Phyllachora graminis causes spots on live leaf of Agrostis

Foodplant / parasite
hypophyllous, plurilocular stroma of Placosphaeria coelomycetous anamorph of Placosphaeria graminis parasitises fading leaf of Agrostis

Foodplant / spot causer
immersed, crowded or in rows pycnidium of Pseudoseptoria coelomycetous anamorph of Pseudoseptoria donacis causes spots on sheath of Agrostis
Remarks: season: 5-7

Foodplant / parasite
telium of Puccinia recondita f.sp. agrostidis parasitises live leaf of Agrostis

Foodplant / spot causer
immersed stromatic of Rhynchosporium coelomycetous anamorph of Rhynchosporium secalis causes spots on live sheath of Agrostis

Foodplant / pathogen
immersed stroma of Pseudocercosporella dematiaceous anamorph of Tapesia yallundae infects and damages live stem of Agrostis

Foodplant / parasite
embedded sorus of Urocystis agrostidis parasitises live culm of Agrostis

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Known predators

Agrostis (Agrostis, Agropyron, Stipa, Helianthus) is prey of:
Homo sapiens
Microtus ochrogaster
Geomyidae
Spermophilus
Orthoptera
Elateridae
Noctuidae

Based on studies in:
Canada: Manitoba (Forest)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • R. D. Bird, Biotic communities of the Aspen Parkland of central Canada, Ecology, 11:356-442, from p. 410 (1930).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records:362
Specimens with Sequences:477
Specimens with Barcodes:350
Species:69
Species With Barcodes:51
Public Records:160
Public Species:28
Public BINs:0
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Barcode data

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Wikipedia

Agrostis

Agrostis (bent or bentgrass) is a large and very nearly cosmopolitan genus of plants in the grass family, found in nearly all the countries in the world.[4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13]

Species[3]
  1. Agrostis aequivalvi (Arctic bent)
  2. Agrostis agrostiflora
  3. Agrostis alpina
  4. Agrostis ambatoensis
  5. Agrostis × amurensis
  6. Agrostis anadyrensis
  7. Agrostis angrenica
  8. Agrostis arvensis
  9. Agrostis atlantica
  10. Agrostis australiensis
  11. Agrostis bacillata
  12. Agrostis balansae
  13. Agrostis barceloi
  14. Agrostis basalis
  15. Agrostis bergiana
  16. Agrostis bettyae
  17. Agrostis × bjoerkmannii
  18. Agrostis blasdalei
  19. Agrostis boliviana
  20. Agrostis boormanii
  21. Agrostis bourgaei
  22. Agrostis boyacensis
  23. Agrostis brachiata
  24. Agrostis brachyathera
  25. Agrostis breviculmis
  26. Agrostis burmanica
  27. Agrostis calderoniae
  28. Agrostis canina (Velvet bent)
  29. Agrostis capillaris (Common bent; browntop)
  30. Agrostis carmichaelii
  31. Agrostis castellana (Highland bent)
  32. Agrostis × castriferrei
  33. Agrostis clavata (Northern bent)
  34. Agrostis × clavatiformis
  35. Agrostis clemensorum
  36. Agrostis comorensis
  37. Agrostis congestiflora
  38. Agrostis continuata
  39. Agrostis curtisii (Bristle bent)
  40. Agrostis cypricola
  41. Agrostis decaryana
  42. Agrostis delicatula
  43. Agrostis delislei
  44. Agrostis densiflora (California bent)
  45. Agrostis diemenica
  46. Agrostis dimorpholemma
  47. Agrostis divaricatissima
  48. Agrostis dshungarica
  49. Agrostis durieui
  50. Agrostis dyeri
  51. Agrostis elliotii
  52. Agrostis elliottiana
  53. Agrostis emirnensis
  54. Agrostis eriantha
  55. Agrostis exarata (Spike bent)
  56. Agrostis exserta
  57. Agrostis filipes
  58. Agrostis flaccida
  59. Agrostis foliata
  60. Agrostis × fouilladeana
  61. Agrostis gelida
  62. Agrostis ghiesbreghtii
  63. Agrostis gigantea (Black bent; redtop)
  64. Agrostis × gigantifera
  65. Agrostis glabra (J.Presl)
  66. Agrostis goughensis
  67. Agrostis gracilifolia
  68. Agrostis gracililaxa
  69. Agrostis griffithiana
  70. Agrostis hallii
  71. Agrostis × hegetschweileri
  72. Agrostis hendersonii
  73. Agrostis hesperica
  74. Agrostis hideoi
  75. Agrostis hirta
  76. Agrostis holgateana
  77. Agrostis hookeriana
  78. Agrostis hooveri
  79. Agrostis howellii
  80. Agrostis hugoniana
  81. Agrostis humbertii
  82. Agrostis humilis
  83. Agrostis hyemalis (Winter bent)
  84. Agrostis hygrometrica
  85. Agrostis idahoensis
  86. Agrostis imbecilla
  87. Agrostis imberbis
  88. Agrostis inaequiglumis
  89. Agrostis inconspicua
  90. Agrostis infirma
  91. Agrostis innominata
  92. Agrostis insularis
  93. Agrostis isopholis
  94. Agrostis jahnii
  95. Agrostis joyceae
  96. Agrostis juressii
  97. Agrostis keniensis
  98. Agrostis kilimandscharica
  99. Agrostis koelerioides
  100. Agrostis kolymensis
  101. Agrostis korczaginii
  102. Agrostis lacuna-vernalis
  103. Agrostis laxissima
  104. Agrostis lazica
  105. Agrostis lehmannii
  106. Agrostis lenis
  107. Agrostis leptotricha
  108. Agrostis liebmannii
  109. Agrostis longiberbis
  110. Agrostis mackliniae
  111. Agrostis magellanica
  112. Agrostis mannii
  113. Agrostis marojejyensis
  114. Agrostis masafuerana
  115. Agrostis media
  116. Agrostis mertensii (Arctic bent)
  117. Agrostis merxmuelleri
  118. Agrostis meyenii
  119. Agrostis micrantha
  120. Agrostis microphylla
  121. Agrostis montevidensis
  122. Agrostis muelleriana
  123. Agrostis munroana
  124. Agrostis × murbeckii
  125. Agrostis muscosa
  126. Agrostis musjidii
  127. Agrostis nebulosa
  128. Agrostis nervosa
  129. Agrostis nevadensis
  130. Agrostis nevskii
  131. Agrostis nipponensis
  132. Agrostis novogaliciana
  133. Agrostis × novograblenovii
  134. Agrostis olympica
  135. Agrostis oregonensis
  136. Agrostis oresbia
  137. Agrostis pallens (Dune bent, seashore bent)
  138. Agrostis pallescens
  139. Agrostis × paramushirensis
  140. Agrostis parviflora
  141. Agrostis paulsenii
  142. Agrostis peninsularis
  143. Agrostis perennans (Upland bent)
  144. Agrostis personata
  145. Agrostis peschkovae
  146. Agrostis petriei
  147. Agrostis philippiana
  148. Agrostis pilgeriana
  149. Agrostis pilosula
  150. Agrostis pittieri
  151. Agrostis platensis
  152. Agrostis pleiophylla
  153. Agrostis pourretii
  154. Agrostis producta
  155. Agrostis propinqua
  156. Agrostis quinqueseta
  157. Agrostis reuteri
  158. Agrostis rosei
  159. Agrostis rossiae
  160. Agrostis rupestris
  161. Agrostis salaziensis
  162. Agrostis salsa
  163. Agrostis sandwicensis
  164. Agrostis × sanionis
  165. Agrostis scabra (Rough bent, tickle bent)
  166. Agrostis scabrifolia
  167. Agrostis schaffneri
  168. Agrostis schleicheri
  169. Agrostis schmidii
  170. Agrostis sclerophylla
  171. Agrostis serranoi
  172. Agrostis sesquiflora
  173. Agrostis sichotensis
  174. Agrostis sikkimensis
  175. Agrostis sinocontracta
  176. Agrostis sinorupestris
  177. Agrostis × stebleri
  178. Agrostis stolonifera (Creeping bent)
  179. Agrostis × subclavata
  180. Agrostis subpatens
  181. Agrostis subrepens
  182. Agrostis subulata
  183. Agrostis subulifolia
  184. Agrostis tandilensis (Kennedy's bent)
  185. Agrostis tateyamensis
  186. Agrostis taylorii
  187. Agrostis tenerrima
  188. Agrostis thompsoniae
  189. Agrostis thurberiana
  190. Agrostis tibestica
  191. Agrostis tileni
  192. Agrostis tolucensis
  193. Agrostis × torgesii
  194. Agrostis trachychlaena
  195. Agrostis trachyphylla
  196. Agrostis trichodes
  197. Agrostis trisetoides
  198. Agrostis tsaratananensis
  199. Agrostis tsiafajavonensis
  200. Agrostis tsitondroinensis
  201. Agrostis turrialbae
  202. Agrostis tuvinica
  203. Agrostis uliginosa
  204. Agrostis umbellata
  205. Agrostis ushae
  206. Agrostis × ussuriensis
  207. Agrostis variabilis (Mountain bent)
  208. Agrostis venezuelana
  209. Agrostis venusta
  210. Agrostis vidalii
  211. Agrostis vinealis (Brown bent)
  212. Agrostis virescens
  213. Agrostis volkensii
  214. Agrostis wacei
  215. Agrostis zenkeri
formerly included[3]

hundreds of species now considered better suited to other genera: Achnatherum Aira Alloteropsis Apera Arundinella Calamagrostis Chaetopogon Chionochloa Chloris Cinna Colpodium Crypsis Cynodon Deschampsia Dichelachne Digitaria Eremochloa Eriochloa Eustachys Gastridium Graphephorum Gymnopogon Lachnagrostis Leptochloa Muhlenbergia Pentameris Phippsia Piptatherum Poa Polypogon Puccinellia Reimarochloa Relchela Schismus Sporobolus Zingeria

Uses[edit]

Some species of bents are commonly used for lawn grass. This is a desirable grass for golf course tees, fairways and greens.

Bentgrass is used in turf applications for its numerous advantages: it can be mowed to a very short length without damage, it can handle a great amount of foot traffic, it has a shallow root system that is thick and dense allowing it to be seeded and grow rather easily, and it has a pleasing, deep green appearance. The name "bent" refers to the shallow roots, which bend just below the surface of the soil to propagate laterally.

Creeping Bent[edit]

(Agrostis stolonifera) is the most commonly used species of Agrostis. Historically, it was often called Orcheston long grass, after a village on Salisbury Plain, England. It is cultivated almost exclusively on golf courses, especially on putting greens. Creeping Bent aggressively produces horizontal stems, called stolons, that run along the soil's surface. These allow Creeping Bent to form dense stands under conducive conditions and outcompete bunch-type grass and broadleaf weeds. As such, if infested in a home lawn, it can become a troublesome weed problem. The leaves of the bentgrass are long and slender.

Common Bent[edit]

(Agrostis capillaris) was brought to America from Europe. This was the type of grass that was used on the lawns of most estates. It is the tallest of the bents with very fine texture and like most bent grasses grows very dense. Although this species has been used on golf courses and sporting fields it is better suited for lawns. Colonial Bent is fairly easy to grow from seeds and fertilization of the lawn is not as intense. This grass also takes longer to establish than Creeping Bent. However it does not require the intense maintenance.

Velvet Bent[edit]

(Agrostis canina) gets it name for the velvet appearance that this grass produces. It has the finest texture of all the bent grasses. This grass was used in Europe for estate lawns and golf courses because it could be cut so short. Velvet bent grass requires similar upkeep and maintenance to Creeping Bent. Velvet Bent has recently had a resurgence in the UK due to the high demands on greens from inclement weather and speed expectations. This species also has a lighter color than the two previous species.

Butterfly foodplant[edit]

Butterflies whose caterpillars feed on Agrostis include:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ lectotype designated by Philipson, J. Linn. Soc. London, Bot. 51 (1937)
  2. ^ Tropicos, Agrostis L.
  3. ^ a b c Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  4. ^ Linnaeus, Carl von. 1753. Species Plantarum 1: 61-63
  5. ^ Watson L, Dallwitz MJ. (2008). "The grass genera of the world: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval; including synonyms, morphology, anatomy, physiology, phytochemistry, cytology, classification, pathogens, world and local distribution, and references". The Grass Genera of the World. Retrieved 2009-08-19. 
  6. ^ Flora of China Vol. 22 Page 340 剪股颖属 jian gu ying shu Agrostis Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 61. 1753.
  7. ^ Flora of Pakistan
  8. ^ Altervista Flora Italiana genere Agrostis includes photos and distribution maps of several species
  9. ^ Ausgrass, Grasses of Australia
  10. ^ Cabi, E. & M. Doğan. 2012. Poaceae. 690–756. In A. Güner, S. Aslan, T. Ekim, M. Vural & M. T. Babaç (eds.) Türkiye Bitkileri Listesi. Nezahat Gökyiğit Botanik Bahçesi ve Flora Araştırmaları Derneği Yayını, Istanbul
  11. ^ Rúgolo de Agrasar, Z. E. & A. M. Molina. 1997. Las especies del género Agrostis L. (Gramineae: Agrostideae) de Chile. Gayana, Botánnca 54(2): 91–156
  12. ^ Soreng, R. J. & P. M. Peterson. 2003. Agrostis. 48: 42–89. In R. J. Soreng, P. M. Peterson, G. Davidse, E. J. Judziewicz, F. O. Zuloaga, T. S. Filgueiras & O. Morrone (eds.) Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C
  13. ^ Zon, A. P. M. v. 1992. Graminées du Cameroun. Wageningen Agricultural University Papers 92–1(2): 1–557.
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